The Higher Education And Social Responsibility Education Essay

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Muhammad Saeed studied and explained comparisons of the education system of Pakistan and the UK from six proportions. These were education and training authority, educational structure, curriculum formulation, assessment and evaluation, supervision, management, and teacher education and training. The objective of the research was to compare, understand and analyze the education system of four different cities of UK and four provinces of Pakistan, then the similarities and differences of education system between Pakistan and UK. There were similarities and differences in these six dimensions that exist among the four provinces of Pakistan, but in case of UK these were more outstanding in its four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. In Pakistan the education system was divided into three groups, elementary (grade 1-8), secondary (grade 9-12), and tertiary or higher education, after 12 years' schooling. Elementary education was split up into primary (grade 1-5) and elementary/middle (grade 6-8) and was catered in primary and elementary schools, Due to uniform national curricula and policy formulation at federal level, Pakistan's education system was similar across the four provinces. Overall success level was high in Sindh and Punjab, whereas the education system of Baluchistan was the lowest.

K. Alan Kronstadt (2004) worked for the improvement of education in Pakistan. The objective of the research was to create awareness about the current education system of Pakistan and full support to Pakistan by US as recommended by the 9/11 Commission Report. It was to improve and expand access to education for all [Pakistani] citizens". K, Alan explained that The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) was implementing a five-year, $100 million bilateral agreement to increase access to quality education throughout Pakistan with an emphasis on the Baluchistan and Sindh provinces. USAID education-related projects in Pakistan include efforts to improve early education, engender democratic ideals, improve the quality of assessment and testing, provide training to educators, and construct or refurbish schools in the Federally Administered Tribal areas and the most notable project was Education Sector Reform Assistance (ESRA).

Irfan Muzaffar (2010) have done research and worked for the quality education system in Pakistan. His research interests include educational policy analysis, teacher education and political analysis of education reforms. The current research interests focused on using comparative history and political theory to examine policy discourses within education. The objective of the research was Campaign for Quality Education done by Irfan Muzaffar. It's a network of individuals and organizations concerned with education. It builds the belief that educational justice entails not just access to school but to quality education for all children in Pakistan. Campaign for Quality Education was to promote quality in education through effective advocacy, developing and popularizing innovative solutions to quality of education, and regular monitoring of the state of education in Pakistan.

Sir Michael Barber (2009) conducted a study to see the educational development in Pakistan. The objective of the study was to highlight problems occurring in the education system and to bring change in this system. The author wrote some assumptions in the article. These assumptions were, the rising population of Pakistan, low level of education system, few percent of population getting education and rest uneducated etc. further it was discussed that there can be change in the system that would be caused by three sources. First, there should be clear standards for all students in Urdu or the mother tongue, in English, and in Math's and Science. Second, simple, clear processes for monitoring performance should be put in place at every level. With USAID and the World Bank's leadership, the National Education Assessment System (NEAS) needs to be reinvigorated and become routine. Lastly, a major national public advocacy campaign was needed so that every community and, indeed, every parent, become aware of what they should expect of the schools in their local area.

Bernardete A. Gatti (2009) studied the education system of Brazil. The research was conducted to research Educational evaluation, Education systems, School performance, and Institutional evaluation of Brazil. The federative structure of the Brazilian State and the overlapping of evaluation in the federal, state and municipal education systems were analyzed. The methods of research included the training of experts in educational evaluation, the characteristics adopted by the implemented assessments, both in basic and higher education. The focuses were on the argument from the development of such evaluation systems. This Study gave rise to implantation support for the national evaluation system of basic education. Brazil learning systems' evaluation processes was changing, they received a very strong, contradictory reaction, and however, an educational evaluation culture was now merging on the basis of accountability.

