The Hemisphericity And Learning Style Education Essay

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A teacher should be a good model or a leader so as to be initiated by her students both with in and outside the classroom situations. The inter relationship between the teacher and the taught is well expressed. This was a degree of difference among the teachers thorough a good saying that:

"The mediocre teacher tells,

The good teacher explains

The superior teacher demonstrate&

The great teacher inspires

In the words of gates and others " learning may be thought of as the progressive change in behavior which is associated on the one hand with successive presentation of a situation and on the other with repeated effects of the individual to react to it effectively

In the class room ,when the teacher adopt their style of teaching according to the learning style of the students promotes healthy learning climate. Failiure of which creates the declining in students achievement level.This chapter explains dimensions taken in learning style and teaching style for the present study


Teaching is more than studying before a class and applying a few techniques .It is not merely presenting text book information and then testing the students ability to repeat the information. Teaching is not a mechanical process. It is an exacting and challenging job. Some teachers adopt a traditional way of teaching and some are innovators. The traditional teachers tend to be highly structures. They are serious when it comes to educating their students on the subject matter. The innovative teachers tend to focus or class discussion, hands on activities and collaborative learning.

Among the teachers the last category would highly be limited and perhaps majority of then would come in the first category and rest of the teachers may come under the remaining categories. The nation wants last category of teachers for its growth and development.The meaning of "Style" varies among researchers according to wilkim et al:(1977): Keefe(1979).The style refers to pervasive psychological characteristic (coginitive style) that cuts across intellectual perceptual and interpersonal functioning. Hunt (1979) explains "Style" as the "best" or "preferred" manner in which a person learns.

A teaching style is a combination of teaching methods and techniques that a teacher prefers in her teaching. Van Hamburg(2006) mentions principle so good teaching, including encouraging student teacher contact and cooperative and active learning & the need to respect diverse learning style.

Teaching styles represents a pattern of needs, beliefs and behaviors displayed by teachers in their classrooms explained by Grasha (1994) An individual teaching style create over all atmosphere of a classroom by creating good climate.


Learning in the school is a tripolar process in which the learner, the subject matter and the teachers are involved. Learner may be multipolar process in which the learner , the learner"s colleagues , the learner's teacher and the learner's parents and in fact the entire environment involved.

A learning style refers to a persons preferred approach to learning. Allinson & Hayes(1988) explore the approach they prefer may be an important determinant in their academic performance.

Definition of learning styles

Different psychologists and educationists look upon the idea of learning style

differently. They define this concept according to their own perspective.

Sigel & Coop (1974, p.23) have viewed learning style as an integral concept that

bridges the personality cognitive dimension of the individuals.

Gibson (1976, p.89) argues that learning style and cognitive style are synonymous.

Lay Cock (1978, p.45) describes learning style as an individual characteristic way

of responding to certain variables in the instructional environment.

Kalsbeek (1989, p.2) said that learning style can be understood as a person's

preferred approach to information processing, idea formation and decision making. The

attitude and interest decide how to respond in which learning situation all depends on the

compatibility with the personal profiles. So it can be concluded by analyzing all these

definitions that the learning style is the preferred way of perceiving and responding to the

information in a specific learning situation.

According to Kirby(1979) the term " learning style" came into use when researchers began looking for ways to combine course presentation and materials to match the needs of each learner. In 1978 claxton & Ralston defined learning style as a students consistent way of responding to and using stimuli in the context of learning. Rerchmann(1978) formulated definition that the learning style as a particular set of behaviors and attitudes related to learning context.

The concept of learning style is the combine of characteristic cognitive, affective and psychological elements. These elements determine the way of perceiving, interacting, with and responding to the learning environment. Learning styles are taken as stable individual preferences for receiving and processing information by many of the theorists. According to kolb (1984) the person who is concrete learner will group and process information by using concrete abilities like concrete experience and active experimentation most of the time where as abstract learner will rely an abstract abilities of reflective observation and abstract conceptualization in order to perceive and process information and this habit will be uniform in many or most of situation over time.


