The Global Spread Of Information And Communication Technology Education Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Principals have a key role to play in the facilitation of educational change. At a time when information and communication technologies are being integrated into the classroom aslearning tools, and when teachers are being asked to incorporate technology into their teaching practices, principals who demonstrate an initiator style are more likely to achieve success in their schools. By taking an active approach to innovation, principals can foster an environment in which such innovation has greater benefits for their staff and students. Generally, some of the influencing factors that may impact on the success of the ICT integration process, including the building of ICT capacity, is the level of understanding leaders of related ICT pedagogies, the future role of ICT in education, and their own efficacy in utilizing ICTs. This reinforces the need for policy makers and educational leaders to have access to current, relevant data that can provide insights into attitudes towards ICT and possibly also expose stages of progression in ICT integration in the different contexts, at the individual, school and systemic level. Hence, it is essential for educational leaders to have the understanding and the skills both pedagogically and technically. Leaders need to present a coordinated, aligned and holistic approach to building relationships, capacities and competencies that will support and guide learning communities to confidently and coherently integrate and utilize ICTs in the 21st century. Therefore, this information is valuable particularly for those planning and organizing training and development programs and for those responsible for the allocation of ICT budgets. It also highlights the importance of providing accessible support structures for educational leaders not only at the initial phase of ICT integration, but throughout the process.

Background of the Study

The last two decades have witnessed the global spread of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education systems (Albirini, 2006). In the global perspective, ICT is recognized as a tool to enhance teaching-learning process. According to Shelly, Cashman, Gunter, and Gunter (2004), the use of technology in the classroom is to motivate learners, encouraging them to become problem solvers, and also create new ways to explore information. Technology that offers interactivity, learner control and learner involvement, such as application software, multimedia, reference guide, tutorial, animation, simulation, and the web are natural choice to enhance the teaching-learning process since they enable learners to identify the flow of information, reviews concepts, practice skills, conduct in-depth study, and more (Shelly et al, 2004.). Thus, educators have found that through technology, they can capture and retain the attention of the students in the teaching-learning process. In many developing countries, governments have responded to the challenges of ICT to enhance teaching-learning interaction through mobile technology. In an effort to integrate ICTs into education systems, many laptops and devices and other ICT initiatives have been introduced.

These days, the swift evolution and spread introduction of new technologies have seen widespread use of technologies in schools. The research on the crucial role of technology in education and school system has been conducted for more than three decades, and numerous articles have been written which highly accentuated the importance of technology in assisting teaching and learning. (Koutsogiannis & Mitsikopoulou, 2004). As a repercussion, we believe that technology undeniably occupies a greater role in the process of enhancing teaching and learning. The challenge, however, lies on how the available technological resources such as multimedia facilities, language software and the World Wide Web (WWW) can be effectively exploited and harnessed (Warschauer & Healey, 1998) especially by the teachers that commonly leads by the principals.

Majó and Marqués (2002) point out that the teacher's readiness and capacity is - after familiar factors- the most relevant clue to achieve success with students. Once these basic dimensions have been set up, and due to the lack of specific training for teachers regarding all the pedagogic changes that have been brought about by the irruption of new technologies, the same authors state that administrations should agree in stating certain basic competencies that all teachers should possess and constantly update and revise and one of the major factor is adapting change due to personal traits such as self esteem, self convidence, empathy, maturity and etnthusiasm. Nevertheless, the main challenge factor affecting changes such as new technology use in schools is associated with the teacher. Rogers, (1995), mentions that teachers attitude toward the change of technology and expertise within school climate is often identified as key factors associated with their use of technology (Smerdon et al, M2000 and Zhao & Conway, 1999.) Thus, principals play a critical role in influencing reform initiatives and are recognized as instrumental in the complex process of effecting school improvement and organizational change (Hall & Hord, 1987; Hallinger & Murphy, 1985; Leithwood & Montgomery, 1982). Their role is best defined as "change agents" who facilitate the process of reform.

