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The present day modern society is a science based technology which influences modernization. This modernization has affected teaching learning in many ways. Modern teaching and learning is giving importance to students activity. The foremost aim of teaching learning is not only acquisition of knowledge but also the awakening of curiosity, the stimulation of creativity the development of proper interest, attitude and values and the building of essential skills.
The learning is what students do, teaching is what the teacher can teach. The improvement in teaching can be demonstrated if there is improvement in learning. As observed by prof. R.S. Adams and others " students may learn what the teacher intended them to; they may not. Teachers like others are fallible,then may not always teach correctly. It follows them that in any learning situation students may learn correctly what the teacher taught incorrectly or may learn incorrectly what the teacher taught correctly or fortunately the opposites.
Teaching is a goal oriented process on the part of the teaching level of the teacher and on the part of the learning level of the students. Hence there should be a compatibility between the teaching style of a teacher and learning style of a students. This compatibility insistly develops students learning style and their level of achievement. Hence based on this importance the present study is contemplated to ascertain the relationship between teaching style and learning style of the students in the background of academic achievement.
TEACHING AND LEARNING
Teaching and Learning are interlinked. The teacher teaches and students learn. Teaching learning has four aspects they are teacher, student, learning process and learning situation. The teacher creates the learning situation for the student inorder to create interaction between student and the teacher Interaction based on learning increases achievement level.Teaching learning is influenced by the totality of the learning environmental situation. This interaction is possible through three way communication. This results is behavior changes in the learner. Indeed learning is a behaviour modification technique.
The teaching components and learning components are interrelated. Teaching objectives are successful only when the learning outcomes coincide within it. The components of teaching learning are ,components of learning process which is a task to be equipped.Learning task and learning characteristics are interrelated for successful teaching and to enhance the achievement level of the students only when there is a compatibility between teaching style and learning style.
ROLE OF BRAIN IN LEARNING:
Research on Brain studies identifies that the left brain is the academic brain. It is because educators generally emphasize its process in a traditional class room,communicating the learning process as a teacher centered. This create a vaccum between teacher and the students.The right brain is the artistic brain because it is the center for creative talents.The brain study shows that learning can be flourished only when teachers make their students to integrate and use both sides of the brain while learning. For Example in Kindergarten classes, Teachers who use music, Dance, Story telling, Drama as a right brain activities in their classes to trigger the left brain oriented students. This will increase learning capabilities. But in the primary section the teacher applies traditional teaching method in the classroom,which will reduce right brain activities development.
Further when right brain teacher teaches left brain students it affects the achievement of the learner.Hence the teacher should be whole brained oriented then only he can produce right brain and whole brain dominated students, which will be necessary to face challenging situations in the future nation.
Need for the study
Learning style is a cognitive skill chanalize the learning behaviour of the students learing style plays an important role in acquisition of knowledge.In the concept of hemisphericity there should be a relationship between learning style and teaching style,otherwise the students tend to feel bores and inactive, inattentive. In the class room of 30 students are more than that if the mismatch occurs between the learning style of the students and the teaching style of the teacher, the students find it difficult to understand the subject and they feel, the class is bored and they became inattentive in the class. Due to inattentiveness the teacher will warn the students and they will enable the students to develop hostile feelings against the teacher.
To reduce conflicts between teacher student style conflicts some researchers in the area of learning styles are matched. Kumara vadivelu(1991:98) states that " the narrower the gap between teacher intervention and learner interpretation, the greater are the chances of achieving desires learning outcomes".
Effective matching between teaching style and learning style can be achieved only when teachers are aware of their learners needs, capacities, potentialities and learning style preferences in meeting these needs.It has been the researchers experience as a teacher may learners fail to achieve an acceptable level of success in achievements tests. Investigator much of reading on this topic suggest that the boredom, lack of success and frustration of students experiences t school could be due to incongruence between teaching strategy of teacher and their preferred learning styles.This inherent problem gave rise to the idea for this researcher topic. It was thus born out of a desire to provide teachers with an alternative approach to improve the learning productivity of their students.
Statement of the problem
The problem for the present study is to explore as" Role of Hemisphericity in activating teaching style and learning style in increasing achievement level of the students".