Our brain looks like an English walnut with the shell removed .It has a deeply wrinkled surface with a clearly marked fold hat divides it into a left and right half .For hundreds of years scientists believed that the two sides were mirror images of each other. Only within the last forty years has science shower that the left and right brain .hemisphere have unique and specific functions .left brain/right brain refers to specialized functions of the two hemispheres. Scientific research with healthy human subjects used a new brain scan technique called position emission Tomography(PET) scan to conform these findings. Individuals connected to a machine that mapped brain activity by lighting up to show which part of the brain was active. Results indicated that activities involving numbers, loges, word puzzles, sequential tasks and analysis were more active on the left side of the brain where as activities involving music, imagination colors or creative expression were more active in right hemisphere. Evidences suggests that the right brain has a global bias while left brain has a local bias .In other words the right hemisphere sees the picture and the left hemisphere sees the components of the picture.

The left hemisphere dissects information by analyzing and distinguishing the single parts of the whole there by it processes the information sequentially is a linear and ordered manner. Thus it is asserted that the hemisphere has a bias for detailed information, is very capable of analyzing and structuring information, and is best suited for tasks that comprise language, reading and writing, algebra mathematical problems, logical operations and the processing of serial sequences of information. Based on these thinking and problem solving attributes left hemisphere the people who predominantly use the left part of their brain rational, intellectual detail oriented, logical and analytical. That means that these people do well in mathematics, engineering and natural science.

The right brain has attributed to it an intuitive, emotional, holistic, synthesizing ,non-verbal Visio - spatial mode of processing ,resulting in a creative or inductive way of thinking. Thus the right hemisphere lumps together information and processes it a whole and in parallel i.e. it sees the forest rather than the trees. It is supported to deal in three-dimensional forms and images with a focus on similarities rather than differences and so is seen as being strong in tasks that require the understanding of complex configurations and patterns. The simultaneous processing of diverse information like pattern recognition , face recognition, or spatial relationships. Due to these characteristics people who predominantly use their right brain are considered as being artistic, intuitive, emotional, imaginative and visually oriented .These people are strong in tasks that require synthesizing and conceptualizing abilities and hence are said to be good at gathering ,assembling, comparing and reshuffling ideas in order to come up with new concepts.


The hemisphere both right and left perform different functions through different modes.


The language of the right brain is capable of processing language if the discriminations are uncomplicated. (eg: a positive from a negative statement)

Their right brain deals with tonal memory, tonal qualities and the tonal patterns. For singing songs with pitch, rhythm, intonation and lyrics the right hemisphere should functions effectively.The right brain capable of dealing with the most difficult, logical and systematic problems and finding solutions. Its functions have generally been described as creative, divergently , productive, deductive, intuitive ,holistic, gestation concrete and analogical.It deals with the functioning of iconic presentation of information such as graphic displays, diagrams, flow charts and greatly facilitates both the comprehension and the retention of information. It deals with body image and it consists emotional aspects such as laughing, crying, and tonal expressions.


Expression of language through speech, verbal memory, words parts, syllable recoginition, analyses, of speech sounds, use of verbs and verbal aspect of writing are functions predominantly done by left brain.Mathematical reasoning, particularly calculations and algebraic, abstract math" s, digital operations and computations are activated by left brain..Education relation, , ability to analyze the common aspects of task and relationship among task, linguistic task, retention of language and comprehension, learning the 3R"s and acquisition of new habit patterns are the functions of the brain.Left hemisphere functions in daydreams, "drugging", mediation, fantasy, hypnosis, diversion and play. The left brain functions for activating aggressive behavior of a man and maintaining is masculine nature.


Neurological studies indicate that the education , as it is structures in most our schools to day develops. Only left brain and leaves the other part untouched. Researches based on neuron-Psychology reveal that there is a significant relationship between the right brain functioning and creativity.In school curriculum , reading, writing, and arithmetic are mostly emphasized in logical-linear process and are fed into the brain. The other processes of thinking and learning are neglected. Curriculum planners have neglected students thinking and learning process that would assist them greatly to develop visualization and imagination.It is important to identify the students learning strategy, with that of their brain preferences. For optimum learning reference it is important that students learning functions coincide with their brain dominance . It the mismatch exists between these two preferences learning wont be fruitful.

Herrmann(2000) classified learning style styles based on the functions controlled by each chamber of the brain. He identified four divisions within the brain each of which was associated with a certain learning style. This is shown in figure(2.)


