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From the earliest time where the computer were able for public, there are normally could be found and used in educational institutions. At that time educators shows that people should be able to use the computer to support in the learning.
The computer were actually were be used as a tools that be able to teach the computer programmer but dues to development of the microchip were getting better and faster making people able afford all the computer for schools at rapid rate. The computer and also the application of the computer were become more persistent. As on that time, they found out the concern about how computer skills are need in our daily life.
During early 1970, the computer has become more affordable to schools and the ratio increased between student and also computer. A computer literacy has become the component in the Technology Education in order to support the learning and also the teaching processes. The education technology applies able to reduce the charges from other resources such as books and also man power like lecturer.
At that time at the political level, this system was being question whether the investment is being made for the education when they compare with other service that our people required the most. Having computer technologies in schools must be always justified to the company.
While on the research on the learning, show that computer technology able to improve studies. For example there been a study "(Mann, Shakeshaft, Becker, & Kottkamp, 1999)" found out that the effect of over 0.4 standard deviant which shows that the cost effective than normal class size.
In education, it is a long term and very useful for our society and individual. All the lecturer and also student needed all the support they can get that why they need to consider all the possibility that available in the market.
Description of Impact
The intervention has separated into 4. The input, output, outcome and impact were the step available. At first, the process start with the input for example like get fund for schools to buy laptops. After that, all the input available will be led to measurable outputs for example of how many people would use according ratio. After this output has done research the outcomes will be results of the outputs. The outcome will be increase of result that achieves by ICT. Lastly will be the impact. The impact will show the overall result that the investment archives on the education system.
As conclusion the impact was an achievement that has been archived through intervention on the educational system and it able to improve the quality of the system.
Impact on learning outcomes and learners
When come to ICT in general term, direct impact was not so easy to identify. There are number of factors that come in limit the effective comparisons such as the size, methodology, and also the effect. A lot term will be considered when check and verified.
When come to consider the impact for the ICT in education, they are consider on whether they could attract and increase the pupil attainment. However it is very hard to establish any hypothesis that could support the idea that going to be implement are able to be accepted by all when using ICT on education especially they let their student to do the exercises
Impact on learners
Motivation and skills
On this, the Impact of ICT will not focus on the student achievement while the rather go with the indirect motivation such as concentration and also the critical thinking. On a European level, the survey show that their European teacher could see the advantage of ICT that uses in school especially let them does exercise and practice. A lot research showed that a lot student were more motivated and focused when they use computer and the internet in their classes.
During the research shows that the direct ICT impact on attainment that able to be concentrate on the positive effects on behaviour, motivation, communication and process skills. The motivating effect of ICT is the most favourite for teachers comment and also is usually linked to the attitude of pupils.
For example, the e-learning Nordic 2006 study shows that the ICT impact capable on motivate pupils and also encourage their creativity too. Motivation and also the dialogue and also collaboration between pupils is required when they used the ICT as the main tools.
ICT has become a wonderful solution for them as pupils began to build confident and also get their interest on study as well as the bring fun to them too. ICT has made the education not like any ordinary studies as it make their work more enjoyable and also fun not as regular studies. ICT certainly increased the student to involve in their studies and also the way of their study as well.
Fact showed that the ICT to enhanced student centred learning as it brings more important benefits like any other. ICT make big changes to especially those in primary school with all the programmed that need to the pupils need. ICT has given the teachers of with the opportunity to provide various learning task on the same classroom in order to benefits of the individual pupils.
Moreover for those are required to have special care to gain their knowledge in different way from the use of ICT. ICT able to give them motivation and also the concentration they needed and the teacher is able to how to take care them.
As every student have their own different requirement and also their background. The ICT competences were joined together with the school participating along with the student motivation to be more aware what they really needs. It concludes that ICT is used in school able to become a factor to help minimise the social problem.
Moreover, ICT lead them to a better person as it able to help the student to greater responsibility for their own learning. This eventually brings them to learn and work independently and effectively as currently with the system without teacher aid. They have to solve the problem by their own.
In Netherlands shows that the number of teachers who consider that using stimulates collaborations has found that the teamwork between students is simple better when they use for ICT for project work. The potential of cooperate work able to show up when they all study using computer whether in suite or even in single computer. ICT could simply boost up all the needs and bring impact for the pupils to encourage them.