Consequently, the expectations of teachers and principals within this social system are different when confronted with change. Teachers tend to view change in respect of how it will impact their role in the classroom and ability in carrying out their teaching responsibilities. The visionary leadership principals provide in directing school culture must be grounded in a purpose which is meaningful to teachers, if change is to occur. Therefore, it is through the development of this relationship and the degree of understanding between principals and teachers which ultimately determines the environment for change (Vandenberghe, 1988). Research conducted by Hall, Rutherford, Hord, & Huling (1984) examined principals' ability to bring about change in schools. These studies found a clear relationship between teachers' success in implementing new curriculum practices including utilizing new ICT technology and a particular principal's leadership style. Although the role of principal continues to be analyzed and refined, research has verified the fact that school culture is reflective of the cooperation and mutual respect for the total school population (Goodlad, 1984). This culture creates a positiveness which, in turn, leads to an effective learning environment for faculty and students. Principals are ultimately responsible for the instructional effectiveness of schools; however, other members of the school's community share in the implementation and application of new and different instructional and technology practices in the classroom. If the instructional program is to be a priorit such, for the principal, then it must be implemented through a collaborative and interactive culture. All members of the school must feel comfortable sharing, delegating, and assuming aspects of responsibility.

As such, research in linking leadership and change came into the scene much later and it was not until the characteristics of innovative schools were investigated, that the central role of leadership, in shaping the 'will and skill' to change, was revealed (Sammons, 1999; Seashore 2009). In a series of studies following the Concern Based Adoption Model (CBAM), the leadership style was found to be related to teachers adopting or resisting changes. The success or failure of educational innovations including ICT utilization is strongly related to the principal's motivation and capacity. It is important that the principals, not only have innovative ideas but they also have a good understanding of the change process in order to manage it and establish school improvements (Pasiardis, 2004). More recently, positive change in school systems was associated with distributed leadership (Fullan 2006; Spillane 2006) and managerial change facilitatior style which is 1) initiator styles 2) Managers Styles 3) Responders Style as as proposed by Shirley M. Hord, William L. Rutherford, Leslie Huling-Austin, and Gene E. Hall, (1987) , a concept that is central in the current discourse about leadership and organizational change (Harris et al. 2007) of ICT Utilization in this study.

Statement of Problem

Attempts of school improvement occur in human systems, which already have beliefs and expectations, norms and values, functioning both at the individual and at the collective level. At the individual level, change may be welcomed and undertaken with enthusiasm or faced reluctantly (Zembylas & Barker, 2007). Since the introduction of change brings in insecurity, threatening the known patterns of performance, resistance phenomena may be evidenced (Zimmerman, 2006). This resistance may be felt and expressed in various ways and to different extents: from simple hesitation to hostility and attempts to undermine the change effort (Schiemann, 1995; Smith, 2005; Zimmerman, 2006). Frequently it is felt as anxiety or fear (James & Connolly, 2000) and results in conflicts. It usually appears at the announcement of the change and is present during the implementation phase or even after the establishment phase (Bareil, 2004). Negative attitudes and emotions of teachers were found to be essential barriers in the implementation new change of curriculum improvements (Greenan et al., 1998) while positive attitudes constituted an important predictive index in adopting innovations (Thomas, 2003).

Technology itself is also named as the source of a series of factors that influence its use by teachers. First, there are conflicting ideas about the technology and the proposal is contrary to the teacher about how technology should be used in schools (Cuban, 1999). This causes the teachers confuse about the values ​​of technology education. Second, the nature of the constant changes in technology makes it difficult for teachers to stay alert with the latest technology. Every day new software and hardware is ready. Teachers, who have fought for their time and effort, it is difficult and discouraging to keep chasing this elusive beast. Third, the inherent nature of it could not be trusted to make technology less attractive to most teachers (Cuban, 1999, Zhao et al, 2002.). Thus, there is strong reason to use technology and reliable support; teachers can choose not to use it in their teaching as a resistance to change.

Changes are generally strongly associated with emotions, as emotions form the background of any urge for change, but they also have emotional consequences (Huy, 2002; Larsen & Diener, 1992). An imposed change, for example, may generate negative emotions like anger, fear of losing something important and anxiety in the face of the unknown, while self initiation of change is usually accompanied by excitement and hope (James & Connolly, 2000). People may appreciate change efforts, on a cognitive level, but on an emotional levelthey may resist them because of misunderstandings, mistrust or simply low tolerance for change. Ambivalence is characteristic of the individuals undergoing change. Erikson (2004) suggested the inclusion of the emotional history of earlier changes as an important parameter in under-standing the change process. Findings from her research indicated that "change programs had left a residue of emotions, often expressed as fatigue and general lethargy" (Zimmerman, 2006, p.124). Negative feelings associated with 'costly' or unsuccessful change efforts affect individuals' motivation to a new initiative. Accumulation of fatigue and frustration results in feelings of personal incompetence and mistrust in change efforts, even if the need for change is appreciated (Zimmerman, 2006).

