Hawaii is a multicultural society. In fact, a lot of Hawaiians like the tour guides, scholars, and government officials as well everyday people have all distinguished Hawaii by stressing its multicultural diversity. A dichotomy did alienate the residents in Hawaii since those days of a plantation-driven nation. Truly the White natives held the largest part of the spots of power mainly as huge plantation owners, administrators, overseers, financiers, and business moguls. However, the Non-Whites Hawaiians did the wearisome work at quite scanty earnings as plantation workers, service laborers, and domestic workers. Such was the way the Hawaiian society was then stratified. The ancestry of the Local Hawaii identity, recognition and culture sprung up as a consequence of this then shared class experience (Moniz, October 2007). Through this course it is possible toÂ examine and assess the influence in American schools caused by diversity such as race, class and even multiculturalism by active participation as a teacher trainee and tutor.
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Examination and assessment can also be done extensively through lectures, evaluations, field trips, workshops as well as holding seminars. These events enable one toÂ explore more the unique natural features and most importantly the culture of the Hawaiian Islands and eventually build up a curriculum or structure for investigating diversity on the mainland.Â The research also aid to identify and discover the unique educational requirements of the Native Hawaiians and be extension to identify efficiency and effectiveness of the Native American and the local programs which could meet up of serve well the unique educational desires of the Native Hawaiians, ages between 0-18 years considering their cultural backgrounds. In check is also employable teaching strategies and techniques that teachers could effectively apply to assist students conceptualize new ideas and unlearn vague concepts imparted by the environment. Further their is a keen look at the teacher training and how applicable the theoretic knowledge they leant in colleges and universities regarding how various learning situation in relation to the dynamic and constantly changing real world.
Culture is a people's way of life. It is a way via which some people identify themselves or get recognized by others. A culture of society is actually a living unit which goes beyond all the individual members of the society. In fact, societal cultural values outlive everyone in the society, including even the unborn Cultural continuity of a people is offered by the educational system (Conklin, 2002 - 2004). Since culture undergoes transformations with time it is, however, imperative to note and mark certain basic cultural values as well as a people's behavioral patterns which prominently and conspicuously make a distinction from it and other cultures. It is in this regard that we are looking at the Hawaiian system of education. Outstandingly, the paper will attempt to look at how the Hawaiian educational design does cater for the pluralism, diversity, and multicultural needs of the learners which enable them all fit well in the society despite their different cultural backgrounds (Hawaii Department of Education). According to Pope et al (2009), in their joint book entitled, Looking Back and Moving Forward: Future Directions for Diversity Research in Student Affairs. College Student Development, there has been dialogues and debates regarding multicultural affairs which by extension have included fields in school curriculum, student admission, tenure, school programs as well as services. Pope et al states further that it has also been noticed that classroom control and management has actually become more demanding and challenging since the diversity on campus has shown a swelling and dynamic trend.
The paper also seeks for possible educational programs applicable to assist students overcome challenges they face in life. For instance, it will be able to equip the learners with necessary skills and knowledge to deal with issues of intolerance, discrimination of all sorts and unfairness which will help them to make use of leadership on the path to transformation. This study can significantly help teachers while scheming and planning for a multicultural program of study (Esptein, 2010). Such programs are quite vital for the youths with varied cultural background.
By and at large there is need to look at how the teacher training curriculum caters for the teachers either in their training or during their work at their work stations regarding how they can handle a diverse class of students. Normally in the lectures, the pre-service teachers are merely subjected to memorize theories without facing the real life situation. When eventually such individuals go to the field they realize that the situation is quite different to the theories they memorized in college. The research therefore looks at the teachers' concepts for diversity and multicultural education in a laboratory associated with university campus. Such an isolated surrounding duly offers educators or teachers an opportunity to study and learn about multiculturalism, pluralism as well diversity in techniques that universities and colleges generally instruct multicultural education. In fact, the gathering of vital information from a school-wide assessment as well as group deliberations did indicate the connotation of how verbal communication is used in classrooms (Schoorman & Bogotcvh, 2010).
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Additionally, teachers need to up their task to aid improve students' achievements. According to Thompson (2009), the quality, value and effectiveness of instruction by teachers are for sure the vital elements of an instruction. Ordinarily, students' home lives is usually unproductive in offering them with the essential and necessary skills and knowledge the do require to perform well (Thompson, 2009). This is where and when a teacher's role come in. the teacher will be tasked to make the learner unlearn certain concepts they do not need and instead learn and get acquainted with useful skills. And it is a system of education which is the reproductive appendage for this.
Another segment of diversity posed to teachers which is quite challenging is learners with disability. Newly recruited teachers as usual have been uneasy in relation to upcoming incidence in classrooms and working with diverse and multicultural students. This further makes teachers jobs difficult. As a consequence, the teacher education programs should promptly attempt to prepare educators on applicable modalities regarding how to teach successfully. According to Everhart (2009), however, such programs have to find manners to rework predetermined feelings for those that are less optimistic on the way to working with grossly diverse students.
Education in this regard includes both official training and unofficial transmission of skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Individual societal members inevitably grow old and eventually die, whereas new members of the society are born and grow up to maturity. It is therefore imperative to offer suitable education to new members since it is the educational system which passes down to the fresh members the folkways as well as knowledge and skills of a given generation to successive generations.