Studies on related Literature
Studies on Learning style
Matthews (1995), using the Canfield Learning Styles Inventory, investigated and found out that there is a relationship between subject of specialisation and learning style. Students in the disciplines of mathematics, science and education selected the applied combination and applied styles.Students in humanities, business, and social science selected combination conceptual styles.
Burns, Johnson & Gable(1998) conducted a study on the differences between the learning style preferences of high academic achieving students and the preferences expressed by students with average or below average academic achievement.They concluded that the learning style of higher achievers are much better and organised one,when compare with the average and low achieving students,low achievers are not adopting any particular style.
Carrier (2009) was concerned about the ineffective consideration of boys' learning styles in school environments. He administered pre-tests and post-tests to
both groups and analyzed the data for differences in four areas: (a) knowledge, (b) attitude,
(c) behaviours, and (d) comfort levels. Results showed significantly greater score gains for the boys in the experimental group than the traditional group for all four areas of focus. Boys in the experimental group scored greater on attitudes and behaviors than the girls in the
experimental group.In addition, both the boys and girls in the experimental group increased
their knowledge scores more than the boys and girls in the traditional group. Thus this study reveals that the adopting if particular style suitable to the students increases achievement level.
Studies on Teaching style
Lulla (1974) investigated the effects of teacher class room behavior on pupils achievement. It was implied that the indirect teacher behavior may raise the interaction potential of the classroom climate resulting in free communication and open interaction between the teacher and the learner, but also provided a congenial climate to the teacher for conducting his teaching.This study proved that indirect teaching style influence students achievement level.
Roka (1976), RAIJAWALA (1976)compared the verbal teaching behavior patterns and student achievement in terms of instructional objectives. The study gave an indication that asking more of divergent and evaluative questions did not result insignificant difference in mean achievement at knowledge level but resulted insignificant difference at 0.05 level in mean aachievement at understanding and application levels. .
Naidu (1980) observed the variation in classroom behavior of teachers teaching class X in 37 schools of three categories of schools, namely, government, private and aided schools. In each subject (English, Science and Social Studies) in these schools, it was found that the verbal classroom behaviour of the teacher occupied the first place, followed by evaluation of that days lesson either by orally asking question or by giving homework to the students. .
Studies on Hemisphericity .
Psychological and split-brain researches show that the two hemisphere have specialized, complementary functions. The left hemisphere apparently specializes in sequential logical, verbal, symbolic, convergent production and logic functioning. (Ornstein, 1973: Wittrock, 1978).
Studies on learning style and hemisphericity
Wagmeister and Shifrin (2000) used to develop a curriculum to match the learning styles of students with learning differences. They provided staff development and worked with the parent community to provide an understanding of their stimulating brain-based program. Their program was designed to create a safe, nurturing environment where students expand their knowledge, find patterns, make connections, and take risks
Studies on compatibility between teaching styles to learning styles.
Montgomery (1995) demonstrated that using multimedia is effective in addressing learning styles that are typically neglected by traditional teaching method. The research suggests that computer and multi0media software can really fill in the gaps caused by a dichotomy of learning and teaching styles.
A study by Ford and Chen (2001) explores the relationship between matching and mismatching instructional presentational style to students 'cognitive style in a computer based learning environment. Results showed that matching mainly affected male students and matching instructional or teaching styles to learning styles can have significant effects on student achievement.
According to Felder and Henriques(1995:21) , mismatches often occur in teaching foreign language students English and this has drastic effects on the quality of their learning and their consequent attitude toward the subject. This is simply due to the fact here are several dimensions of learning styles relevant to foreign and second language education that is often ignored, one possibly being culture.
Zhenhui(2001) illustrates teacher who could not understand her students' negative responses to her kinesthetic, global style of teaching until she realized that they were inherently introverted, analytical and reflective leaners.
In an experimental design into the effect of student learning characteristics and teaching approaches, Ching -Sue(2005)explores the potential to promote students' understanding of difficult science concepts by examine the inter - relationships among the teacher's instructional approach. student's learning preference styles, and their levels of the learning process. The results of her study showed that matching students' learning style with teaching preferences did not resulting any significant change in student's retention or understanding of concepts like air pressure.
Studies on Student Achievement and Learning Style/Teaching Style Match
Charkins, O'Toole, and Wetzel (1985) conducted research at Purdue University to
determine if there was a link between teaching styles and learning styles and the effect of
any link on student learning.Their findings indicated that "the larger the divergence between teaching style and learning style, the lower the student's gain in achievement".
