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Estimable classroom management depends on the seating arrangements therefore seating arrangement should not be permanently changed. Not only do the teachers need to consider the physical arrangement of the room but also the nature of the students involved. [../_private/pwfsaftr.htm] the considerations in arranging the students in the physical environment of the room are so that teaching and learning can occur efficiently as possible. However, to achieve classroom ethics teachers should reflect on their student's level of education whether it is at the primary level, secondary level or tertiary level then to make a decision if they are to take charge as to where their students sit in the classroom. Depending on the level of education, students would definitely portray a different level of maturity and how to conduct themselves in the classroom therefore teachers should dictate where students sit in a classroom. Factor influencing the seating arrangement in a classroom are the size of the classroom, the location in which the students are at present, the age group of a teacher's audience and considering where students sit may affect their grade.
The size of a classroom and the students in the class plays a major role when coming to classroom management. "Discipline, class control, classroom management- by whatever name you call it, keeping order in the classroom is the teacher's greatest concern."(Dr. Singh p.13). This is one of many reasons why teachers should determine the seating arrangements of their students in the primary and secondary school environment. Knowing their students inside out and their behavioural patterns, the teacher should know at once where that student should be seated. In every classroom, a teacher will always discover different characteristics of students such as the special attention, talkative, inquisitive, slow learners and last but not least those who lack discipline. Those who lack discipline tend to distract others therefore the teacher should keep a watchful eye out and approach them as soon as they display any type of unruliness or disgracious behaviour. By moulding students from this stage, they would be more knowledgeable as to how they should behave within a classroom.
A student's location in the classroom is related to the number of questions received from the teacher, this may influence the student's opportunity to respond and thus learn (Moore and Glynn 1984). When making seating arrangements in classrooms teachers may consider the effects of student's motivation and to perform well. Seat location can have a great impact on a student's performance, behaviour and attention span. Surprisingly, students found at the back of the classroom tend to interact with each other more than those seated at the front, potentially adversely impacting their attention to the task at hand (Grandstrom 1996). Teachers should spend more time in organizing their learning environment to encourage more achievements in all students. However this problem would be frequent more in the primary and secondary level, leaving the tertiary level students to be responsible enough about decision making and participation in the classroom.
In the primary and secondary school, researchers have strongly believed that teachers should be responsible for where their students sit but not in tertiary level. This is so because children in general falling under this age group (childhood-adolescent) are naturally inquisitive and are initially intrinsically motivated [Kohn 1957]. They are also at the risk of being easily distracted because their attention span is very short. Any facilitator should consider their student's transcendent education to be their main priority. For each lesson taught to be beneficial to each student, the teacher would distinguish what is best for them and decide on where he or she should be seated. As for tertiary level, students would be mature enough to decide where to sit and whether or not they are making a right decision to benefit them in their learning process and academic needs.
Depending on where students sit in a classroom may affect their grades. The competition for grades is intense, and where a student sit in class can make a major impact in their grades. Students who sit in the first row have a definite advantage, according to [Dr. Paul Adams, a dean at Wilkes University in Wilkes-Barre, Pa.]. This is so because students in the back may be easily distracted especially the childhood-adolescence group. Some students left at the back of the class may feel ignored, discouraged and less recognised instead of being motivated to work. According to his research, Griffith (1921) determined that the front and centre seats of the room were the best places to perform well. Seating arrangements are important classroom setting events, because they have the potential to prevent problem behaviours that decrease student's attention and diminish available instructional time. Interventions involving seating arrangements should be incorporated throughout the course of a school day in order to aid with behavioural generalization. Focusing on stimulus conditions rather than consequences, may help teachers to discretely prevent problem behaviours before they occur and avoid utilizing unnecessarily intrusive interventions. Also interventions based on unnatural consequences are less likely to lead to behavioural generalization than interventions that control naturally occurring reinforces [Wheldall, Morris,Vaughan and Ng. 1981]. Where students sit in the classroom, has the potential to encourage desirable behaviour or contribute to students' misbehaviour. (Daniels 1998). Seating arrangement is one factor that is typically under teacher's control. Classroom arrangement significantly impacts on students' behaviour, academic performance and achievements (Pace and Price 2005).
There is no single classroom seating arrangement that promotes positive behavioural and academic outcomes for all tasks, because the available research clearly indicate that the nature of students seating arrangements should be dictated by the teacher for the primary and secondary schools but not tertiary level due to the age range and cognitive maturity. In my research I became aware of classroom organisation which results in higher completion of learning objectives, more creativity and a less disruptive class. Teachers educating those in the primary and secondary schools should be able to eliminate disruptive behaviour and enhance students learning goals and achievements. Seating arrangements should not be permanently changes because each student has different rates in which they experience different stages of development therefore it while a challenge for teachers to permanently seat students.