The Ict Utilization Among Teachers Education Essay

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Before the official distribution of questionnaire to the population, a pilot test activity has been deployed. Pilot test involves administering a questionnaire to a small group of respondents to detect ambiguity or bias in the questions or to iron out fundamental problems in the instructions or administrative procedure (Zikmund, 1997). Pilot test also used to measure the reliability of those questions stated in questionnaire. According to Zikmund (1997), reliability is the degree to which measures are free from random error and therefore yield consistent results.

Usually the questionnaire is tried out on a group selected on a convenience basis and similar in makeup to the one that ultimately will be sampled later. Pilot test allows the researchers to determine whether respondents have any difficulty in understanding the questionnaire or if there are any ambiguous or biased questions. A total of 10 questionnaires have been sent out to test the level of reliability. The pilot test exercise gathered 10 respondents' replies. Reliability was measured through an examination of Cronbach's Alpha coefficients. For scale acceptability, Nunnally (1978) suggested should be over 0.7. Overall Cronbach's Alpha coefficients were found more than 0.7 and which exceed the threshold value, conforming to Nunnally's (1978) criterion.

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Reliability Test

A reliability analyses was conducted to each variable of the instrument. The reliability of the measures was examined through the calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficients. For scale acceptability, Hair et al. (1998) suggested that Cronbach's alpha coefficient of construct is 0.6 if each domain obtains the value 0.6; it means that the items in each domain are understood by most of the respondents. On the other hand, if the findings are far from the expected value of 0.6, this might because by respondents' different perception toward each item of the domain. The corrected item correlation at 0.3 and above is accepted as a good item to explain a domain (Hair et al., 1998)

Reliability test results

The Cronbach's Alpha coefficients were found from 0.945 and above with some questions have been amended as per the comments from the respondents. Questions have been reviewed to eliminate bias and ambiguity before the distribution to the population.

Reliability Statistics

Variable/ Questionnaires

Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items

Initiator Style

.986

11

Responder style

.980

12

Manager style

.965

8

Leadership's Implimentation Style

.989

31

ICT Utilization Among Teachers

.945

20

Overall Research Questionnaires

.985

51

Table 4.1 : The Cronbach's Alpha coefficients results

Demographic Profile

Gender

Table 4.4.1 : Gender Profile

Gender

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Male

68

31.3

31.3

31.3

Female

149

68.7

68.7

100

Total

217

100.0

100.0

 

Figure 4.4.1 : Chart of Respondent's Gender

Figure 4.4.1 shows the distribution of respondents according to gender which consists of 68 males and 149 females which made up a total of 100% of total respondents.

Age

Table 4.4.2 : Age Profile

Age

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

30 years & Below

29

13.4

13.4

13.4

31 - 40 years

79

36.4

36.4

49.8

41 years & above

109

50.2

50.2

100.0

Total

217

100.0

100.0

Figure 4.4.2 : Graph of Respondent's Age

Based on the graph above, most of the respondents were 41 years old and above as accumulated of 50.2% of them and another 36.4% of the respondents are within the range of 31-40 years old. The rest of 13.4% of these respondents are 30 years old and below.

Education

Table 4.4.3 : Education Profile

Education

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Diploma

17

7.83

7.83

7.83

Degree Level

167

77.0

77.0

84.83

Masters/ Phd Level

33

15.2

15.2

100.0

Total

217

100.0

100.0

Figure 4.4.3 : Graph of Respondent's Level of Education

In terms of level of education, the above diagram show that most of 77% of the respondents are degree holder whilst the Masters Degree and Doctorate holder are accumulated 15.2% among these respondents. In addition, only 7.83% of them are from diploma level education background.

Years Of Working Experience

Table 4.4.3: Working Experience Profile

Years Of Working Experience

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Fresh graduates or less 2 years

45

20.7

20.7

20.7

2 years - 5 years

33

15.2

15.2

35.9

5 - 10 years

67

30.9

30.9

66.8

10-20 years

38

17.5

17.5

84.3

20 years above

34

15.7

15.7

100.0

Total

217

100.0

100.0

Figure 4.4.4: Diagram of Respondent's Length of Working Experience

The diagram in figure 4.4.4 clearly show that most of the respondents has well teaching experience as accumulated of 31% of them has been a teacher within 5-10 years followed by 17% of them occupied with 10-20 years of working experience and 16% of the respondents are senior teacher with more than 20 years of working experience. Nevertheless, findings also shows that many young teachers has been responsible to handle premier secondary schools as their group accumulated of 21% although they have only less than 2 years of teaching experience comparable to the rest of the 15% respondents are based on average within 2-5 years working experience in secondary schools.

Mean Analysis

Mean analysis implemented in answering questions 1-5 to achieve the objectives of this study

Mean Analysis of Initiator, Responder and Manager Style on Principals' Leadership Implementation Aspect

Table : 4.5.1 : Results of Mean Analysis of Initiator, Responder and Manager Style on Principals' Leadership Implementation Aspect

Item

Statement

Mean

Level

Justification

Q1

Is there Initiator styles of the principal in implementing ICT utilization among teachers?

3.4350

High

Good

Q2

Is there Responder styles of the principal in implementing ICT utilization among teachers?

3.4103

High

Good

Q3

Is there Manager styles of the principal in implementing ICT utilization among teachers?

3.5838

High

Good

Table 4.5.1 shows the results of the mean analysis for three dimensional leadership implementation style as independent variables which is initiator, responder and manager style among the principals.

