Studies have shown that students world widely have difficulties when career choice making is encountered. More than often, the choice of occupational pursuit can lead to a difference between enjoying and disliking the career in the future. Research with adults confirms that beliefs of the people's living environment, personal aptitudes and educational attainment are highly influential factors in the process of career choice making (Bandura et al. 2001; Watson et al. 2010). In their study, it was found that the social type occupations attracted the majority of aspirations; follow by investigative type occupations, with male inclining more to investigative and female more to another. High status occupations are favoured by 80% of the total sample (Waston et al. 2010). In addition, those students live under poor financial condition have a tendency of avoiding careers which requires long period of training their finance can not support (Ngesi 2003). This implies that there is no adequate space for those who from lower income families to make independent decisions on their career paths.
It is widely suggested that personal efficacy plays a significant role in the occupational aspirations and career pursuits (Bandura, 1997; Betz & Hackett, 1986; Hackett, 1995; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). People with higher perceived efficacy to fulfil educational requirements and job functions are more likely to pursue a wider career options. They also tend to furnish with greater interest into personal growth which prompts a well prepared education for different occupational careers, and helps them to cope with challenging career pursuits. People give no consideration to the occupations which are believed beyond their capabilities, no matter how attractive the occupations may be.
Study also indicates that gender difference is a contributory factor of disparities of career aspirations and pursuits (Betz & Fitzgerald, 1987). Given the fact that women are increasingly making up the workforce, yet only a minority of them set up careers in scientific and technical fields. A consistency is reflected through the evidence which shows that the career choice and development of women are restrained by their reluctance for pursuing quantitative activities and skills necessary for occupations that have traditionally been dominated by men (Betz & Hackett, 1983; Hackett, 1995; Lucas, Wanberg, & Zytowski, 1997; Matsui, Ikeda, & Ohnishi, 1989). Both traditionally male-dominated and female dominated occupations are equally high efficacious in the eyes of male college students. On the contrary, female students have a stronger sense of efficacy for the types of occupations mainly handled by women but are less efficacious for the occupations dominated by males. These dissimilar beliefs in occupational efficacy are particularly noteworthy since the investigated groups show equivalent verbal and quantitative ability on standardized tests (Betz & Hackett, 1981). Moreover female experimental subjects judge themselves more efficacious for quantitative activities under the context of stereotypically feminine activities while they are less so when these identical quantitative activities are related to scientific purposes.
Parental influence on their children's occupational aspirations has been extensively researched with the finding that parents are cited as a vital factor to be taken into account by young adults and college students when they face their career choice (Knowles 1998; Mau and Bikos 2000; Wilson 1992). Diverse career possibilities are rarely pursued or explored without the approval or support from families, parents or guardians. Variables that exert their effect on career choice and development also include the level of parental education, peer pressure, personality and socioeconomic status (Crocket and Binghham 2000; Wilson 1992). Moreover evidences are also supportive of the thought that parent's occupation has effect on career choice in particular there is a high correlation existing between the father's occupational status and his son's occupation (Blau 1992; Conroy 1997). And family size also appears to be influential in which older children in large family tend to receive less financial aid in attending college, while once they leave home their younger siblings benefits from that by receiving more financial assistance as the family bear less financial strain (Schulenberg et al. 1984). On the other hand, in the study of Boatwright (1992) those family-related factors turn to be insignificant in influencing participants' ambitions. Nevertheless a major amount of researches are quite consistent in showing that the career interest and pursuits of adolescents are affected by their parents' aspirations or expectations for them. It implies that the higher parental educational expectation is perceived, the higher aspirations their children have. A 1998 Sylvan Learning Centre report suggests the similar viewpoint by indicating that the correlation are more compatible than incompatible amid parents and children's view about career pursuit. Whether intentionally or unintentionally, parents are often found to be a determinant role in shaping their children's occupational aspirations.
There is a rapidly growing body of research on the role of school where one is educated in career choice and development in young adults. Weihew and Penk (1993) found such influence is tremendous; gender-appropriate behaviour, interests and occupations are reinforced by schools which regard as social institutions (Garrahy, 2001). Factors like curricular subjects, teaching quality, school policies and learning materials are discovered contributing to the career path pursuing among learners (Bojuwoye and Mbanjwa 2006). In the same study, negative impact on career choices happen due to insufficient career information, unsatisfactory academic performance and inadequate vocational counselling service. In his study, Barneet (2007) found that teachers like parents exert important impact on the students' occupational preferences especially for girls. Some students are encouraged by teachers to opt in certain subject options that are considered congruent with those students' identified aptitudes and competences (Falaye and Adams 2008).
The impact of socio-demographic factors on career choice was also exanimated by Mudhovozi and Chireshe (2012) in South Africa to illustrate the occurrence that the students who study in rural-situated public schools made delayed career decisions. Derived from the same study, the occupational pursuits of participants are primarily influenced by the people who close to them such as parents, teachers and friends. Wrong career decisions are made by many youth due to ignorance, inexperience, misleading advices from intimates and elders, or owing to inadequate occupational guidance and counselling towards certain jobs attached with prestige (Salami, 1999). When come to abandon the career aspirations, financial concerns are the principal drive for men while women appeal to be more concerned with the social good of their career choice (Sax, 1994).
Bandura A, Barbaranelli C, Caprara GV, Pastorelli C 2001. Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children's aspirations and career trajectories. Child Development, 72: 187-206.
Boatwright MA, Ching M, Parr A 1992. Factors that influence students' decisions to attend college. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 19: 79-86.
Bojuwoye O, Mbanjwa S 2006. Factors impacting on career choices of Technikon students from previously disadvantaged high schools.Journal of Psychology in Africa, 1: 3-16.
Blau P 1992. Mobility and status attainment. Contemporary Sociology, 21: 596-598.
Garrahy DA 2001. Three third-grade teachers' genderrelated beliefs and behaviours. TheElementary School Journal, 102(1): 81-94.
Conroy CA 1997. Predictors of Occupational Choice among Rural Youth: Implications for Career Education and Development Programming. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, 24-28 March 1997. Chicago, Illinois. (ERIC Documentation Reproduction Service No. ED 408 127).
Falaye FW, Adams BT 2008. An assessment of factors influencing career decisions of in-school youths. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 5(3): 222-225.
Salami SO 1999. Relationship between work values and vocational interests among high school students in Ibadan. Nigerian African Journal of Educational Research, 5(2): 65-74.
Sax LJ 1994. Retaining tomorrow's scientists: Exploring factors that keep male and female college students interested in science careers. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering ERIC, 1(1): 45-61.
Knowles S 1998. Effects of the Components of Parent Involvement on Children's Educational and Occupational Aspirations. Doctoral Dissertation, Unpublished. Alfred University, Alfred: USA.
Ngesi MJ 2003. A Study of Systematic Processes Influencing Educational Change in a Sample of Isi-Zulu Medium Schools. PhD Thesis, Unpublished. University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
Watson M, McMahon M, Foxcroft C, Els C 2010. Occupational aspirations of low socio-economic Black South African children. Journal of Career Development, 37(4): 717-734. doi:10.1177/089 48 45309359351.
Watson M, McMahon M, Foxcroft C, Els C 2010. Occupational aspirations of low socio-economic Black South African children. Journal of Career Development, 37(4): 717-734. doi:10.1177/08948 45309359351.
Wilson PM, Wilson JR 1992. Environmental influences on adolescent educational aspirations: A logistic transform model. Youth and Society, September, 24: 52-70.