Thus, modern societies are facing terrible problems and education reform is seen as a major source of hope for solving them. But, wishful thinking and legislation have deservedly poor track records as tools for social betterment. As those closest to education increasingly acknowledge that change process is crucial, it is imperative that there is knowledge about the means in which change takes place (Fullan & Miles, 1992). The challenge facing education in the 21st century is to make changes to achieve higher levels of learning for all children (Ramsey, 2002). At the time of the present study, public schools are undergoing scrutiny and criticism of such magnitude; it is difficult to predict the future of public education. An increased emphasis on accountability and school improvement, including primarily student achievement, is at the forefront of all education debates especially the role of the principals in initiating organizational change such as intergrating new ICT technologies within school climate.

The principal has consistently been recognized as a significant factor in school effectiveness. The complexity of the job of a school administrator has demanded highly developed skills to carry out the many functions of the school operation. Their primary responsibility, however, is to facilitate effective teaching and learning with the overall mission of enhancing student achievement (O'Donnell & White, 2005). Principals are the foundation for instructional leadership at the school level and their leadership involves all activities that affect student learning (O'Donnell & White). The difference between principals that are more effective and their less effective colleagues is not what they know. It is what they do. From effective people we learn what to do; from ineffective people we learn what not to do (Whitaker, 2003). Their Leadership style related with how do they facilate change especially with new curiculum or pedagogy technology. Educators who want to promote good leadership find value in examining what effective principals do that other school leaders do not (Whitaker). One critical difference was that effective principals viewed themselves as responsible for all aspects of their school as every principal has an impact which great principals make a difference. (Whitaker, p. 115). Furthermore almost all educational reform reports have come to the conclusion that the nation cannot attain excellence in education without effective school leadership (Crawford, 1998, p. 8).

Nevertheless, evidence should be visible in a school of what a principal believes as a principal and what the school stands for (NAESP, 2001). The test of good leadership is the achievement of change in a system. Change can be difficult; however, it is necessary to abandon the past to pursue the future (Bell-Hobbs, 2008). Examining the ways in which principals lead their schools through change, and its effect on student achievement is critical to future educational research. Based upon all of these known facts, and the knowledge of what is left unknown, there lies a problem in defining the impact of school leadership style in facilitating change towards teachers attitude in adapting new technology that solely focus on student achievement. As such, this predicament shall be the based of the direction in aswering the research question of this study, targeting the objecting of the whole research to determine the best principal's style to enhance the succes of ICT utilization among teachers.

Purpose of the Study

Information and communication technology (ICT) offers new and innovative modes of learning for all students at all levels of education. ICT can bring classroom without walls when teachers are willing to realize the potential of this powerful tool. However, at this time, despite changes in technology, society, teachers in schools is still to a large extent using the approach in helping students to acquire information from textbooks and behave as the information provider to these students. All of their formal instruction in the classroom is still driven by traditional teaching practices although there may be times when ICT is used. The crucial reason teachers hindering technology in their classrooms is due to lack of experience and approaches by the principals with the technology (Wenglinsky, 1998; Rosen & Weil, 1995).

Breaking from traditional approaches to instruction means taking risks and is not easy for teachers to do it alone. It takes time for teachers to recognize the value of using ICT and be fully committed in exploring the information that are available from sources that would surpass the textbooks and themselves. Colás (2003) understands teachers as a knowledge manager and the person who is able to manage the student´s skills, abilities and knowledge, motivating and taking benefit of the student´s both individual and collective learning possibilities. As change agents they must help students understand and use in many ways in which they can gain access to information and how to utilize this information in a significant way. As most teachers need to catch up with various technology tools and software as part of their repertoire of learning itself. For educators at all levels to prepare students for the information age, the challenge of introducing and integrating ICT into education has become even more challenging.

Teachers must not only need to utilize the ICT, but also the integration of ICT into the curriculum. Since it was inevitable for every change that occurred, effective use of ICT in teaching and learning process should be synchronized with the leadership style of the principals in ensuring new changes are adapted well. Thus, principal leadership style are crucial in determine the level of ICT utilization among teachers in school climate.