Impact on teachers and teaching methodologies
ICT has been introduced added and introduced to all schools during last 10 years. Currently this subject has been needed in many countries as ICT subject. The quality and also the quantity of the ICT use in teaching are important on impacting on the learning subject. The effective teaching techniques are important in impact on the learning outcome.
Impact on teachers
Increased interest for the use of ICT
Nowadays, the teachers must be able to show some positive attitude towards ICT through government event and also training program. As gained interest for the teacher, the teacher able to use more to their student as well on using ICT
The lecturer should bring their own laptop PC in order to show a positive impact to their student. As bringing laptop able to bring interest for student to bring laptop as it show all the advantages for them and is nice to use laptop.
Currently, the teacher would also use an interactive whiteboard (IWB). This IWB currently receive a positive effect on public review. This technology has simply increase the teaching and also learning in lesson.
Increased co-operation and preparation with ICT
Student data management
Limited use of LMS or VLEs
Impact on learning environment
It always had been argument when ICT has become a facilitator of learning as component of learning environment. While analysing the impact of the ICT in school, it show all the possible impact by connect the ICT in the theories and strategies for studies. The committee on development of science has come out with the research and also concluded that it has high possibility on enhance student quality and teacher learning technique.
There are four type of characteristic of computer technology where showing the true advantage for using computer in the classroom that is logical programming, interactive control, graphic and audio output including the information processing. There is a lot way that could be used has been used to support and teachers in increase the outcomes on learning and productivity as well.
The learning environment as Mediator of learning
The teacher will always be the one who has authorities on directing what and how student learn they able to adjust by controlling the instruction and also the learning instructions.
The students will able to be two paths that is the passive and also the active part in teaching and learning scenarios. The suggestion that has been given is have to be a balance of control and roles in order to get the student participation on letting student to use the ICT in order to support the learning processes.
Teacher as Conductor
The computer able to be used in any method that matches the range of many computer uses that mostly involves computer that being used by students. The main that they wanted to have is the student centred approach. This is important as ICT required student to be interact with the system and use it. While the teacher approach is needed, it only mainly focuses on the select demonstration and tutorial applications. This is needed because is accommodate on how this could add the role for the computer in the classroom that needs to change the role of a traditional way of teacher teach.
The teachers need to be facilitator for learning rather than being focus. The teacher could a learning model but doesn't have to be an expert in all kind of thing. The teacher is needed to be able on cooperating learning by helping student in involved in real problem solving.
In the training, the lecturer might need to use the ICT to handle the activity and teach the learner. The lecturer might need to have communication and also management skill to handle their classes. This is because the lecturer might need to give a clear instruction on how to use the system as they know what they are doing. Moreover the hardware and also the software must be available for the students when they need them.
The problem that been facing by the teacher will be evaluating whether the user/students been engaged to the assignment that were given by them. Teachers must evaluate student learning progress and also all their learning needs such as appropriate task and software. Problem concerning on evaluation is teachers are required to have time one on one with their students and to have skill to interview the students. As student was handle their work with the machines. Teacher might not know their performance and how their progress will be.
Student Responsibility for Learning
The teacher's part in the classroom is only focusing on the computer-supported learning. The student role they have to be more self-directing rather than waiting for the teacher instruction. Their act must be motivating and thus make more responsibility for their own learning. The teacher only provides all the necessary of what they might learn. This has been including the tasks, asking question, provide resources and also setting rules for them to follow.
For students it might be new for them. As new approach on learning where they have developed confidence and competence. In significant they might need to adapt their new roles as it was different from last time. It may require them to learn more skill mainly concerned on taking responsible and also stop relying less on the teacher. The practical skill will be added suck as follow the instruction that been given by the lecturer will be added for them.
The students are required to have developed their own skills on determining and accessing their own learning. The user might need to have to self-directed learning using the computer usually focused on the responses on the forms of instruction and also information. They are required to know what the instruction was given and follow it well. Without aid from lecturer they might need other special skill such as find and analysis all the findings they found including the progress on finding all those information.