Rahimah Haji Ahmad (2004) studied the educational development and reformation in Malaysia. The objective of the study was to analyze future trends of education system in Malaysia on the basis of its past and current situation. The educational development from the time of independence was explained in the article, followed by a discussion on the current educational reforms beginning in 1980s. The National Education System of Malaysia was inherited from the British colonial government and the Education Act was to be implemented in stages, to ensure a gradual change. It characterized educational development and curriculum changes in the early decades after independence. The development of values education program were studied. It has been a part of the Malaysian educational curriculum in at least some schools since the British colonial era. Moreover In implementing the suggestions the Curriculum Development Center set up machinery to draw up a syllabus for moral education. In doing this, much care was taken to include values that reflect Malaysian society, which were acceptable to all and do not offend any religious group. Lastly the future trends and were explained that all higher institutions of education, including private institutions, were to include and Asian Civilization into the curriculum, besides Malaysian studies which were identified earlier. In the Articles there were sixteen core values integrated into the curriculum. There were Cleanliness of body and mind, Compassion and tolerance, Cooperation, Courage, moderation, diligence, freedom, gratitude, honesty, humility and modesty, justice, rationality, self reliance, love, respect and public spiritedness.

Vishal D. Pajankarand Pranali V. Pajankar (2010) conducted study on the school education system in India. The objective was to study the changing scenario of school education in India and educational needs at the various schooling stages. The educational history of India was well established and organized. They had their traditional institutions of education by the name of Gurukuls. Its current education system was similar to western system. It was initially introduced and supported by British in 19th century. Those traditional systems were not known by the British Government and so it declined with time. The step taken by the states and education centers caused expansion of the education system of India over past five decades. Some important features of school education system were also discussed based on survey data. The study also focused on the current data on some key parameters of school education in India. In the study, secondary data has been taken into consideration. The data has been collected from Seventh All India School Education Survey (AISES), National Council of Education Research and Training, New Delhi - Reports 2005 on the key parameters of school education in India.

BASHETTI. S. B (2013) studied about the higher education and social responsibility. The aim of the research was to study how education can make human being civilized. There were many problems occurring in the present higher education system. The education system of India is discussed in this article. Indian education stressed on the moral, ethical and social values. The problems were arising due to globalization and liberalization. So basically this problem can be solved by training the faculty and guidance about the teaching methods, moreover Social services activities in colleges have to be increased to develop social responsibilities among students. Student should be encouraged to take part in social activities along with their studies.

Ghazala Kausar(2002) conducted research on the study done by different famous theorists. Their study was based on the teaching on English language in Pakistani schools. The study show that the method used my these theorists helped a lot in different aspects such as child development stages, insensitive speech in children, importance of language and the role of the teacher and student in language learning. Moreover the study was about the supportive environment for English language teaching and learning in Pakistan.

Rahman.S , Chaudhry.S,I (2009) studied impact of gender inequality in education on rural poverty in Pakistan. The study showed that rural poverty was affected by the gender inequality in education. There was statistical analysis done that included female-male enrolment ratio, female-male literacy ratio, Female-male ratio of total years of schooling, female- male ratio of earners and education of household head, and all these ratios had significant negative impact on rural poverty and hence the final results showed that household size and female-male ratio (members) had strong positive association with the probability of poverty.

Shah.S,F (2012) conducted study about the gender inclusion in the textbooks used for teaching English language at the secondary level in Pakistan. Analysis was done of the three English language textbooks published by the Punjab textbook board, questionnaire and interviews. The results showed that English teachers at the secondary level see the textbooks inclusive in gender terms, whereas the content analysis and interviews showed different point of view. The program of study of English language at the secondary level in Pakistan has showed that along with the functional competency the inclusive aspects of education need to be reflected in the textbooks. Gender inclusion in the textbook will result in the development and awareness and will shape the opinions of the students in a delicate manner.

Dr.Abdul Razzaq Sabir, Abdul Nasir has done research on the teaching of Islamic studies as a subject in secondary schools and Madaris in Pakistan. The Islamic education is compulsory subject for the Muslim students till the secondary school level. The paper discussed the educational policies of Pakistan in relation to Islamic Education. The Islamic education that will be compulsory will help the students to learn more and more about the Education of Quran. Basically there were two main education system discussed in the paper that are running parallel, these were modern education system and religious education. Moreover the paper further discusses the teaching methodology regarding teaching of Islamic Studies, criteria for selection of Islamic Studies teachers, and their qualification, the course contents of Islamic Studies text books teaching in the government secondary schools and their comparison with the courses of other religious schools or Madaris.