According to the concept of hemisphericity ,information is proceed in different ways in the two brain hemisphere. The dominant side of the brain determines the way of processing .on the basis of this the idea developed that the learning and thinking process could be enhanced when both sides of the brain participated in a balanced manner. The teaching and education programs were developed in order to strengthen the less dominant side of the brain. our schools generally favor left brained ways of thinking and learning such as analysis, logic and accuracy, many teaching instruction techniques seek to include more right brained activities one (eg) of such a whole brained instruction method is "show and tell" instead of only reading a "left brained" text, the teacher also shows pictures and graphics in order to activate right brain. other methods include the use of music, metaphors, role plays, meditation, drawing etc. in order to achieve the synchronization of the two the outline of teaching and problem solving styles of the two hemisphere is given table2.1 .These method shows in table could be valuable in the educational setting, they are based on a shaky foundation.

The curriculum and teaching methods adopted in schools in the part and the present are instigative to develop only one part of the brain (i.e) left hemisphere and other part of the brain (i.e) the right hemisphere is left untouched.


While it may seen at first glance that matching of students learning style with teachers instructional style is highly desirable, the issue is not as simple as it appears. one might expect that by matching styles students learning would increase. Walter Hunter(1980) reports that while certain teaching styles have a relationship to student grade, the matching of these styles do not appear to have a significant effect. Cotterells(1982_ review of twenty three studies on matching and achievement found that seven failed to show any relationship and sixteen showed only moderate support for matching the other major argument against matching styles is that students need to be exposed and adapt to different learning situations in order to enhance their own ability to learn. If we were to match students with teachers based in style we would be creating an artificial learning environment unlike what the student may encounter in a less controllable world outside the classroom.

If we were to match students and teachers styles we would have to decide on what basis the match would be made. The area of education in which matching styles may prove to be most beneficial is in remedial and developmental work. It matching styles leads to greater satisfaction to increased persistence than the style match should be seriously considered. In order for students to move to higher levels of learning their must involved in learning. If matching styles will keep them involves than a matching system should at least initially be used.

The matching hypothesis considers the congruence between the learner and the teacher and the subject matter(Hayes and Allinson 1996) A number of studies have hypothesized that a lack of matching between preferred learning style and the nature of the subject matter and teaching methods would result in lower motivation. poorer performance and perhaps in attribution(Felder and Silverman 1988) several studies suggest that matching may be significantly more effective in creating a learning environment that is inductive to learning than mismatching.On the other hand , some researchers , for example, Rush and Moore(1991) argue that mismatching can help learners to overcome weaknesses in the cognitive styles to develop a more integrated approach to their learning.

Why incorporate learning style in our teaching:We believe there are many reasons to incorporate n understanding of learning style in our teaching.

(A)Making Teaching and Learning a Dialogue:

Whether we are aware of it or not , an assumption underlying many of our current teaching practice is that students are 'empty vessels' and our role to fill them with knowledge. But increasingly , research on student learning suggests that the metaphor f 'dialogue' is more appropriate in that it emphasizes."The interactive cooperative relational aspects of teaching and learning (Tiberies 1986 p.148) once faculty shift from the 'empty vessel' model to a dialogue and communal no longer entails simply a scripts delivery of information but it may also include a variety of " active learning" technique that truly engage students in the collective dialogue.

(B) Responding to more Diverse Student Body

By row it is axiomatic to point out that student bodies are increasing diverse, not only in terms of ethnicity and gender, but also in terms of age, nationality, cultural background etc. This diversity can affect classroom settings in many ways, including the diversity of learning styles. For example, older students who can draw from the life experience are more likely to be independent ."Self directed learners (Knowles 1980)

(C) Communicating our Message:

A teacher tend to be passionately committed to our discipline/profession and are anxious to convey its significance and knowledge base to our students. Despite our good intentions we may be so concerned with covering the subject matter that we lose track of how much of that material really gets conveyed through our taken for granted teaching modes.

(D) Making teaching more Rewarding:

If we are not inclined to much self reflection about our teaching practice we are likely to continue to teach others the way we learn best, assuming that his way will work for all students. The teachers take great pride from launching substantive innovations in their fields. It is our contentions that by making an effort to consider student learning style. Teacher may be able to reap equal satisfaction from reinvigorating their teaching practices.