Through the analysis of the mean performed, the findings shows that manager style has dominate the highest mean value (m=3.5838) compared to other dimension of leadership implementation variables. In addition, the second favourite style recorded by initiator skills with mean value (m= 3.4350). Nevertheless the responder skills are the least preferred style is the dimensional aspect of dimensional principals' leadership implementation style although its stated at high levels but recorded the lowest mean value (mean: 3.4103) compared to the other aspects of the variables.

Overall Mean Analysis of Principals' Leadership Implementation Style ( Initiator, Responder & Manager )

Table: 4.5.2: Results of Overall Mean Analysis of Principals' Leadership Implementation Style (Initiator, Responder & Manager) and ICT Utilization among Teachers

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

ICT Utilization

3.5827

.37813

217

Leadership Implementation Style

3.4764

.57783

217

Through the analysis of data extracted from SPSS software in table 4.5.2, the study found that the overall mean is a high level of leadership implementation style among the principals categorized right as a good practice with mean value (m= 3.4764). Meanwhile, on the ICT utilization aspect, the study shows that teachers involved have the high level of utilization with mean value (m= 3.5827).

Hence, therefore, the study managed to answer questions 4-5 for the targeted objectives of this study, as summarized in Table 4.4.3 below.

Table: 4.5.3: Summary of Findings Mean Levels Statistical Analysis on Principals' Leadership Implementation Style and ICT Utilization among Teachers

Item

Statemnet

Mean

Level

Justification

Q4

Is there Principals' Leadership Implementation Style in implementing ICT utilization among teachers?

3.4764

High

Good

Q5

What are the levels of success in ICT utilization among teachers?

3.5827

High

Good

Correlation Analysis

To determine the linear relationship between two variables, the Pearson correlation will be used. Descriptive interpretation of the correlation coefficient has a value between -1 and +1, this value describes the strength of the relationship and the sign (+ or -) indicates the direction. Positive sign (+) means that the relationship between the independent variables to the dependent variable is a direct relationship while a negative sign (-) indicates that there is a reverse relationship.

Correlation Analysis on Principals' Leadership Style in implementing Utilization Among Teachers

Table 4.6.1: Findings of Correlation Analysis on Principals' Leadership Implementation and ICT Utilization among Teachers.

Item

Statement

Correlation Value

Level

1

Correlation Analysis on Level of Principal's Initiator Style And Level ICT Utilization Among Teachers

.758**

High

2

Correlation Analysis on Level of Principal's Responder Style And Level ICT Utilization Among Teachers

.569**

Medium

3

Correlation Analysis on Level of Principal's Manager Style And Level ICT Utilization Among Teachers

.758**

High

5

Correlation Analysis on Level of Principal's Leadership Style in Implementing ICT Utilization Among Teachers in Schools

.761**

High

Top of Form

Based on the findings of the correlation analysis in the above Table 4.6.1, level of principal initiator style that has been signification with ICT utilization level among teachers as noted in the table above marked with item 1, using 0:01 level of significance (p <0.01), found that the level of principal initiator style prove high direct relationship with level of ICT utilization among teachers as the correlation coefficient recorded .758 with the value p =.000 <0.01 significance value.

As for Item 2 correlation analysis performed moderate results as the principal's responder style stated only medium direct with level of ICT utilization among teachers as the correlation coefficient recorded .569 with the value p =.000 <0.01 significance value.

'While, on the manager style of the principal's leadership that has been signification with ICT utilization level among teachers as noted in the table above marked with item 3, using the 0:01 level of significance (p <0.01), it was found that manager style stated high direct relationship with level of ICT utilization as the correlation coefficient recorded similar findings as initiator style .758 with the value p =.000 <0.01 significance value

To accomplish the data analysis findings, the results of correlation for the three-leadership implementation style of principals with the success level of ICT utilization among teachers involved in those selected schools confirm high correlation and clearly positive significant relationship when the correlation coefficient recorded .761 with the value p =.000 <0.01 significance value..

Summary of Hypothesis Testing

Correlation test findings in this study are noted in the proof of the four forms of the hypothesis that was expected to identify the relationship between principals' leadership implementation style its relationship with ICT utilization among teachers in the selected schools. Furtherance of the study, the researcher summarized the results of hypothesis testing as shown in table 4.7 below for the proof of the hypothesis to be made ​​to identify clearly as to achieve the goals of the study.

Table 4.7 : Research Hypothesis Results

No

Hypothesis

Hypothesis Testing Results

Ho1

There is no significant relationship between Initiator styles of the principal and the level of success in ICT Utilization among teachers

Reject

( EXIST High correlation with correlation coefficients value .758 )

Ho2

There is no significant relationship between Responder styles of the principal and the level of success in ICT Utilization among teachers

Reject

( EXIST medium correlation with correlation coefficients value .569 )

Ho3

There is no significant relationship between Manager styles of the principal and the level of success in ICT Utilization among teachers

Reject

( EXIST High correlation with correlation coefficients value .758 )

Ho4

There is no significant relationship between Leadership Implementation styles of the principal and the level of success in ICT Utilization among teacher

Reject

( EXIST High correlation with correlation coefficients value .761 )

Based on the table 4.6 above, the results of hypothesis testing prove all three style of leadership implementation independent variables have direct significance relationship ICT utilization among the school teachers. The findings also directly reject the hypothesis of this study with the whole assumption that there is a high correlation between the independent variables and the dependent variables that were focused in this study as it will be discussed in more detail in the next chapter in determining the most appropriate leadership implementing style to captivate the successful ICT utilization among teachers in those selected schools.

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