The History Of The Communicative Methodology Education Essay

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Results have proved that the intralingual source of errors is the highest one among the three other sources. This result is due to the students incomplete application of rules and their weakness in trying to understand the questions and the way these questions should be answered. Thus teachers are to be recommended to exert much effort with their students to develop their linguistic and communicative competence and thus their abilities to use the language. This can be done by activating students with daily quizzes and tests.

2- Errors due to the context of learning indicate that teachers should try to intensive their efforts to help students to differentiate the use of words of obligation and permission.

3- Learners find some kind of difficulty in dealing with some new types of language testing techniques like error recognition and error correction. Thus, experimenting with new testing techniques is more preferable than sticking to the traditional ones. It is hoped that these techniques and other new ones are to be used. Starting from this point, a study may be conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using some untraditional testing techniques on the way Iraqi learners usually perform in tests.

4- One result of the present study is that subjects' face difficulty in dealing with English tenses, and especially their use more than their structure. Consequently, it is to be recommended here that teachers should try to handle this point when identified. This could be done by intensive drilling and at later stages by pointing out this problem to the students. It is the task of the teacher to provide the extra drilling and the necessary exercising.

5- In this study the researcher has tried to show that in a communicative approach to language teaching, grammar is not an insignificant side-issue, rather, it is the very means by which learners become able to fulfill their communicative needs. Thus teachers are recommended here not to repeat the mistakes of the past, when grammar has often been taught as an end in itself, divorced from the role it performs in communication. Teachers should make use of the recent insights and affirms the importance of grammar as it enables people to communicate meanings. A suggestion can be made here for conducting an empirical study to investigate how the course approaches, for example the four skills, vocabulary or even pronunciation, and the effectiveness of this on the development of Iraqi learners in using the English language.

6- Teachers should change their attitude towards errors, at least to encourage the learners to use the language in the class without being worry about their errors. Students would use the language to express their feelings and attitudes instead of writing on some stale topics which are suggested by teachers.

The existence of errors has been a subject to all language- teaching theories as they represent an important aspect of second language learning. Thus one can recommend here that for correcting written works, it is accepted that the teacher should not correct the students' mistakes directly but instead, should put marks indicating that there is something wrong with the sentence. Thus students are able to correct themselves looking for the source of their errors. Furthermore, teachers should keep in mind that overemphasis on errors can frustrate learners' motivation. Here a further study may be conducted to investigate the different ways used by Iraqi teachers to correct their students' erroneous expressions, and how the newly adopted approach views this point, or how much the Iraqi teachers are serious in following the approach and its recommendations concerning the matter of correcting students' errors.

7- A major premise underlying this approach is its emphasis on learners' needs and interests. This implies that every teacher should modify the syllabus to correspond with the needs of the learners.

8- One problem with this kind of language teaching is that it is an approach not a method. The difference between the two is that methods are fixed teaching systems whereas approaches form the theory and leave the teaching system to the creativity and innovation of the teacher.

Thus teachers should try hard to shoulder the burdens of looking on their own for ways and techniques of teaching.

9- Decision makers should consider the fact that with the implementation of such kind of language teaching, our schools should be modernized as to cope with the new horizons in teaching. The structure of our schools is not designed for group work which is a major requirement of this method. That is, they are not acquainted with aids or facilities through which the application of such an approach would be successful. Loading classes with large numbers of students is a fact that would kill any effort towards language teaching in general, let alone applying this approach.

10- In the Iraqi language teaching and learning context, the change in the teaching materials by way of employing new syllabuses and the change in teaching approaches have not been paralleled by an attempt to achieve a change in the attitudes of teachers involved in implementing the curriculum innovation. Implementation of CLT can be more effective if teachers have strong attitude towards it. It is therefore recommended that policy makers, syllabus designers and other concerned bodies should take into account teachers' attitudes and beliefs. Beside, in adopting an innovation, it is important to consider the circumstances it is operating so that the communicative approach can fit well into the Iraqi context. To be more specific, though the syllabuses claim to be communicatively oriented, there seem to be a common understanding that the teachers' orientation about the different theories and principles of CLT approach is limited. In relation to the importance of teachers' attitudes and beliefs, Kleinsasser and Savignon (1991) as quoted by Karavas, argue:

In our quest for the improvement of language teaching, we

have overlooked the language teacher. Exploration… of

teachers' perceptions of what they do and why they do it

holds promise for understanding the frequently noted

discrepancies between theoretical understanding of

second/foreign language acquisition and classroom practice

(1996: 188).

This shift of emphasis towards teachers' perceptions might be because, for one thing, knowledge is understood as the development of beliefs and attitudes. For another thing, teachers' perception of the practicality of new teaching practice (philosophical acceptance of an innovation) influences later implementation. It is also believed that teachers' actions are highly influenced by their beliefs and attitudes, even more than they are determined by their knowledge. Thus a further study may be conducted to investigate teachers' attitudes towards CLT and with the practical problems in its implementation.