Lyon (1991) conducted a study at Washington State University to determine if a
relationship existed between teaching styles and learning styles in a real-life adult learning situation. There was no significant difference found between knowledge gain and a match of the teaching styles of the instructor and the learning styles of the participants.
After reviewing elaborately the different types of studies related to the main study the researcher has identified 75 studies on teaching style, 125 studies on learning style, 23 on hemisphericity, 30 on compatibility between teaching style and learning style. There is no study connected with the compatibility between learning style and teaching style in relation to hemisphericity and achievement. Hence to fillup this lacuna the researcher has contemplated on the present study.
Teaching Style defined by Fisher and Fisher(1979) as "a pervasive way of approaching the learners that might be consistent with several methods of teaching"
Gregorc(1979) Teaching Style consists of an instructors personal behavior and the media used to transmit or receive data to or from the learner.
It is a cognitive skill adapted by the teacher to acquire information. Cornett defined learning style as a "a consistent pattern of behavior but with a certain range of individual variability.
Geogorc and Ward (1977) stated that learning style "consists of distinctive and observable behavior that provides clues about the mediation abilities of individuals. In operational terms ,people through their characteristic sets of behavior "tell" us how their mind related to the world and therefore how they learn.
Hemisphericity is the cerebral dominance of an individual is retaining and processing the different mode of information in his own style of learning and thinking.(Venkatraman 1989)
Researcher conducted during the last two decades have shown that the human left cerebral hemisphere is to be specialized for primarily verbal, analytic, abstract, temporal and digital operations (Bogey 1969,Gazzaninga 1970, Ornstein 1972).The same investigation revealed that the right cerebral hemisphere is to be specializes for primarily non verbal holistic, concrete, creative, analogical and aesthetic function. For identifying the hemisphere dominance the ways in which and levels at which the information is being proceed by the individual are to be studied with the help of the solat tool.
The primary objective of the study is to explore the compatibility between teaching style and learning style and its influence on academic achievement with regards to hemisphericity.
Objectives of the study
A) To find out the difference in the learning style of the students with respect to demographic variables.
B) To find out the differences in the teaching style of the teacher with regards demographic variables.
C) To find out the relationship between learning style and information processing style of the students.
D) To find out the relationship between the teaching style and brain dominance of the teacher.
E) To find out the relationship between learning style and achievement level of the students.
F) To find out the relationship between learning style and teaching style in enhancing the achievement level of the students.
1. There is no significant difference in the learning style of the students with respect to demographic variables.
2. There is no significance difference in the teaching style of the teacher with regards to demographic variable.
3. There is no association between the learning style and achievement score
4. There is no relationship between learning style and information processing and achievement level of the students
5. There is no relationship between the teaching style and style of teaching and thinking.
6. There is no relationship between the teaching style, learning style and achievement level of the students.
METHODOLOGY OF STUDY
The objective of the study is to explore that the compatibility between teaching style of the teacher and learning style of the students and its influence on achievement level of the students. The nature of the study is dianochronic in approach in which data has been collected from 918 students and 200 teachers as a sample size in and around Chennai and kancheepuram district, with the help of standadised tool.The collected data is schreutinized with the help of scoring key and appropriate statistical technique. Interpretation were made based on the statistical observation in order to realise the objective of the study,
Variables of the study
a) Independent variables
Information processing style
b) Dependent variable
c). PERSONAL VARIABLES
Parental Educational Qualification
Age of teacher
Years of experience
d). INSTITUTION RELATED VARIABLES
Types of the management of school.
Medium of Instruction.
Location of the school.
TOOLS USED IN THE STUDY
Personal Data Sheet developed by the Investigator. (Appendix i)
Learning style developed and standardized by the investigator(appendix II)
3) Teaching style developed and standardized by the investigator(appendix III)
4)Information processing style questionnaire developed and standardized by Venkatraman 1989
5 Solat Tool developed and standardized by Venkatraman 1989.
Technique of sampling:
Among the various techniques, stratified random sampling technique is found to be the best suited for the present study.The stratified random sampling technique is widely accepted as the best procedure when heterogeneous samples have to be brought under study as in the present case
Collection of data
Procedure for data collection:
After finalizing the sample and tools to be used the programme of testing were arranged. The investigator contacted the heads of the selected schools and the class teachers and had discussions with them in order to fix a schedule for administering the test in a systematic way of approach.