Different Roles for different Environments
The role of the computer in the learning environment concerns the way of it being used in the teaching and learning process. The PC is use to assist on teacher on instruct students and also aid student learning or as a tools to finish their task.
On the role of the computer, come on its own role on chosen the hardware and also software to match with their teaching strategies that were made by lecturer.
Proposed Idea: Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and Computer Managed Instruction (CMI)
Computer Assisted Instruction also known Computer Aided Instruction is a kind of automated system that will provide the user of the system with practice question or tutorial question. CAI has its main purposed that is help in assisting the current traditional method of teaching. By providing these students with tutorial question and practice it will help that particular student in preparing and scoring in final examination. The CAI system also has another system that can support the function of CAI which is CMI (Computer - managed instruction). CMI can be used by the school staff to managing the student data.
CMI also has other functions like grading and evaluating the student needs based on their test result and determining the focus area of that the particular students need to focus on. The CAI and CMI can be used with or without teacher interference means that students can use the system to help in their studies. By having a teacher in teaching the studies material to the student and together with the addition of using CAI system, the students itself can boost their abilities to have a better marks in their final exam also possible for them to have a better understanding on the subject that they take.
The usage of CAI system can boost their user abilities in studies also because of the system tend to give an order rather than teacher that some student may disobey the order that is given by their teacher. But this can be achieved or not is depend on their student, if that particular student doesn't want to do the order given by the system it will also give the same result as the instruction that is given by the teacher. As the main requirement in using CAI system is the willingness of the particular student to do what the system order and also the willingness of that particular student to learn more about their subject.
As the current situation in INTI International University as what the author sees and the author can say that in INTI the usage of this system is yet to be implemented. As the main function of CAI system is to give practice and tutorial to the students, it can support the learning process in this kind of environment. This system will be able to assist the lecturer in building a better understanding on the teaching material given by the lecturer. As the better the understanding of the particular student it also possible for the particular student to score higher marks in their exam or even final exam.
This CAI system not only suitable to be implemented in assist the lecturer but also in assist the part-time lecturer that happened to give a lecture in INTI International University. In INTI also there are some students which only gain a little of knowledge each time the lecture given. Maybe there are some of the factors that distract the particular student focus or maybe the particular student more suitable in learning through practicing environment. As the CAI system that developing the particular student understanding, the CMI system will keep track on the student record and determine the particular student area of study.
The effectiveness of using CAI system in INTI International University can be varies depending on the situation. As what the author can see that the effectiveness of using CAI system is when this system is being used to assist the traditional way in teaching which is using lecturer in giving the lecture. The learning rate of particular student also can be increased by implementing CAI system. The time that is taken in order for the particular student takes to learn also became shorter compare to traditional way. As for the cost in implementing this system into the current learning environment may expensive as compare to the traditional, but CAI system can increase both effectiveness in learning and understanding the lecture given. The implementation of CAI system may have better prospects as it gives the better result to the students.
There are some advantages in using the CAI System, those advantages are:
As the students keep using this system to practice on their subject they will develop more understanding as they are able learn faster comparing to the traditional way.
The CAI system that can be accessed online, it can give better attendance compare to traditional way as their user can access it from their residence.
CAI system can motivate the student better because of the grading system. The user will get motivated because of this grading feature as they can compete with each others.
CAI system able to operates as long as the server online and never get tired.
As the students give bad results the systems will not angry to the student furthermore the system will provide the students with the area of study that they need to focus on so they can score a higher mark.
There are some of the disadvantages that can be found in using CAI system such as:
The effectiveness still depend on that particular person
As stated by the author that in implementing CAI system may have a great effectiveness and good result it still depend on the characteristics of that particular user whether they are willing to learn and understand on the subject.
Need expertise to do the system maintenance
When this system are going to be implemented there are still need to employs some experts in maintain the system so it can works properly.
The implementation of CAI system in INTI International University will have a great impact to the learning process that is carried by the students. They able to learn faster also they will have a better understanding on the subject. The students also may motivate by the system as they try to compare their result with the other students. As for the cost for implementation that will be expensive, the implementation of CAI system will have a great impact in learning and understanding environment in the future also it will help in assisting the lecturer in giving lecture to their students.