(E) Ensuring the Future of our Disciplines:

An undisputed assumption in career counseling is that any individual will be better suited to some tasks subject areas and careers than others as a function of personality, talents, cognitive, styles.


It is the achievement of pupils in the so - called 'academic ' subjects .From the encyclopedia dictionary of psychology and education academic achievement in a measure of knowledge gained in formal education usually indicated by test score, grade point, average and degrees.In the words of Baron and Bernard "The concept of achievement involves the interaction of three factors namely, aptitude of learning, readiness of learning and opportunity of learning. Besides these factors the concept involved health and physical fitness, motivation and special aptitudes, emotional balance imbalance and psychological factor like interest towards the academics".


Every student has a unique learning style, every teacher has unique teaching style .when it comes to student discipline and performance it all a matter of matches and mismatches between students and teachers. while some principal use the teachers teaching style to decide which teacher should teach which group of students most schools do not have that luxury.For present study some of the ideas taken from pyramid model of learning style by Barbara pashing and pyramid model of teaching style by Barbara pashing it is modified according to Indian class room settings.


*brain processing * sensory modalities* physical needs* environmental needs

* social aspects *attitudes

This model identifies the top four layers as being genetic and biological characteristics that individuals are born with. The bottom two layers are conditioned and may be changed. It is argues that everyone has an individual learning style based on the composition of these layers.These dimensions were modified and created new dimensions for present study. In the present study learning style model contains four dimensions and teaching style model has 4 dimensions.Here each "style" resembles a "recipe" in which the ingredient are learning approaches and teaching approaches combined in ways. Designed to produce an optimal outcome. so learning have the some dimensions relevant.


Learning style model has four dimensions they are:

*Learning attitude*Learning climate*Learning technique* Cognitive behavior

When students have positive learning attitude them the classroom climate is good. learning climate depends upon other dimensions. Positive cognitive behavior creates promoted learning attitude. These two are intermingled with each other. This promotes healthy learning climate implementing new technique and technologies make healthy learning climate in the class room. Learning attitude and cognitive behavior are genetic and biological characteristic. By using new technology and techniques teaches can bring out the hidden talents and provide creativity to the students . The explanation of each dimension as follows. LEARNING ATTITUDE:

Some students are positive to words learning some are not . Teacher has to provide and promote their students is positive learning attitudes.

(i) MOTIVATION:This needs to be internally and externally.

(ii) PERISTANCE:Learning style looks at persistence level based on these high, fluctuating or low.

(iii) CONFIRMITY:Low this affect learning.

(iv)RESPONSIBILITY:Low this promote learning

(V)CREATIVITY AND PROJECT:At this level hidden talents come out.

(vi)VARIETY:Variety looks at needing routine or consistency or being oriented needing variety. LEARNING CLIMATE:

Learning climate is the prevailing attitudes, standards or environmental conditions of the educational setting .Learning climate is a significant predictor of learner achievement. Worsening perception of learning climate is associated with increased risk of burn pout.

This dimension has the following categories.

(i)Sound: It music or sound are needed or if quiet environment is needed for learning.

(ii) Light and Temperature: warm or cold are needed, bright light or dim light are wanted for learning.

(iii) Working Area: The working area is crucial for (eg) if an informal or formal area is needed with comfortable seating and furniture.

This is also identified needs for mobility, Preferences for moving or being stationary.

(iv)Intake: To identify if eating , nibbling, drinking, or chewing are preferred while learning.

(V)Biorhythm:(Time and day) Encouraged learning at the best time of the day dependent upon personal biorhythm. LEARNING TECHNIQUE:

Some students are very good in learning when they are in groups. Some students prefer to study alone. Students use different learning technique. It is based on their individual difference. Some students have negative learning style. Teachers must identify these style and correct them by using these technique & technology .This dimensions has following categories.


(i)Problem solving method:

It is an instructional method or technique whereby the teacher and the pupils attempt is a conscious, planned and purposeful effort to arrive at some explanation or solution to some educationally significant difficulty.

(ii) Individualized Instruction:

This method of learning is a systematic step by step, self instructional programmed aimed to ensure the learning of stated behavior.