The Hawaiian system of education is primarily opted for in this paper due to their design of education which is quite different to those of other states in the entire United States of America. The chief rationale for picking Hawaiian education system is that it is centralized and that a centralized model duly considers the equity aspect when dealing with matters regarding distribution of resources and placement of amenities. In a centralized management model all schools are supposedly funded from similar pool of money on an equitable foundation. (Hawaii Department of Education).
Teachers need to develop appropriate and suitable teaching strategies depending on the learners' background and fundamentally their culture. For example, with reference to proper development of writing skills teachers need to know how to guide and jointly work with an assorted classroom of learners to improve their writing abilities. In the Constructivist Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners, Reyes & Vallone, (2007) gives certain insights that could assist teachers navigate smoothly the field of teaching writing skills. In fact, the book clarifies and distinguishes those instructions for writing assignments. It covers further the content that requires thinking skills, those for preparing ESL students for writing, and by extension text writing bearing in mind and appreciating the diversity of learners. Culturally it is imperative to attune teaching stratagems with part-Hawaiian kids in the classroom. This is a workable and effective technique to help develop reading skills in learners (Boggs, 1985). Boggs writes that adjusted teaching strategies normally features teaching methods duly established by the education project of Kamehameha (KEEP). This teaching strategy indicates how literacy knowledge and skills are acquired and developed within a given social context and extendedly puts into consideration the cognitive and psychomotor skills of the learners. A very good example of this strategic modus operandi is the joint development as well as recapitulation of a narrative in a book which inspires and permits students to take part. Boggs writes that this situation is in consistence with the famous "talk story" in Hawaii. In the 'talk story' one or more narrators, with the support of the enthusiastic audience, jointly and routinely initiate a storyline over a chain of exchanges (Boggs, 1985).
According to a research study done by Mau (1991), cultural as well as gender socialization factors do contribute largely to the poor intellectual performance of 12 teenager Samoan females who were attending Hawaiian local public high schools. The 12 were merely a representation of the entire Samoan women in Hawaii. Indeed the Samoan parents had huge educational prospects for their offspring and by extension high look upon for education's indisputable value as a tool for both working and social advancement (Mau, 1991). Conversely, the Samoans' cultural practices and activities ranging from derision for pride, showing off and contest to the prominence of learning by rote memory and empirical learning did conflict with the conduct and behaviors desirable to be successful in school. Mau writes that a similarly trend was revealed by gender socialization of the female Samoans, in particular their culturally entrenched responsibilities and duties in caring for younger offspring, did destabilized their openings to achieve something. The Samoan females were subjected to continuous trials in a bid to deal with the clash between culture and school and extendedly the Samoan evasion of altercation by escaping from home and/or school, by getting involved into drugs or alcohol abuse and further still and at worst by involving themselves in sexual behaviors (Mau, 1991).
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A good education system should put into consideration and factor in the needs of the gifted and talented learners and how teachers can handle and attend to their needs. There is the established for special groups (Talented and Gifted learners) at the University of Hawaii Hilo meant solely foe native-Hawaiians which is taxed with the role of developing cultural suitable gifted and talented schedules and programs for the Native young Hawaiians. According to Sing (1993), these programs include initiatives like the super fortification Saturday; a three-week interdisciplinary, cultural based program for the K-5 stage gifted identified learners in the super enrichment Saturday events; there is also the two-week housing summer set up for the grades 6-11 talented apprentices; there is still the Kamalani children's chorus program for gifted singers and dancers who are strictly in grades 4-6; then there exists the individualized disciplines programs targeting the underachieving and yet gifted high school learners to aid develop their self-esteem as well as study habits and finally sophisticated programs for high school graders who are through with their summer institutes. These programs are comprehensive and promptly include worksheets for purposes making observational evaluation and assessment of giftedness, sample difficulty on a learner application and activities planning (Sing, 1993).
Application of the findings to the profession of teaching and goals:
The research has established a lot of findings that can help a teacher to improve instructional delivery in a multicultural classroom environment. The main goal is to equip learners with suitable conceptualizations and skills to enable them subdue challenges they face in life. For instance, Pope (2009) recommends that teachers develop a study program and create a multicultural segment to the program of study to help learners understand how human beings fit into society. Everhart notices some omission made in the teacher educator program. On the part of teacher's unpreparedness or lack of enthusiasm to work in a multicultural work stations, Everhart (2009) duly advises that teacher education programs should consider and cater for the feelings for those that are less optimistic on the manner to handle and working with diverse students. Teachers should be competent and develop good mastery of subject matter to help learners unlearn inappropriate concepts and instead impart into the learner suitable one.
Also of great importance is the knowledge on how to handle learners. Sing (1993) strongly suggests that gifted and talented learners and other special groups should have various established either parallel or mainstream programs to enable them utilize their maximum potential. Writing as part of learning should be included in the education system. To help learners learn writing skills instructions for writing assignments like thinking skills, preparing ESL students for writing, and text writing should be taught to teachers who in turn teach learners (Reyes & Vallone, 2007).