Proposed Idea: Computer Based Learning Environments
Computer Based Learning Environment is a technology that enables its user to do a test into the virtual environment. From this virtual environment later on will give the appropriate result as the test conducted by the users. The demand in using computer based learning environments comes from the needs of their users to study on those particular environments anywhere and anytime. For example: when someone needs to practice on surgery, that particular person can't perform the surgery practice on the patient. Based on the example given the development of Computer Based Learning Environments is starting to be developed. Some of the important aspects that come into consideration in computer based learning environment: safety training must be problem oriented, based on cognition, hands on approach, and case oriented.
Computer based Laboratory is one of the computer based learning environment that enables its user to examine on the reaction that they created through the screen. The virtual equipment also provided for the user to use it. Computer based Laboratory mainly used to test on the theory that is given to the students also to conduct a test case for the case study given by the lecture. This computer based laboratory also can be used for testing on the new theory that may be found by the students. As stated in the aspects of computer based learning environment which is safety training, by applying computer based laboratory its enable the user to do the safety training.
The next technology that also falls into computer based learning environment is Generative Virtual Classroom. This generative virtual classroom will create a virtual classroom where the lecturer and the student can communicate. By implement this generative virtual classroom also possible for the lecturer to conduct a class which have a long distance because of the advancement of technologies. The features that may be included in the generative virtual classroom are: viewing video, conference with teacher and fellow students, listening to the recorded audio file, and as a database to store the data from the users. Implementation of generative virtual class make possible for their students to share and exchange their idea through virtual space.
Virtual Reality is a technology that is able to project the reality into the virtual world. Furthermore, Virtual Reality is a part of Computer Based Learning Environment, the current technology allow the user to have the visual experiences. As a result the user may see the projection of real world in the virtual reality, in other words the user will be able to see the virtual view in the virtual space. In the application, the implementation of virtual reality may be implemented in the airplane training and surgery training. The main reason is because when the pilots are being tested to fly an aeroplane, it cannot fly the plane directly. At the end the pilot has to take a special training based on the virtual reality. The same goes to the doctors who need to practice on surgery intensively. They can't straightaway conduct the operation because they need to have experiences in doing surgery.
The author has identified some of the field that may have connection with the computer based learning environment such as: virtual reality, generative virtual class, and computer based laboratory. Noted that there are still plenty of computer based learning environment field that are yet to be developed. Furthermore, by implementing virtual reality into humans life, it will make their life safer as they can experience what they want to do before they apply it into the real world.
The current situation which happened and noticeable from the point of view of the author such as: there are still left some people who did not take a proper education and some of the school did not have the complete laboratory equipment, can be solved by implementing the computer based learning environment. According to the example given above which is stated that there are still left some people who did not take a proper education can be solved by implementing the virtual class.
The implementation of virtual class will use the virtual space which can be used freely compare to the real one like a classroom. Additionally, the implementation of virtual classes is able to let the people who live in the suburban area which still have internet connection to make use of these virtual classes. Comparing to the traditional way of teaching that require the lecturer to come and give the lecture to their students, the implementation of virtual classes have a wide coverage.
This example can be figured out by applying the computer based laboratory because based on the research, the computer based laboratory which make used of virtual reality will provide extra features to cover the lacking in the previous laboratory. In the end, computer based laboratory offer great advantages to the students. Firstly, the learning environment will be able to cut the cost needed in buying the necessity for the laboratory. Secondly, the implementation of computer based laboratory is more eco friendly.
In the conclusion, the implementation of virtual class is able to solve the current education problem occurred in the suburban area. As a result, the usage of computer based laboratory will show more efficiency in utilizing a laboratory's tool.
The effectiveness by using the computer based learning environment it can cut the operational cost and the maintenance cost that applied to the traditional laboratory equipment and tool. For the starting cost that is needed for the implementation may more expensive than the traditional one, but in the end the cost that will be spent in maintaining all the tool and equipment will become more expensive. Those tool and equipment become expensive because of the resources that used for producing it will keep increasing, that's why the usage of computer based learning environment will become a better solution in the future. As the computer based learning environment that has a good prospect in the future it is worth to be implemented in the education area.
There are some advantages that will be gained in implementing computer based learning environmental, those advantages are:
As stated that the usage of computer based learning environmental able to cover wide area when we do a comparison with the conventional way. For example, the usage of virtual class able to cross region.
