All students are different. Some students master objectives faster than others. Then there are those who need a little more time or need to be explained the objective in a different way. Teachers must monitor student performance during instructional time to see what steps he/she may need to take in teaching a lesson. There are five techniques that can be used to monitoring students' performance. If these techniques are used by teachers, the teacher will be effective.
Sometimes a lesson may need to be re-taught to all the students, some of the students, or maybe just one of the students. No matter what, an effective teacher wants every student to be successful. Therefore, he/she will do whatever is necessary to teach each individual student. Although some students need extra time; there are also students who are ready to move on. In this essay, I have selected math for my area of emphasis.
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Daily Review and Pre-requisite Checks
Before any lesson, the teacher should do a daily review. The reason for a daily review is to review/refresh the students of concepts and facts that they had in previous lessons. Daily review can let the teacher know what level of comprehension the students have learned from previous lessons. The review can help the teacher decide if he/she needs to move onward with the new lesson or more reviewing or re-teaching of a lesson need to done.
Homework is another way to conduct daily reviews. If the homework is checked and if any problems are wrong, these problems can be corrected with the student. For example, in math, prerequisite skills are necessary for understanding and mastering. One example of this is before students can be taught to get the product of two number, they have to know multiplication. Teachers would have to do a pre-requisite check to make sure students know their multiplication facts before teaching students to find the product of two numbers. This lesson can not be taught if the students do not know their multiplication. Multiplication can be taught by using online games, individual and group activities.
If the daily review and prerequisite check show positive feedback with about eighty percent of the class, then it is safe for the teacher to move forward. If it is less than 80% a new lesson should not be introduced until a mastery of the prerequisite check and review has an improvement.
Presentation of New Concepts
Presenting new concepts can only be done after the students have mastered the prerequisite skills. According to Hofmeister and Lubke teachers should spend at least twenty-three minutes on presentation and use a variety of ways to introduce the concepts like lecturing, demonstrations and discussions. The main concern for the teacher at this point is to make sure the students are understanding and will gain mastery of the lesson.
Teachers should inform the students of what they are going to learn. Students want to know what is expected of them. When introducing a lesson that has more than one step, the teacher could introduce one step at a time. If students are given too many steps at one time, they might get confused and frustrated. The teacher must organize and plan to introduce one step at a time. It is important not to assume that the students will know what you are doing. Each step should be clear and precise. An outline is one way to aid in helping to clear up any questions or steps. Repetition is one the best ways for success for difficult lessons. The more the steps are repeated
or heard, mastery can be successful.
Before moving on to new lessons or steps, teachers need to make sure lessons are understood. Confusion and frustration will occur if teachers move on when students do not understand what has been taught. Teachers should not move ahead if the majority of the class does not understand. A teacher knows her class, and knows when a student needs one on one help.
Asking questions to make sure students understand what is been taught is one way to assure that students have a greater chance at mastering the lesson. Questions are one way teachers can keep students attention or focus.
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Guided Student Practice
The third basic function of teaching is guided student practice were the student practices what they have learned. The teacher should supervise in order to make sure errors and inappropriate practices do not occur. If the activities for the guided practice is carefully designed and implemented, errors and practices can be indentified quickly.
One reason for guided student practice is to get students to feel good about what they are learning. If students are not afraid to make mistakes, more learning can happen. Covert answering is one way to make students feel safe and not embarrassed about giving the wrong answer. The teacher lets the students write the answers to questions on a sheet of paper, and then the answers will be revealed. As much as possible during guided practices, give hints so students can get the write an answer. This will help student to build his/her self confidence.
Teachers should model as much as possible. For example, teachers should explain and write how to do math problems. Teachers should repeat information as often as necessary to ensure that students understand and master the objective. Guided practice should be done until at least eighty percent has been mastered.
Teachers must provide independent practice after students has been taught new skills or knowledge. As a whole class the lesson is taught giving the students opportunities to get the correct answer. When the teacher feels that his/her students have learned the new skill they will move on to letting the students do independent practice. After independently practicing, the student will become familiar without thinking about the steps or rules.
One way to ensure independent practice is seatwork. By doing seatwork individually, the teacher can see if students are mastering the skills. Teacher should be able to check the work before the students leave from class letting both the teacher and student know if additional help is needed. Independent practice work should be about ninety-five percent accurate to ensure mastery of a lesson.
Weekly and Monthly Reviews
To ensure that students do not forget what has been taught, teachers should review the learned lesson weekly and monthly spending about fifteen to twenty percent of instructional time. Borich says if teachers review monthly and weekly, it helps the teacher in identifying areas that he/she may need to re-teach, and if instructional pace needs to be adjusted.
Giving students' weekly comprehensive tests is one way to review the students' progress. Weekly review can also give a valid measurement of how well the student is progressing. The comprehensive test also gives the teacher feedback on the quality of instruction (Hofmeister & Lubke, 1999).
Major exams are one way to give monthly reviews. Monthly exams helps also to keep the student refreshed on what has been taught.
Not every child learns at the same pace or even sometimes the same way. What works for one may not work for another. When conducting a lesson half the class may get it, or none of the class may get it. This is when re-teaching has to be administered.
The teacher may need to adjust the pace of the lesson, and slowly introducing each step. Teachers should also demonstrate additional examples to ensure students are learning. Next, guided practice should be used with extra practice. Independent practice can be done if eighty percent of the class has mastered the lesson through guided practice.
If during independent practice, the teacher recognizes that some students are still having problems, then other re-teaching methods should be used. The teacher could use guided practices in small groups to help the students master the lesson. Another method is peer tutoring, where the teacher lets another student tutor another student. Peer tutoring has been known as being successful.
When teaching a class with students who progress faster than the others, problems can occur. Teachers can be prepared for this by having three sets of practice examples for each lesson. These cards should all cover the same information but be different. The sets will be used during guided practice, independent practice. The second set is used before independent practice, while the other students are receiving guided practice (Hofmeister & Lubke, 1999).
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In order for student success, teachers have to make way to provide effective teaching methods. Teachers who are prepared and require feedback from students to see what steps he/she needs to take will be very effective. Where there are effective teachers there are also effective students.