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This module is assessed by one assignment, which is worth 100% of the final grade. It should not exceed 3000 words in length. You are required to agree your proposed assignment title with the module leader. Choose your title bearing in mind that you may not choose one which covers the same area as an assessed piece of work in another module.
Word length: Your proposal should be limited to 3000 words in addition to a completed logical framework. The cover sheet is not included in the word count.
You are working for a development agency which is seeking donor funds for the implementation of small development projects in a developing country. Your agency has an established track record in working with the most vulnerable or disadvantaged groups of the population in a specialist area of development, which you specify in your proposal. You are seeking funds to put in place a sustainable development intervention that maximises the participation of local institutions and intended beneficiaries in project implementation. Availability of funding limits the project to a duration of no longer than three years and no more than £300,000 (or equivalent) of donor funding.
Your task is to identify a project which meets these requirements, and to prepare a project proposal for submission to a donor. Your proposal should include:
Cover sheet of project overview
An introductory section setting out the project rationale (with reference to relevant literature), including a stakeholder analysis
The project's aims and objectives
Intended outcomes and impact
Outline of project activities
Monitoring and evaluation framework
Risks and sustainability analysis
Timeline and milestones
Your project can be for any developing country and any sector: use your own experience and/or follow your own interests.
Make sure you get your project title approved by the module leader before you do too much work on this task.
Cover sheet of project overview
PROJECT TITLE Increase access and completion of basic education for nomadic children in North Sudan
GEOGRAPHIC FOCUS Kassala, Gedarif, North Kordofan, South Kordofan, White Nile, Sennar States
BENEFICIARIES 100,000 nomadic children
STARTING DATE June 2010
DURATION four years
FUNDS REQUESTED US$ 6,241,260
Article 6 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child recognizes the child's right to development. Article 28, building on Article 6, recognizes the child's right to education, provides for free and compulsory primary education, and encourages states to take measures to increase regular attendance and reduce dropout rates. The 1990 Jomtien International Conference provides for Education for All. Millennium Development Goal 2 is to achieve universal primary education, and to ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.
Sudan has endorsed these international agreements, reflected them on policy statements, and broadly included them in development plans. However, strategies and actions have not been up to the level of stated policies. Although considerable progress has been achieved in quantitative terms, the pace has been relatively too slow to reach targets by 2015, with wide variations in accomplishments among states. The results of the Sudan Household Health Survey, 2006, indicate that nationwide, only 53.7 per cent of children of primary-school age are attending school in Sudan, implying that a significant proportion (46.3 per cent) of them remain out of school. The net intake rate was only 29.5 per cent in 2006. Among Sudanese people, the nomadic communities reported very low primarily education enrolment and completion rates, especially girls.
Without the accelerated expansion of educational opportunities, the MDGs will not be achieved in Sudan. Promoting primary education, particularly in areas that are chronically under reached is not only a strategy for accelerating progress on the MDG goals, but is a key strategy for bridging gender and socio-economic inequalities that have contributed to disempowerment of women as well as conflict and general instability.
Nomadic Children's Education in Sudan
In Sudan, an estimated 2,975,000 people are identified as nomads (8.5 per cent of the population) and their movement spans over one third of the country. Sudan nomadic population are those who are on the move at least six months of the year with all members of the family and belongings in search of water and pasturages. The education status within these communities is very weak, with very high illiteracy, especially among girls. The nomadic children's enrolment rate before the onset of the nomadic education project in 1993 was 5% for boys and almost zero for girls.