This study is interesting because there have not been many researches in Malaysia that studied the impact of managerial style of the principals in initiating changes of ICT utilization of ICT within the school context. This research manage to grab my attention because although many parties is very keen and enthusiastic in suggesting that teachers implementing the use of ICT in the school environment but there are actually principals leadership style are part of the obstacles that may hinder these teachers to make full use of this technology in school. We need to evaluate what kind of change facilitator style of these principles that would be the best approach for the teachers in order to integrate the use of ICT in the classroom. Therefore, the purpose of this study is quite beneficial in understanding how principal's roles play crucial part to instigate the positive momentum of ICT tools be utilized in school environment as well as the best style that will determine the success of implementing new changes such as ICT utilization in school among teachers.

Objectives of the Study

Prior to the brief discussion above, the researcher has list out the objectives of the study as follows:

To identify Initiator styles of the principal in implementing ICT utilization among teachers

To identify Manager styles of the principal in implementing ICT utilization among teachers

To identify Responder styles of the principal in implementing ICT utilization among teachers

To evaluate level of success in ICT utilization among teachers

To determine the relationship between Implementation styles of the principal and the level of success in ICT Utilization among teacher

To determine the principal's most successful implementation style in ICT utilization among teachers

Research Questions

In order to accomplish the objective of the study, the researchers has established five (5) main question as listed below:

Is there Initiator styles of the principal in implementing ICT utilization among teachers?

Is there Manager styles of the principal in implementing ICT utilization among teachers?

Is there Responder styles of the principal in implementing ICT utilization among teachers?

What are the level of success in ICT utilization among teachers?

Is there any significant relationship between Implementation styles of the principal and the level of success in ICT Utilization among teacher?

What are the principal's most successful implementation styles in ICT utilization among teachers?

Hypothesis of the Study

Based on the observation, the researcher has predicted null hypothesis for this study as emphasis below:

Ho1 There is no significant relationship between Initiator styles of the principal and the level of success in ICT Utilization among teachers

Ho2 There is no significant relationship between Managers styles of the principal and the level of success in ICT Utilization among teachers

Ho3 There is no significant relationship between Responder styles of the principal and the level of success in ICT Utilization among teachers

Ho4 There is no significant relationship between Implementation styles of the principal and the level of success in ICT Utilization among teacher

Significance of the Study

The focus of this study is to get feedback from selected teachers within six main selected secondary schools by using quantitative methods whereby structured survey was found to be the most appropriate strategy because of the intense nature of the topic under scrutiny. This is the crucial point where dedicated principals can play an important role in implementing positive style of approaching guiding teachers towards understanding the importance of utilizing ICT tools and knowledge in enhance optimization of new technology in teaching and learning within school context.

The findings of this study are expected to benefit the principals as a main focus agenda. It provides information for Schools management and Ministry of Education on the current stakes that influence the quality of ICT utilization within the teacher perspectives. It also furnishes a guideline for the management of the schools in planning and implementing changes including effective ICT training programs and also permits organizations to identify and focus on specific obstacles, challenging segments and weaknesses.

Furthermore, researcher has an access to create solid research information which allow informed decisions to be made, effective strategies identified, future plans devised and revenue projections made based on factual data from teachers view, rather than from a purely organization orientation. The data collected would be beneficial to the organization.

Information from research, when thoughtfully analyzed and implemented, can increase awareness among the principals and management at all disciplines and it is vital particularly to assist reducing the loss impact in teaching quality via technology due to lack of ICT knowledge as well as positive leadership style of the principals.

Finally this study can be used as a guidance to effectively manage the teachers' needs and provision of adequate ICT facilities. It is not just collecting data and publishing it for an article sustainability report. Instead, the school management and leadership as well as relevant organizations can use this information to make actionable decisions to optimize and improve change processes in school environment for the betterment of the student achievement.

Limitation of the Study

This research is restricted to teachers from six premier secondary schools in Johor Bahru, namely, Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar, Sekolah Menengah Sultan Ibrahim and Sekolah Menengah Sultan Ismail, Sekolah Menengah Infant Jesus Convent (M), Sekolah Menengah (P) Sultan Ibrahim, Sekolah Menengah Saint Joseph (B), Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar, Sekolah Menengah Aminuddin Baki and Sekolah Menengah Sultan Ismail. There are approximately over 525 teachers involved in this research from various backgrounds, ethnicity, social economic group and various working experience. The age group of the respondents is between 20-65 years old. Therefore, the results collected may not represent all the teachers in similar schools environment in Malaysia with respect to respondent's demographic diversity.

