The History Of The Systemic Approach Education Essay

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In fact, survive with computers in the classroom, it is a bit like living with an elephant, it is stressful, it is cumbersome, it is disturbing. What do you do with an elephant. We try to tame the otherwise tame. This is technology, attempts to integrate them into teaching practice. But how? Changing habits and behavior. But change is complicated, it requires planning, must be checked and it is not easy to manage an elephant, nor the use of computer equipment.

   About 25 years ago that we are working to integrate "new" technologies in different countries. At different rates, depending on changing the joys, successes and failures in succession - some losing patience, argue that it is an eternal - and yet ... Each loop of the spiral brings us innovative farther ahead. The school exchange and use of increasingly technologies and digital resources to consolidate these changes.

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Change, innovate, integrate, assimilate technology "new"

"The technology in the school will be" new "if pedagogy that employs is new. '

   One way to change their teaching practices is to integrate digital technologies in their teaching practices. But it must be remembered that this change does not innovate. For there to be innovation, ICT integration should promote the development of one or more of the following principles:

    increased contact teachers-students or distance;

    promote high expectations vis-à-vis students

    support learning reactive, proactive and interactive;

    facilitate effective and immediate feedback;

    improve and increase the time of study and reading;

    encourage diverse talent;

    enhance cooperation among students.

   If the use of ICT is not conducive to the development of one or the other of these principles, then there is change, but there is no pedagogical innovation. But how and with what tools can we enhance the educational development of these principles?

The "performances" of new technologies in schools are not connected to the power or sophistication of machines ... can not help thinking that it is easier to blame the machines indigence educational ... Finally, everything is there, new technologies in schools will be "new" if the pedagogy that employs is "new" or rather renewed. '

   Is that correct? Are there noble uses of technology in education cohabiting with debilitating or unworthy purposes? This is unlikely. It is rather a question of evolution, integration step. We must learn to use simple technologies before venturing into complicated uses.

   To innovate through technology, we must first be concerned students and then take care of tools. This is the foundation of a humanistic, interdisciplinary and "anthropocentric" and a systemic approach to innovation in education and basic reengineering the school using technology.

   Too often, the implementation of information technology is under the sign of improvisation. We believed, and still believe one of the "pioneers", the diffusion of an innovation in education is by osmosis and contagion nearby. This vision of "utopian" process proceeds as follows: a teacher sets up an innovative project using ICT in the classroom. Spontaneously, colleagues, intrigued by both innovation and envious of such a success, eager to transform their pedagogy, innovate and participate in this educational success. Just send them the know-how. The shrinking expands and soon the whole school is "tainted" by the new technologies, each wishing to receive an elephant in its class!

   Unfortunately, innovation is not spread in this way in the field of education. It agree, this strategy has not vicarious delivered the expected results. Few thousand early adopters have not completely spread in their schools. Colleagues in the "pioneer" did not spontaneously desired innovate or chambarder their pedagogy, or rearrange their courses. They did not immediately agreed that the success of an innovation project was due to the technology, even if it was very present in the project. In this vision of "spontaneity" of the diffusion of innovation, we must oppose systematic and systemic approach .

   The systemic approach is divided into four stages.

First step, the system is in equilibrium functional school. Each actor (director, teachers, students, professionals, manager, support staff) takes his role and the system is operating normally. It accomplishes its mission properly and completely? If so, there is no need to disrupt, the chambarder. Otherwise, the school does not allow students to train adequately its role in society. The school system is then critiqued and challenged. It is time to change it.

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Second step, given the inadequacies of the school disruptive innovations are introduced causing shock waves and imbalance.

Third stage, the school system responds to this imbalance in two ways: a) rejection of novelty to keep the same old balance precarious and unsatisfactory b) if the first tactic did not work then the school system attempts to integrate new, but minimizing its effectiveness and impact ... It is disruptive and teachers trying to integrate technology but changing nothing in their teaching. Teachers try again with these new tools the same as before but more often and more quickly.