When the user training with the computer based learning environmental they can train in safer environment. For example: fire brigade drill can be done in safer ways compare to the necessity that is needed to burn a building.
The training process can be done under the controlled circumstances. For example: learn to drive a car in a snowy condition.
There are some of disadvantages in using computer based learning environmental are:
Expensive starting cost
The starting cost in constructing the computer based environmental still expensive, means not all of the learning environment can afford to implement this kind of technologies.
Require an expertise in do the maintenance
Computer based learning environmental needs an expertise to maintain the system and those expertise will cost a high salary to employ them.
The effectiveness in study process are depend on the student itself
Although the technology that is being used is already using the most advance technology it still depend on the student itself, whether they can fully utilize the technologies which will help them improve in their study.
The computer based learning environmental brings advantages as well as disadvantages to its user. When this system is implemented to the particular learning environment it is important to reflect back on the user itself whether they can fully utilize it or not. If they can't utilize the technologies it won't affect their studies life. In conclusion the computer based learning environmental will bring a great impact to the learning environmental as the implementation will make the study process become interesting and provide safer environmental that will support the study process.
Technology has become a part education system. In the schools, computer had been used not only for analysing data and save students record, but also have become one of education tools to optimizing the learning process. The student has been started to use computer as assessments criteria to produce the work and gather information from the internet for the research. The presentation in the class also make used of computer and projector to display the presentation slide. In order to increase students experience in mathematical concept, students can make use of spreadsheets. Many schools in America had been applied Computer Assisted Instruction to provide a media for students to mastering their subject in educational field.
Many computer programmers had been developing computer assisted instruction system that provides service for students in order to increase the learning effectiveness and motivation to learn. There are some features that had been facilitated by programmers such as object animation, personalizing information, provide fantasy context, provide choice in learning, and provide practice activity.
The object animation will be take place in further explanation of an educational concept for better understanding, for example in physical concept about newton law. Other than theoretical part, the simulation in object animation will help student to gain more knowledge. By personalizing information, computer assisted instruction will increase students' interest in learning, logical thinking and more effective in organizing the materials. Facilitated engagement by fantasy context will increase learning performance and also motivation for the students. The student can learn how to controlled instruction by the feature that gives student the choice.
Computer assisted instruction have establish the factors to contribute learning experience, but there is some lack of showing the impact of using computer assisted instruction in research's database for various types of students. The research on computer assisted instruction that able to work with more than one mechanism will lead to significant effect that learning progress regardless of the program type will me move to positive way. The research also predict the different groups of student will give different affect the computer assisted instruction.
Larrabee's Bridge to Adult Literacy is one of Computer Assisted Instruction that supports multimedia, interactive, mastery learning and phonics-base. The features that implemented in LBAL are personalizing, simultaneous instruction to many students and private tutorial. Each student required to complete pre-test before using the system to determine what lesson that the student needs and should take. The lesson will included in learning how the student receive learning objective, practice, take a brief quiz to examine the knowledge and advance practice and challenging in fantasy context game that consist of responds correctly the problem in limited time. The students will controls the screen and the system will post random question that had been practiced early and required correct response. In phonics instruction, video streaming will be used in order to deliver the information and provide feedback and exercise for the student.
The system will give immediate respond whether the student has completed the each question with interactive response that generated randomly. If the answer is wrong, the system will give the chance up to three times for the student to give correct answer, otherwise the student will reassign in the same level. Each of the lessons will be design in systematically build the knowledge from previous lessons.
In the implementation, six teachers will refer as participants reading lab in increase their knowledge. Student's required to attend Computer Assistance Instruction 5 times a week and each attendance 30 until 60 minutes for LBAL program. All the participants will attends 47 lessons and a special education teacher will work with CAI lab students by provide direction and motivation as required.
All the participants included the six teachers will be join in pre-test and post-test in order to get the progress in Degrees of Reading Power exam or DPR. Participants that are bellows the average on the pre-test will be placed on grade level DRP and Participants that are higher than average on the pre-test will be placed on instructional first grade.
