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This title was about how the employees deals with the online job training are and what the e-learning outcomes are. Those authors methods in this article provides context-relevant insights into online training providers and employees themselves and the results were suggest that employees adopt different kind of self-regulated learning strategies which produced different e-learning outcomes.
In addition, the functions of self-regulated learning strategies are affected by individual factors such as virtual competence and goal orientation, and job and contextual factors such as intellectual demand and cooperative norms. This article's findings help those e-learners acquired better learning outcomes through their positive use of varied learning strategies, provide beneficial information for organizations that are currently implement or plan to implement the e-learning for their employees' training, and inform software designers to integrate the self-regulated learning strategy support in e-learning system design and development.
Nowadays, many of the employees' skill were become outdated due to the high rate evolution of the innovation technology. Those organizations were needed to more focus on developing the internal capabilities by providing vary of job preparation and training. Moreover, the growing of employees in finding learning opportunities to improve their knowledge and skills to deal with new era of advanced technology working area.
Many corporate training programs need to restructure the content of training faster because that content will outdate in a short time. Those training and learning management are became more and more complicated. To overcome those problems, the development of e-learning has used as a cost-effective approach to bring up the training to large number of employees in global.
Furthermore, e-learning already extended from skill training to common business skill training. However, even through those organizations were put in a lot of investments to e-learning technologies, but they failed to gain back the expected benefits from e-learning. This was because the information research most were focus only the technology design aspects of e-learning but less focus on how the psychological processes affect the employees' e-learning results.
In this article, authors were achieve the understanding of e-learning processes by linking the self-regulating learning in educational psychology and e=learning in information system research. They focus on how the person affect their learning outcome by their different kinds of e-learning processes and how the self-regulating learning influenced the person in individual and contextual factors salient within a business context.
They also contribute to the research of e-learning on organization's employees' self-regulated learning processes in job training and examine the implications of different types of self-regulated learning processes affected the three learning outcomes which were cognitive outcomes, affective outcomes, and skill-based outcomes if those e-learning processes were applied to the employees.
In addition, some research were suggested that how self-regulated learning enhance the learning outcome but without define out what motivation affect the learning outcome in the processes. Those authors were tried to find out the potential factors that affect the learners to utilize the self-regulated learning strategies.
After the investigation, the authors find out that the learner were actively associated the personal self-regulated strategies with skill and cognitive based outcomes but if using social self-regulated strategies, they only actively associated with affective and cognitive outcome.
The results for personal self-regulated learning strategies show that learners were success in gain the knowledge and developed their own skill. However, learners were not satisfy with the implement of self-regulated strategies on e-learning environment because too focus on cognitive processes which did not associated with the individual's feelings and perceptions of pleasure with the e-learning environment.
The social self-regulated strategies help learners in gaining new knowledge and satisfy the learners in e-learning environment. They find the solutions with each other and interact together which can reduce the loneliness during online training. However, these strategies not bring any benefits to help learners integrate the knowledge to become their skill to handle different situation.
Besides, the implement of self-regulated strategies was affected by few individual factors which were personal virtual competence and goal-orientation and the job and contextual factors such as cooperative norms and intellectual demand. The results of this research can help employees gain better learning outcomes by adopting suitable self-regulated strategies to manage their e- learning processes.
Furthermore, the results might also help those organizations that want to enhance the return on investments in e-learning by choosing the e-learning systems that support both self-regulated learning strategies, offering the managerial interventions that convinced employees to adopt the self-regulated learning strategies, and fostering the cooperative norms that promote the social interaction among employees.
The first limitation of this article was the retrospective self-reported data of the authors in measuring the self-regulated strategies They should more focus qualitative research because this methods can obtain the descriptions of the learners' self-regulated learning strategies processes and this research method provided statistical results. By using multiple research methods can define deeper knowledge about the self-regulated processes in e-learning.
Then, the second limitation was the data collection by using a cross-sectional survey, hence the causal relationship that defined in the research model cannot fully establish. The research will be better if using longitudinal data to acquiring the learning processes over time. This article, the authors were admitted that the results of the research were self-reported and they should use the objective measures to reduce some risks in cross-sectional survey.
In addition, the problem in conducting survey online was no response bias but was not a problem to the research topic if is no response to the not related component to the research topic. Besides that, common method bias was commonly happen in survey design but it also not a big issue to this research.
The third limitation in this paper was the data collection was from one organization only and this might decrease the generalizability of the results to other organization settings. But the focus on single-organization can help in observed individuals' learning processes by controlling for potential disparities in the e-learning technologies using by different organizations.
Furthermore, the single organization focus also helpful in controlling the fundamental aspects of instructional design and implement those teaching philosophic view and eliminated the extraneous variations into the future research after the personal learning processes were understood better.
The authors suggested that those e-learning providers should promote the use of both self-regulated learning processes by drawing the learners' attention to the advantages of managing their learning processes through their initiative and interaction with other.
Besides, how the individual adapted to the e-learning and how they learn in the processes were important to achieve the higher learning outcomes. So, the suitable managerial interventions were needed to guide the employee how to adapt and adjust in training situation and how to apply both types of self-regulated learning strategies effectively.
Individual with low virtual competence should need some pretraining interventions about fundamental knowledge of information and communication technologies (ICT) but for high virtual competence individual, some training on high technologies and design features of e-learning would reduce the individual's frustration and improved the learning processes.
Moreover, individual with high learning goal-orientation, giving some instructions in personal self-regulated learning strategies can enhance their self management ability in personal learning. On the other side, the individual who were high performance approach goal orientation, by giving them instructions in social self-regulated learning strategies could reduce their bias towards these kinds of strategies and help them to be more passion in group learning.
In addition, e-learning software designers should incorporate tools that support the use of different self-regulated learning strategies in the e-learning software to develop the systems to be more attractive and user friendly to the employees.
Besides that, the instructors were required to attend the training to learn about personal and social self-regulated learning strategies for properly guiding, directing and help the employees in the interaction between instructors and employees. The interaction between instructors and learners can provide learner immediate feedback and generate better learning outcomes.
The managers of the organizations can enhance their learning outcomes by cultivating the cooperative norms in working area that encourage social forms of learning and utilize some resources such as online training. Besides positively fostering the cooperative norms, managers can also encourage the employees' help-seeking behavior and reduced the difficulties of employees in the e-learning processes.