A devises implies the external mode or form which learning may take from time to time.

(i)Debate, discussions and symposium:

These are used to develop team spirit is learner. It is also used to stimulating mental activity, promote reflective thinking, developing fluency and case in expression.

(ii) Field trip:

Field trip used to connect internet students into extranet and it also makes the students to develop social skills.

(C)Working groups:

Whether learning style of the students is promoted when they work alone or willing to work with peers or in groups.


Drill is helpful is reading, spelling, and pronunciation in languages, learning tables in arithmetic, developing skill is handwriting and remembering dates and facts is social studies and principal and rules in natural sciences. Effective drill is not only helpful is developing knowledge and skills, but also it is a means of developing and maintaining good habits when they are once established.


Learning with technological media is clearing the channel between the learners and the things that are worth learning. The basic assumptions underlying audio-visual aids is that learning - clear understanding-stems from sense experience.


This highlights the dimensions and aspects of each modality and identifies that there are external and internal features of each that must be promoted. Learning style analysis strongly advocates 4 modalities .They are,



External- talking, discussing

Internal-self talk inner dialogue , thoughts.



External- Seeing, watching

Internal- Visualizing, imagination.


Touching-manipulating, handling



Internal-feeling, intuition. COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR:

It is the teaching behavior tonforma acquire the concept of information. It is an academic approach to gain the maximum level of information through learning process of study,learning style, learning modes

(A)Attention behavior:

This includes listening alternatively, looking fatigue, looking distracted and involved in disruptive behavior.

(i)Listening attentively:

Under this category the students give full attention to the lectures of the teaches in the classroom. The students look to the teacher showing listening gestures.

(ii)Looking fatigued:

The student shows signs of weariness resulting is hauling or doing. The student frequently changes his sitting postures.

(iv)Involves in disruptive behavior:

This category indicates disruption in the classroom like disturbing other students speaking irrelevant that takes away other students attention from learning tools.


When a question is put in the classroom there are number of possible student response situation response behavior covers four categories volunteers response, no response & volunteer ideas, non volunteer response.


This behavior is divides into 3 categories via posing to read the book, taking notes from black-bound evades seatwork.

Posing to read the book:

Under this category , the student poses to read the book showing signs of restlessness, through keeping the book in front in ready position, looking away and often any solicitation.

(ii)Taking notes from black-board:

Under this category the student writes and notes down the solutions of problems or points written on the black board.

(iii)Evades seatwork:

Under this category, that behavior of student is noted when the student poses as if doing seatwork but involved in destructive behavior.


This behavior include two categories via, for removing difficulties, for management of disruptive behavior.

(i)For removing difficulties:

Under this category , the student teaches the teacher for help in the case of difficulties in the assigned learning task or self study.

(ii)For management of disruptive behavior:

Under this category, that type of behavior is observed when a student is being disturbed by other students and he reaches the teacher for help I the management of disruptive behavior of other students.


This behavior includes via teacher directed activities and self directed activities.

(i)Teacher directed activities:

Under this category , that type of behavior is noted when a student is involved in managerial activities like organization of groups for different tables, re-arranging of seats etc as directed by the teacher.

(ii)Self - directed activities:

Under this category that type of behavior is noted when a student is involved in managerial activities done on his own will without teacher direction.


Teaching style has 4 dimensions they are

*Teaching attitude

*Teaching climate

*Teaching technique

*Teaching behavior Teaching attitude:

Every day , teacher set the tone in the classroom by her attitude. If the teacher has the positive attitude towards her students , subjects, profession, and herself she will find that this optimism rewards the class the effect positive attitude brings improved job satisfaction, better self esteem, improved personal interaction better health, creates achievement levels , improved over all happiness .Always teacher attitude play a vital role in shaping students attitude.

The recipes of this dimension:


Whether teachers are willing to motivate the students or not.


Teaching style has high, low persistent level.


Low this affect teaching.


Low this promote teaching.

(v)Creativity & project:

Whether the teaches are willing to give project or not.