Fourth step, if the tactical integration harmonic rejection or not fonctionnées then the system tries to assimilate new technology and recreate a new systemic functional balance. Then there is renewal of teaching practices. These four steps are carried out sequentially and the process can be accelerated or stopped at any time. This is why it is so important when introducing technological innovations in education planning in duration, to persevere and to maximize the disruptive and destabilizing. Until a new equilibrium is not reached systemic one can say that an institution is in the process of integration but not assimilation. If the innovative release system pressure on the novelty effect may regress and everything can be again.

   Furthermore, it is important not to sulk and success when teachers say the technology used in their practice not yet fully renewed you must know the time encouraged to continue making the desired changes. Thus the "pioneers", backed up by the authorities, can spread the novelty and "contaminated" the whole community.

3. The "recipe" for a successful implementation

"Let us all technologies, but let's slave no. '

   Already in 1987, the "pioneers" of the integration of technology in teaching had discovered the "recipe" for a successful implementation. [5] Here it is:

3.1. Ingredients

    Strong political will which strengthens local managers in their efforts and support "unwavering" teachers.

    Significant financial resources and provided annually for several years, conditions for long-term planning.

    Many computers, efficient, reliable, accessible, networked and connected to the Internet for teleco and learning communities.

    Powerful applications, stable, dedicated, easy to use, user friendly and provide access to content and quality digital resources seamlessly integrated disciplines.

    Information and support in good quantity and at a constant flow and steady.

    A systemic integration result of a happy complicity between the partners in education (teachers, principals, counselors, technology managers) .

    Time for teachers, time for reflection, for training, for planning of learning situations and evaluation (SAE) authentic , contextualized and described in accordance with the training program .

3.2 Preparation

   Each of these ingredients should be available in good quantity and mixed in proportions that meet regional autonomy and the sensitivity of local actors (schools). For example, the Commission scolaire de la Seigneurie-des-Mille-Îles lists five stages of ICT integration in teaching: entry, adoption, adaptation, appropriation and invention. The invention is the stage where the teacher imagine new uses for enriching the training program [10]. Depending on the stage identified resource needs, training and support may vary. This is the first element to consider when planning integrated and contextualised by a systemic approach.

   Regarding students, without wanting to sacrifice the urban legend regarding the genetically programmed learning who would be born "between a mouse and a keyboard" , we must admit that many are not expected the opportunity to step into the classroom, or connected TV opportunity to cooperate.

   If preparation and ingredients are not sufficient quality and quantity, mayonnaise may not get as stressed this illustrated "Barriers to ICT for teacher. techie ".

3.3 Tips and Tricks

   This "recipe" known in 1987 and repeated in 1997 [13], should be reissued in 2007 for everyone to remember that the world of technology has not appeared today and will not disappear with him. Regarding its dissemination in education, there is a world of differentiation.

   However, nowhere resources will not be sufficient to satisfy the impatient. Two tangential forces hinder this forced march towards ICT everywhere for everything and for all, at least in industrialized society. First, the human and financial resources are scarce and must be shared among multiple priorities. More money to hire teachers or buy equipment?

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   There is then the resistance to change. Throughout the West, school systems are shaken - interviewed - and this uncertainty before school administrators and teachers do not want to be confused disrupted rushed. The teacher of the present time is a tired man band - and this schematization of his performance (Figure 2 below) begins its resilience and helps to discourage.

4. The effectiveness of digital technologies for teaching

"It takes a village to raise a child ... with a computer. '

   For the school adapts to changes in technology and integrates computer and Internet, you need a vision-based learning ecology of the school is based on the concept of computerized learning environment, what , also known as digital work environment (DWE), virtual campus or virtual office work [16]. Defining the school as a learning environment, it is refocusing on learning and, hence, more efficient use of its resources. This is when they are placed in rich learning environments, including effective cognitive tools, these are real or virtual environments that children as well as adults, learn and develop intellectually and socially.