Definition of Terms

School Principal

The Free define school principal as the educator who has executive authority for a school. Nevertheless, OECD (2006) define Principals is part of school governing boards and other school-level professional personnel can contribute as leaders to the goal of learning-centred schooling. The precise distribution of these leadership contributions can vary depending on factors such as governance and management structure, levels of autonomy and accountability, school size and complexity and levels of student performance. Whilst, Dimmock (1999) defines the concept of principalship is rooted in the industrial model of schooling, where one individual bears the prime responsibility for the entire organisation. School principal is a Leadership in a broader concept where authority to lead does not reside only in one person, but can be distributed among different people within and beyond the school. School principal and leader can encompass people occupying various roles and functions such as principals, deputy and assistant principals, leadership teams, school governing boards and school-level staff involved in leadership tasks.

In this research the principals play a critical role in influencing reform initiatives and are recognized as instrumental in the complex process of effecting school improvement and organizational change (Hall & Hord, 1987; Hallinger & Murphy, 1985; Leithwood & Montgomery, 1982). Their role is best defined as "change agents" who facilitate the process of reform.

Secondary School

In the Malaysian school system, secondary school students are between 13 to 17 years of age. They have already completed six years of primary school education. These students continue their education of secondary levels and identified as Form One, Form Two, Form Three, Form Four and Form Five. They have to undergo two public school examinations each in Form Three and Form Five. The Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) will be taken by Form Three students and Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) will be taken by the Form Five students. Students will be streamed according to science or social science classes in Form Four after the PMR examination and the SPM examination to prepare them into college life.

The secondary school students in this study are students from two public secondary schools, who are aged between 13 to 17 years old. They are from Form One to Form Five ranging from males and females, from various ethnicity and social income groups who follow the KBSM curriculum.


A teacher as stated in the Malaysian Education Act, 1996 is a person who teaches in an educational institution. He or she prepares or produces teaching materials or examines answer scripts to be returned in, for or through a distance education centre, inclusive of head teacher or principal. A secondary school teacher according to Ma'rof (2001) is a teacher who teaches one or more subjects to students in public or private secondary schools; he instruct students in subject matter, utilizing various teaching methods, such as lecture and demonstration, and uses audiovisual aids and other materials to supplement presentations. He prepares teaching outlines for course of study, assigns lessons, and correct homework papers. He has to administer tests to evaluate students' progress, record results, and issues reports to inform parents of their children progress.

This study will focus on public secondary school teachers who are both novice and experienced in teaching. They are teaching the subjects based on what they have specialized in teachers training college or university.


Katz and Kahn's (1978) definition of organizational leadership as being the influential increment over and above mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organizatio and Bryman's (1996) synthesis of earlier definitions of leadership imply that leadership involves a social influence process in which a person steers members of the group toward a goal.

Nonetheless Smircich and Morgan (1982) stated that leadership as a phenomenon depends upon the existence of people who are prepared to surrender their ability to define their reality for others. The way leaders transform reality for followers is a fertile area for future research (Yukl, 1999), including differences in followers' willingness to surrender their interpretations of reality or to share in the responsibility of creating the interpretation of the future.

In this research, leadership apply as a social influence process in implementing changes that can occur at the individual, dyadic, group, or strategic level, where it can be shared within a top management team including subordinates as well as the whole environment of the organization by the school principals.


Oxford dictionary (2006) defines change as an act or process through which something becomes different. In this study change defines as change management where process, tools and techniques to manage the people-side of change to achieve the required business outcome. Change management incorporates the organizational tools that can be utilized to help individuals make successful personal transitions resulting in the adoption and realization of change.

Initiator Style

Hall (1984) define Initiator Style is a leader who have have clear, decisive, long-range policies and goals that transcend but include implementation of the current innovation. They tend to have very strong beliefs about what good schools and teaching should be like, and they work intensely to attain this vision. Decisions are made in relation to their goals for the school and in terms of what they believe to be best for students, which is based on current knowledge of classroom practice. Initiators have strong expectations for students, teachers, and themselves. They convey and monitor these expectations through frequent contact with teachers and clear explication of how the school is to operate and how teachers are to teach. When they feel it is in the best interest of their school, particularly the students, Initiators will seek changes in district programs or policies or they will reinterpret them to suit the needs of the school. Initiators are adamant but not unkind. They solicit input from staff and then make decisions in terms of the goals of the school, even if some are ruffled by their directness and high expectations.