Whether of the teacher show variety in her teaching style. CLIMATE:

Researchers studied the use of humor by teachers in class. They found that humor facilitates the retentions of information, increases learning speeds, improves problem solving, relieves stress, reduces test anxiety, boosts morale and increase attentiveness the teachers may want to modify their teaching styles to allow foe more progressive types of instruction including active learning and collaborative learning technique. If the teachers use these techniques then the classroom climate is very good. A teacher must not assume that is the students responsibility to adapt to the classroom. The teacher exchange should be a reciprocal process where the instructor adapts to the needs, abilities and interest of the students.

The sub categories are as follows:

(i)Sound :

While teaching music or sound is needed or not.

(ii)Light and temperature:

Warm or cold are needed, bright light or dim light needed for teaching. TEACHING TECHNIQUE:

Whether the teacher is aware of using technology and willingness of using technique some teachers are bounded to traditional teaching style. They are phobic with using new technology in the class. Those teachers when over get the students with interested in using new technology. This will spoil the classroom atmosphere

This dimensions has the following categories:



It is an instructional method or technique where by the teacher and students attempt in a conscious, planned and purposeful effort to arrive at some explanation or solution to some educationally significant difficultly. The teacher in capable of giving projects and activation the team work.


This method of teaching is the teacher has to construct instructional material and it make it suited for students. whether teaches using heuristic method of instruction and teacher has the duty to supervise their students their students whether they are using properly or not.


Whether the teacher is willing to conduct symposium, seminar or not. Whenever conducting seminar or group discussion the teacher should motivate the students in a group work. She can mice the introvert and extravert students together in a group and also the duty of the teacher to bring out the hidden talents from the students.


It is used to check skills of the teaches when teacher.


Teacher must be aware of using drills. It is used in reaching, spelling and pronunciation in language, tables in arithmetic, handwriting. Effective drill is not only helpful in developing knowledge but is a means of developing and maintaining good habits when they are once established. After using drill practice teacher has to find out the students retention power.


Teaching with technological media in clearing the channel between the learner & the things.

Sensory Modalities:


Teacher can give oral drill and also make the students to read aloud. By using audio recording through song poetry.


Allow the students read from the text, whiteboard, books, a computer and ask them to watch a video or DVD.


Allow students to get practical experiences provide hands or activities, sharing experiences with pupils. TEACHING BEHAVIOUR:

Teaching behavior is an act of the teacher which occurs in the context of classroom interaction. Teachers behave in different ways and therefore here are different types of classroom interaction. Some teachers are very strict and some are very kind and lineout. Some are wilt and humorous and some are dull. There are some who very stereo and serious all the time certainty the teachers behavior pattern sets the pattern of pupil behavior in the classroom .The teachers behavior tends to create an atmosphere which we describe as "classroom climate" .The words classroom climate refers to generalized attitude towards the teacher and the class. That pupils share in common in spite of individual differences .The development of these attitudes is an outgrowth of classroom social interaction.

The sub categories of this dimension:


This behavior includes three categories via, teacher explains according to plan, teacher explains student need and teacher writes an black-bound.

(i)Explains According to plan:

This category refers to explanation according to the previous plans of the teacher explanation involves a general student need but not an immediate student need. The teacher gives detailed description of subject matter in a sequence of long range affect.

(ii)Explains student need:

This category refers to the instructional explanation provided to the students to satisfy a clear and immediate student need for help.

(iii)Writes on black board:

This category refers to the use of black board by the teacher for the purpose of academic instruction and explanation of the content.


This behavior includes two types of categories via teacher ask questions and teacher listens to student response.

(i)Ask questions:

This category refers to stimulus or are enquiry made by the teacher in order to attain requires response from students in the classroom on the content being taught or to be taught.

(ii)Listens to students response:

After posing a question or stimulus to a student , the teacher gives a watchful need to students response.


The teacher is requires to manage student response in a way that the objective for which a particular question is asked is realized. This behavior includes form types of behavior via prompting, seeking further information, redirection and structuring.


This behavior includes two types of categories via teacher providing help to the students and teacher encouraging the students.


This behavior includes two types of categories via supervising seatwork and corrective feedback.


This behavior includes three types of categories via management of disruptive behavior, teacher gives direction to the students and interruption by outsides


This chapter traces the theoretical concepts of the study in detail The hemisphericity,learning style,teaching style etc., have been discussed in this chapte