UNICEF in partnership with the states' government and communities initiated nomadic education project with the establishment of seventy-six mobile schools using the multi-grade teaching techniques between 1993 and 1995 in Darfur and Kordofan states. This project enrolled more than 5,000 children. The schools were opened in tents and temporary classrooms, built from local materials. Slowly, these initiatives raised community awareness on the value of educating girls, hygiene education, HIV/AIDS and peace-building. Chalkboards, educational materials and equipments for students and teachers, training of teachers on Multi-grade and Child-Centred Approaches continued, solar lamps have been provided to facilitate evening classes for both children and adults. The training of teachers contributed to ensuring the delivery of quality education
Therefore, in 2002 the initiative was expanded to cover nomadic communities in another eight states in East and Central Sudan. Currently there are 205,195 children enrolled in 1599 nomadic basic schools majority of them boys in 13 states (32.8 % GER in 2007 according to Nomadic Education Department). However, large numbers of nomadic children continue to remain out of school. It is now reported that approximately 420,000 nomadic children are out of school, with more than 60% of them girls.
It is evident from the statistics in (annex1) that the education opportunities which are responsive to the needs and lifestyles of nomadic children and their communities remain inadequate. The immediate causes include high opportunity costs to parents (uniforms, lunches, books, educational materials); shortage of educational facilities that include living spaces and food for children of mobile communities. The main underlying causes include survival practices of communities, such as the search for increasingly scarce water sources that prevent them from prioritizing education. Government has also not focussed on this vulnerable group in terms of investing in improving their livelihoods as well as in environmental care and protection to help sustain their livelihoods. The curriculum is also of poor quality and irrelevant to the lives of nomadic communities. The shortage of trained and qualified teachers in nomadic communities leads to poor performance of children, itself signifying limited value as children drop out of school or under perform in exams. The basic causes include the lack of a pro-poor policy on education.
An evaluation of this pilot scheme conducted in Darfur in 1998 assessed the project's efficacy in terms of coverage (emphasising girls), community participation, community perceptions and attitudes towards project; analysed socio-cultural and economic factors, the mobile system, the suitability of the existing curriculum and the teacher component including training. It highlighted the need for more support to the nomadic education initiative in order to provide the opportunity for nomadic children to claim their right to basic education.
A similar evaluation was undertaken in the Kordofan region in 2003 and highlighted the need for more trained teachers, the high percentage of absenteeism and student dropout rates - males due to cattle herding and girls due to early marriage, distant locations of the schools, domestic work and traditions. The lack of textbooks was also cited as a deterrent to retention.
An evaluation for nomadic education project was conducted in 2007, assessed the project's impact and efficiency. The evaluation suggested cluster and single sex schools as well as boarding schools as being the most suitable means for boys and girls to continue their education beyond the completion of grade 4 in the mobile school. This was the view of 53% of the nomadic teachers, 58% of parents and 52% of the children. The findings and the recommendations of the evaluation has been reflected in a 5 Year strategic plan aimed at accelerating the education of nomadic children.
Enrolment of nomadic children increased from 64,090 students in 2002 to 121,168 students in 2005 (40,408 girls) enrolled in 1,123 schools, taught by 1,546 teachers. The current GER in nomadic schools is 29.2% (34.4% for boys and 21.2% for girls).
Nomadic education goes up to grade four, according to the limited resources. Currently, the project is covering 14 states in North Sudan. There are an estimated 426,667 school-age children in these states, out of which 192,144 are girls.
The 2000 Education for All (EFA) assessment indicated that Sudan has one of the lowest enrolment and completion rates for both sexes in the world. Girls are particularly vulnerable to not finishing education. Sudan is far from reaching 100% enrolment by 2015. Nomad children are particularly disadvantaged on many fronts, especially girls. Girls have household responsibilities, including fetching water and firewood, often necessitating walking long distances, leaving them vulnerable. Boys are expected to herd cattle. Providing special attention to the educational needs of nomadic children is vital. Harmful traditional practices continue to be observed, including facial scarring during initiation, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and early marriage.
Justification & Rationale
Internationally, there is growing awareness that the target of Education for All by 2015 will not be met unless efforts are made to improve access for marginalized, hard-to-reach children. These include those from nomadic and pastoralist groups.
Due to increased awareness of the benefits of education, the demand for education among nomadic communities is increasing. To sustain and further increase this demand, funds requested from the donor will be used to leverage government as well as community investments in education.