Scoring and consolidation of data:
The score sheets were scored in accordance with the scoring scheme of each test. The test score in the case of dependent variable and independent variables were scored. The demographic details like name, sex, location of the school, management of the school were entered in the personal data sheet. A number of subjects failed to attend all the tests and some students did not attempt all the items in certain tests. Only those subjects who completed the test in all respects were selected for the analysis. Thus the final sample for the study was reduced to 918 students and the sample for the teacher is restricted to 200..
It provides information about the nature of a particular group of individuals. To compare the scores in terms of performance, mean and standard deviation were calculated. The essential descriptive statistics served as inputs for further inferential analysis.
In the present investigation, mean and standard deviation were calculated for learning style,teaching style and hemisphericity.
It provides inferences involving determination of statistical significance of difference between groups with reference to selected variables.
In the present investigation, 't'values were calculated to test the significant difference between the mean scores of learning style,teaching style,information processing and solat with respect to certain demographic variables. `F' value is calculated to test the significant difference between the mean scores of learning style,teaching style,information processing and solat with respect to certain demographic variables.
It provides inferences involving determination of statistical significance association between groups with reference to selected variables.In the present investigation, Chi square value was calculated to test the significant association between learning style and achievement level.
It provides the information involving determination of statistical significant relationship between groups with reference to selected variables, In the present study,coefficient of correlation was calculated to test significant relationship between learning style with information processing,teaching style with brain dominance.
Major findings of the study
Differential analysis: learning style:
Comparison among the dimension of learning style with respect to background variables.
The learning style of boys and girls show significant difference. Which is also inferred that boys were tendency to adopt more learning style than girls.
The learning style of the students differ based on the management of the institution where they study. Hence multiple comparisons was made. In multiple comparisons also the learning style differs with regards to different management style.
Comparison among the teaching style with respect to gender, medium qualification. management age experience and subject of specialization were studied.
The analysis shows that there is no significant difference in teaching style with respect to gender medium & qualification. The result shows that the, there is no significant difference in the teaching style with respect to management and teachers experiences. The findings revealed that there is significant difference in the teaching style of the teacher with respect to age of the teacher, major subject
Information processing:Comparison of information processing with respect to gender, medium:
The analysis shows that there is significant difference in the dimension of information processing with respect to gender.
The findings concludes also show that there is no significant difference between the students belong to integrates brain with regards to gender and medium of instruction.
Comparison of information processing with respect to management:
The result shoes that there is no difference in information processing style of students with respect to management.
solat: Comparison of solat with respect to gender & medium.
The analysis shows that there is no significant difference in right and integrated brain of students with respect to gender. But the analyses revealed that there is significant difference in left brain with respect to gender. The result also revealed that there is no significant difference in the dimension of solat with respect to medium.
Associations Analysis:Association between learning style and achievement:
It is an evident that there is an association between the learning style and achievement.
Correlation analysis: Relationship with in the dimension of learning style:
There is a relationship within the dimensions of learning style.
Relationship between learning style and information processing and achievement:
There is moderate relationship between the learning style, information processing and achievement.
Relationship between the teaching style and solat:
There is a positive relationship between teaching style and solat
Most of the existing literature on adopting a progressive teaching style focuses on
how teaching style enhances student interest in the subject matter and generates a more
stimulating classroom atmosphere. Therefore, an individual.s teaching style may affect a student.s academic success.
The null hypothesis stating that there is no relationship between teaching styles and academic performance can be rejected. There are several implications that can bebased upon some of the findings..
It also seems that teachers who describe themselves as traditional believe their
students would not want to take another class from them and teachers who describe
themselves as in between traditional and progressive feel their students would want to
take more classes from them.
Gender may have had a pivotal affect in this research if more than one man was
surveyed. Years of teaching influenced the teaching style.
This study has only touched the surface of assessing a connection between
teaching styles and academic performance. Additional research is needed to give a more
The researcher might even consider a longitudinal study that extended for the entire school year taking into account grades from each grading period. A more thorough research project can only help to establish whether or not academic achievement is influenced by an instructor's teaching style