Normal Curve Equivalent with grade level
Based on the case study, the team member identify the differences between pre-test and post-test, post-test is higher because of the technique that had been apply in deliver information is much more better in term of interactivity compare with conventional method .Many participants that the pre-test below the average but after using CAI system and doing post-test the RDP rate increase significantly. For example, the grade for pre-test that is below the average can increase 17.38 point in the post-test.
The CAI system applicable to give tutorial for the students but it is not fully take charge of the lecture duty. The system can assist the lecture to give tutorial for the student especially when the lecture is on the medical certification or on leave. Compare with conservative method, the CAI system will produce or generate the tutorial result immediately, while in conservative way lecture need to go through all the students' tutorial. When the result tutorial has been generated, the student attendance will be automatically been taken. The way of system behaviour in order to collect attendance is more reliable and faster compare to conservative way.
Other than that, the student also motivated because CAI system also have providing object animation in order to do simulation for some explanation so the student will have better understanding because it can do simulation that can't be done in the real world. The system will not have any tried to generate the tutorial and the result for tutorial as the human ability that limited to certain circumstances. Human is the creature that has emotion so anytime can get angry, but the system doesn't have the feeling to sense angry or any other emotion.
In order to develop a reliable system, it required expertise person to ma intelligent system. The programmer that had been assigned requires specific knowledge on the system that they want to develop. Sometimes the system required system maintenance or updating the database so the system must be maintained properly to maintain the reliability of the system.
In order to apply the system, it required a good capability of control unit in computer. Large storage will be used to keep the big amount of database and student record. The system required a server that can serve many clients. Other additional device such as speaker will be used to enhance the system.
The team members had been formulated the recommendation for the greater impact of ICT in the future teaching and learning environment. The team members had been clustering the concrete recommendation based on ranking, content and priority that could be used in international level to yield the concrete action.
Planning for transformation and ICT
In the national or region area, this planning will support the process of transformation management and process that could be change by enabling and amplifying the ICT area. If the new working method does not supported by institutional and organizational context, the practice of new educational will not be change. Considering most of the teachers are not convenience in new technology, the changes should be in systematically and slowly, it also needs to be supplemented by the process that manage carefully and related with real world, step by step. This will be mean in the given boundary, the schools will be allowing in experiment in schools. It is similar with the more difficult the project to achieve, the mire drastic change will be build
New competencies included in assessment scheme and in the curricula.
Most of the review case study in many education systems, the ICT impact on specific team work and competency in development will required independent learning and better thinking style. The curricula will include formal competencies and explore what they have accessed before which is important for changing the new educational content.
New forms of continuous professional development implementation on working place environment
The new approaches training lessons should be related with the lifetime learning, peer learning and knowledge sharing. In order to convince teachers, they must able to upgrade their skills in ICT filed and increase more pedagogical knowledge and it will be an active way for the teachers. Furthermore, the teachers have to be very active in order to enhances their learning process that are required a professional culture and environment for convenience to deliver information. In order to increase important factor in pedagogical competence, the usage of experimental approach in ICT must be used in everyday practice. The programmer who develop the system must have extra knowledge and adapt to particular field that is needed by the teacher and fit with the requirement in term of personally, subjective, and specifically. For the further professional development, it should be in the lower level to enabling teacher learning the way to enhance their skull and knowledge. In the practical working environment, the first sessions should be substituted by practice oriented project. Those teachers who will take the ICT training for the first time will take the important role in the future plan.
Built up political drive and invest in ICT
The countries focused in this study, will get benefit form high ICT investments and from the strong political side, it will develop ICT in education. The wider impact of teaching and learning cannot be accomplished without the support from political side. The evidence had been shown that the most impact of ICT with-mature schools which are have tipping point or take off in ICT usage. Some changes had been appearing before that particular point, and once the changes occur, the benefit will be increase. The achievement of point in e-mature must look toward to ensure work with majority of school and not just adopt in the early stage.
The other important issue in ICT is focus on the support service that is available in the school. The essential part the successfulness in ICT implementation on the value of access is to better interaction of digital content. The major barrier in using ICT in school is related with lack access to appropriate content and copyright issue of the license. One of the recommendations that are available is to join the paper based and digital content market, and have licenses approaches. While maintaining independence of individual institution and autonomy, there are some ways to reconcile grouped, such as provide sufficient ICT support service and maintenance contract to ensure the quality tools for schools that are indispensable condition in order to achieve wider impact in ICT in learning and teaching.