   Christian Barrette, an analyst at the Association for Research in college (CRA), has compiled a lot of research on the effectiveness of new technologies for teaching and learning. [17] Barrette concludes that ICTs are effective when they are part of a structured educational finely diversified learning activities and pedagogical approaches. In other words, the curriculum offers learning of knowledge, ideas, concepts, and skills development (knowledge, know-how, skills) and the teacher must know how to use ICT wisely to achieve all these goals.

   Corroborating the research of Professor Marcel Lebrun Louvain-La-Neuve [18] proposes to consolidate Barrette pedagogical approaches into three categories-behavioral approaches empiricist, rationalist, humanist and cognitive-constructivist which it associates the technological point of view the applications and approaches reactive, proactive and interactive. Should favor the constructivist approach when using ICT at school? Not necessarily meet Barrette. We need to diversify pedagogical approaches, teaching methods and digital tools. And the researcher noted that "Among these approaches, the emerging of social constructivism in pedagogical discourse, but little in practice. It has been said about it, it could be well served by these technologies that facilitated communication and exchange in the transformation of information into knowledge meaningful. "The empirical evidence, drawn from the research reviewed, indicate that it is possible that ICTs are also centered approaches to knowledge transfer (behaviorism reactive mode) or conscious control of cognitive skills (proactive mode and cognitivism reflexive).

   The review of projects and technological devices for learning (learning situations or teaching scenarios and computer system) actually shows that these devices fall into three families:

    devices inducing learning performance (behaviorism, reagent);

    requesting devices metacognition (cognitivism, proactive - reflexive);

    devices supporting collaborative learning (constructivism, interactive - self).

   Lesson effective compilation of various studies reviewed by Barrette is therefore as follows have proved effective training devices (approach, method, activity, learning situation, digital tools):

    inducing learning performance (explicit) and using adaptive tools and differentiated exercises repeated as exercisers, tutorials, educational games, animations, mainly used in the classroom or computer lab

    seeking metacognition and using tools such as tutorials, dynamic geometry, demos, simulators, programming, robotics, drawings, portfolios in individual activities that extend beyond the classroom or laboratory;

    supporting collaborative learning with tools such as virtual training environments, wikis, blogs, emails, forums, training platforms, which support active communities of exchange and cooperation especially outside of the classroom or computer lab .

   Figure 3 summarizes these three pedagogical approaches and this for each definition of learning, the learner, the teacher's role, the status of knowledge, teaching methods and examples of digital tools preferred. You will also find the didactic principles that promote educational innovation and educational success.

Empiricism

Behaviorism

Rationalism

Cognitivism

Humanism

Constructivism

Definition of learning change in observable behaviors. Change in ways of thinking and solving problems.

Cognitive conflicts. Change in ways of thinking, in co-creation activities.

Motivate.

Definition of learning Learning reactive listening, watching, reacts and tries again. Active learning, information processor, process the information, reflexive process, high expectation Interactive Learning, knowledge constructor which initiates a project and self-regulating, reflective, high expectation

Role of the teacher transmitter of information and knowledge. It presents, describes, schematically, plans and checks. Manager of learning, guide, leads, directs, counsel says, is experiencing problems, regulates remedy. Guide, anime, help, cause, questions, organizes, provides, suggests remedies and allowed to act, suggests self

Status of knowledge / skills objective external reality that the student must acquire, assimilate and reproduce.

External reality that the student must integrate its mental patterns and reuse. Reflexivity.

Objective external reality but perceived and reconstructed competence = know how to act by mobilizing

Teaching methods Teaching group, explicit, E3, repeated practice, immediate feedback, study time, frequent contacts. Individualized instruction, differentiated strategic approach deductive - inductive study time, frequent contacts. Vicarious learning strategic, differentiated by projects inductive-deductive, less frequent contact, promotes cooperation.

Digital tools preferred

Exercisers, tutorials, games, ICT competence, animation, web portfolio, test hidden words quiz Net and others.

Simulations, simulation, robotic, problems, You're the hero, programming, Create a Web page, DAO, experience, portfolio, geometry, virtual laboratory, SAE, Scoop, webquests.

.