Responder Style

Responders place heavy emphasis on giving teachers and others the opportunity to take the lead. They believe that their primary role is to maintain a smoothly running school by focusing on traditional administrative tasks, by keeping teachers content, and by treating students well. They view teachers as strong professionals who are able to carry out their instructional role with little guidance. Responders emphasize the personal side of their relationships with teachers and others. Before they make a decision, Responders often give others an opportunity to voice input or even make the decision. A related characteristic is their tendency to make decisions in terms of immediate circumstances rather than longer range instructional or school goals. This inclination seems to arise in part from their desire to please others and in part from their relatively limited vision of how the school and staff should change in the future. (Hall, 1984)

Manager Style

Hall (1984) define managers style represent a broader range of behaviors of theleader. They demonstrate responsive behaviors in answer to situations or people, but they also initiate actions in support of a change effort. Variations in their behavior seem to be linked to their rapport with teachers and central office staff, in addition to how well they understand and buy into a particular change effort. Managers work unobtrusively to provide basic support to facilitate teachers' use of an innovation. They keep teachers informed about decisions and are sensitive to excessive demands. When they learn that the central office wants something done in the school, they become very involved with their teachers in making it happen. They do not, however, typically initiate attempts to move beyond the basics of what is imposed.


ICTs stand for information and communication technologies and is defined, for the purposes of this primer, as a "diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information." (Blurton, C. 2002).These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony.

In recent years there has been a growing interest in how computers and the Internet can best be harnessed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education at all levels; and in both formal and non-formal settings. But ICTs are not the only technology available bearing in mind that older technology, such as, the telephone, radio and television, although now given less attention, have a longer and richer history as instructional tools. For instance, radio and television have, for over forty years, been used for open and distance learning, although print remains the cheapest, most accessible and therefore most dominant delivery mechanism in both developed and developing countries. The use of computers and the Internet is still in its infancy in developing countries, if these are used at all, due to limited infrastructure and the high costs of access.

Moreover, different technologies are typically used in combination rather than as the sole delivery mechanism. In this study, reference to ICT in Education means use of ICT Equipments and Tools in Teaching-Learning process as a media and methodology. The purpose of ICT in education is generally to familiarise students with the use and the workings of computers, and its related social and ethical issues.( Cuban, L. 1986)

ICT in education can be broadly categorized in the following ways :

ICT as a subject (i.e., computer studies)

ICT as a tool to support traditional subjects (i.e., computer-based learning, presentation, research)

ICT as an administrative tool (i.e., education management information systems/EMIS)


Utilizing was originally from word "Utilize \U"til*ize\,". It means that to make useful; to turn to profitable account or use; to make use of; as, to utilize the whole power of a machine; to utilize one's opportunities put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose. (T.A.R. Cheney, 1983) Nevertheless, The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000 simplifying "utilizing" as below:

To make useful, to find a practical use for

To make use of; to use

To make best use of; to use to its fullest extent, potential, or ability

To make do with; to use in manner different from that originally intended


In many leadership positions, the change of a person who is assigned to any one position is not always a smooth transition. A problem seen too often is that districts, particularly, large districts, move principals around as if they were interchangeable parts, and they can do tremendous damage at a school as it puts everything on hold and waits to see what the next leader wants to do (Neuman & Pelchat, 2001). People often react negatively to "change." Staff members become entrenched and say, "Let's see how long you're going to be here before I decide whether I am going to change or do anything new." That's a tremendous challenge to leadership when doing things differently is desired (Neuman & Pelchat).

The findings of this study may have the potential for contributing to a better understanding of school leaders and their effectiveness in integrating ICT utilization among teachers. It is further anticipated that data from this study could provide criteria for consideration in the selection of potential leaders at schools sites where their Change Facilitator Style was best matched to the schools' needs. School leaders are assigned to ensure the success of students. If school leaders are the ones who are assigned to ensure student success, then it is important to learn all we can about those leaders that succeed in making a difference.