Reward teachers to motivate the usage in ICT
The survey had shown, the addition to access the structure and concept is having requisite skills and motivation skills is a critical part in ICT implementation. On the international level, some consideration is not match regarding to motivate the teacher.
The action should be built into policies in order to encourage teacher to use ICT more effectively. The policies in this part will include measures of rising the confidence level of lecture or teacher but also incentivising and rewarding the use of ICT, such as make good ICT for career path, benefit in applying ICT in the project and appraisal schemes).
Integrating ICT in overall strategies
The last evidence confirm the teachers to access expensive positive impact of ICT that likely to be founded in the school where the principle use ICT to support the development process of the schools goals and value. If the strategy integrated into the overall ICT strategy has greatest potential to act for change. The overall strategy also needs to be evaluated and developed by all actors and not only the principle in collaboration with ICT coordinator. It stabling a culture of collaboration and making it more likely the policy is actually solving the problem that student and teacher facing. Communicate your objective with the student, teacher, and parent in order to take away the unnecessary fear and expectation and also manage doubts.
Transform good attitude in ICT into efficient practice
Positive attitude must be capitalist in the schools. In order to achieve better impact, the teacher is needed to underpin the usage of ICT with pedagogical approach. There seems a miscalculation between potential ICT for actual teaching and learning approach of teacher. Most of the teacher think ICT can improve the outcomes of learning process, but it is only has little impact with their methodology. The achievement is only can accomplished by practical training, peer learning, peer sharing experience, and provide easiness in using ICT materials.
Context sensitive and process oriented research
In the complex filed such as education, qualitative method is necessary to do investigation. There is a challenge to go beyond pure evaluation and observation method in concrete school context, teaching process, and learning situation to show under which circumstances. ICT activities can enhance the skill and learning outcomes, this required one degree of qualitative interpretation for evaluating the cause of impact that had been observed. As a part of research area, it shows the benefit of implementation of ICT. The research will be conducted to find out the positive influence in the learning process. Orientation approach in evaluate the impact of ICT for the future will required in the learning process and increase attainment. The future research is required to detect the impact of ICT on the wider competencies and innovative practice.
Create link between research and practice
Small scale, focused research on ICT tools, more fundamental research should be combined with the research in order to creating link between research and practice.
In order to develop a reflective and critical attitude amongst the teachers, they will carried out the research by them and involve in defining research question for the schools. Moreover, the research result should be made available for practitioner in a methodology that is useful for them.
Encouragement ICT research on qualitative and transnational
The evidence will relate the impact of ICT in learning outcomes, teaching method that has largely arisen in the national context. It is assumed the result is applied in other countries. In international comparison, the baseline data and more qualitative insights in ICT is not even being used by learners, but also by the teachers.
Make National Research in ICT impact
As the evidence to show the imbalance geographical ICT impact in a nation, there is difficulty in access the research because of fragmentation of research, language and specifically in federal system. Moreover, the team member has been recommended set up the national level to allow user to know better the result such as repository of abstract, international research, large and small scale.
Rethink the relation and the approach of evidence to decision making
Different research approaches has been taken in the field in order to help policy makers to decide specific national approach to their education context and goals.
Anyhow, the policy makers should consider the measurement of ICT impact against the student's achievement and improvement of the basic skills as one of the impact criteria but fixed education system in school learning primarily about mastering pre-determined knowledge, understanding and skills. The benefit and ICT impact moreover very likewise. The education impact is heavily dependent on political objective and hard measurement with conventional educational standards. Research should not focus on ICT only, but also including wider topic in innovation and prospective studies and find instrument to detect and capture unexpected result and process.
Support large and small scale studies on ICT impact in both qualitative and quantitative evidence
Any qualitative data that had been arising in small scale study will be combining with quantitative data in large scale national studies on the research project. The advantage of small case is the context is dependent on the large national studies that sometimes fail to deliver. Qualitative evidence should improve by quantitative data from independent critical large scale study with experimental and control groups to test the claim for pedagogy. The advantage of international scale studies is the large case usually independent from national policy goal and context.