Many nomadic children are waiting to access to education. The project is seeking support to provide education for nomadic children and enable them to access their right to education, thereby contributing to the achievement of the MDGs (2 and 3) and EFA by 2015.
Overall objective The project's aims and objectives
The overall objective of this project is to promote the right of 100,000 nomadic children to access and complete basic education in six states in Northern Sudan (Kassala, Gedarif, North Kordofan, White Nile, Sennar and South Kordofan).
Intended outcomes and impact
100,000 nomadic children will be supported to transit to grade 5 by 2012 through single sex cluster nomadic schools with boarding facilities;
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) materials developed, produced and used disseminating key messages on importance of girl's education.
30 PTCs established and 330 PTCs members trained on child friendly school management being capable to promote access, completion, performance and community care and support to nomadic education;
Partnership between WFP, government and communities signed to support the feeding of nomadic children in established boarding schools.
This project will focus on the improvement of education opportunities for nomadic children, especially grade 4 graduates, in the most remote and marginalized nomadic communities of the focused states to respond to the increasing demand for education services
The following activities will be implemented:
Community sensitization and mobilization sessions will be carried out at central nomadic areas with parents and tribal leaders to highlight the importance of education with particular emphasis on the girl child and retention related issues. Specific Information Education Communication IEC materials will be used for awareness raising and advocacy purposes;
In partnership with community, states government and partners construct / establish 30 boarding schools in existing schools that located in central nomadic areas to service group of nomadic schools. Each cluster school will have at least additional permanent classrooms, 5 boarding rooms, teacher's offices in order to expand access to primary school beyond grade 4 for around 100,000 children. Classrooms will be equipped with furniture and black boards. Access to safe water and sanitation facilities will be provided for 30 schools.
Establishment of 30 Parent Teacher Committees (PTCs) and training of 330 PTCs members on child friendly family and community care for nomadic school children, co-management of child-friendly schools to promote community-school partnerships;
Support for local initiatives of community organisations to sustain feeding needs of boarders (small ruminants farming, agriculture, etc).
Partnerships, coordination, stakeholders analysis
The project will be implemented through partnerships with Federal and state ministries of education, Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and nomadic communities. Community based organisations and other interested groups will participate in planning, implementation and monitoring at the grassroots level. UNICEF will work closely with the Ministry of Education, government training departments and nomadic education departments at both federal and state level, as well as with nomadic communities themselves. This will ensure all stakeholders are closely involved in the project, and that all activities remain sustainable. Agreements will be signed between government, UNICEF, WFP and communities on joint support for school feeding for boarding children. Sustainable means of providing feeding through government budgets and community agricultural activities will be sought.
The three partners in the nomadic education project have clearly defined roles: the government provides textbooks and the teachers; the nomadic communities build the schools and accommodate the teachers; and UNICEF provides quality education inputs, logistics and teacher training on multi-grade teaching and child-centred techniques.
Monitoring and evaluation framework
Nomadic education project progress will be monitored through field visits, review & planning meetings as well as regular co-ordination meetings with the counterparts and other partners. A series of actors are involved in the monitoring process including UNICEF offices, Nomadic education departments, WFP, NGOs and community / end users through PTAs and community leaders.
Risks and sustainability analysis
Timeline and milestones
Annual budget estimates in USD
Total in USD
Establishment of 30 boarding schools
Community mobilization and production of ICE materials
Formation of PTCs and training of PTCs members
Construction of school latrines
Project Support Costs
HQ recovery (7%)
Cross-Sectoral Support costs (17%)
* Indirect support ('Recovery cost') of 7% is calculated in accordance with the UNICEF Executive Board decision 2006/7 of 9 June 2006.
Nomadic Education Progress (Gross Enrolment 2003 - 2007)- FMOGE / NED
Estimated school age children
Enrolment in 2003/04
Enrolment in 2004/05
Enrolment in 2005 /06
Enrolment in 2006/07
Enrolment in 2007/08