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The teacher plays a very important role in language teaching because she is one of the factors that may determine whether teaching language is successful or not. A teacher should get familiar with their students' interest, their learning strategies, and if possible their aspirations. The teacher can lead the class to a great success if he or she is able to understand the students better, and if he or she gives the students the opportunity to get to know each other well as long as permit the students to point out clearly their interest and point of view. Teacher interested in her/his students takes them to a permanent search for nicer drills, more effective teaching methodologies, and nicer designed resources for their classes. a lot of time needs to spent by her in and out of the classes, thinking about how to help her pupils.
The teacher of English language must focus on four essentials qualities´´ knowledge, communication skills, interest, and respect for her students. These qualities distinguish and convert a teacher in exceptional.
Teacher´s role is taking improved knowledge and making it easy to obtain to her students, helping them to get the material, and to understand what it signifies, for instance, one thing is to know how computers work, but quite another to understand what computers mean.
The role of the teacher is to take a subject and to make it crystal clear to the students, to want to expend the effort necessary to find better ways to make complicated idea simple to her students, and to fit new ideas into context available to them.
Teacher's role is to explain complex material so that students can use. The philosophy of the teacher is to show the students the techniques to find the answer for themselves in order that they can become self-sufficient in any field. Not giving them an answer in order that they can solve a problem. There's a proverb: "Give me a fish and I eat for a day, teach me to fish and I will eat fish for lifetime". Students need to learn how to apply new techniques to solve problems.
Teachers should create a relaxed classroom atmosphere, to maintain self-esteem of students and inspire them to get excited about improving their self-confidence, sense of rhythm, control of learning to adjust the content of the degree of difficulty, so that students get positive and emotional factors into full play. In the spare time, teachers should guide and advise their students to use the library, see and hear more original English newspapers, magazines, English films, English radio stations, and Internet browsing; multi-faceted stimulate students' interest in learning English in the English learning process to reduce the emotional anxiety, and to improve their efficiency.
Teacher should give students more opportunities for language practice, insisting on students do speak on the lessons in the classroom to enable them to share their points of view with their partners.
It's relevant that teachers know if the purpose of speaking acts is accuracy or fluency, because the objective of the teacher is not slightly different in each activity.
Fluency and Accuracy
Students need to be corrected by the teacher whenever they make mistakes In activities of accuracy. The complete purpose of this activity is to form correct sentences, then when a student makes something wrong, it has to be addressed as soon as possible.
In fluency activities, anyways, when you correct students it could very contrasting productive really. When teachers want that their students speak one-another, teachers need to give students time and space to do it so they can start to learn to cope with all of the demands of speaking interaction.
In fluency drills, the teacher is an organizer, a facilitator, a manager, a guide, and a guru. The teacher opens up the drill, by explaining what students have to do, prepare the needed groups, and then makes the students keep on doing it.
Usman (2006:911) classifies the role of the teacher as follow:
A teacher must master and show the material that will be taught and developed in class, in order that they can improve their ability, because it will decide de success of them.
A teacher must not only have knowledge about the media but also he/she must have an ability in choosing and using the media which are suitable with the goals, materials, method evaluation, and also teachers and students competence; for this purpose a teacher needs some practices and continuous training.
C. Learning manager
A teacher should be able to manage the classroom as good learning environment. This environment is adjusted and watched to achieve the goals. Furthermore, a conductive environment is the place where students' area challenge and stimulate to learn.
A teacher should be able to carry on a useful learning source that can support students to achieve the goals in the teaching and learning activities; Such as source, textbooks, or newspaper.
A teacher must evaluate the teaching learning process carrying out all of the teachers, role states above. Lack of one or more will relate an unsatisfactory result. In other words it doesn't enable to achieve goals.
'One who teaches effectively teaches not only his subject but himself. Personality is that part of the teacher's self which he projects into every classroom activity, thereby affecting and conditioning every learning situation' Penner: (1992:45).
Finnocchiaro and Bono (1973) tell us about the crucial role of the teacher in class, and present a list of 9 tasks which a good language teacher should put in practice:
-Plan in advance the situations with which the meaning of the new language items will be made clear to the students.
-Provide meaningful use of the language in communication activities, where language is generally the target language.
-Keep previously taught materials alive through judicious reintroduction in subsequent classroom lessons.
-Use the students' native language sparingly in the classroom, but not hesitate to use it to clarify instructions or to ensure that essential information has been understood.
-Learn how to engage the students in full class, group, and individual recitation procedures as appropriate. He/she should become accustomed to preparing or utilizing instructional materials. He/she should supplement the basic text where necessary by preparing drills, dialogues or reading selections. He/she should become skillful in preparing scripts for tapes, and in integrating laboratory practice and classroom activity.
-Determine when beginning-level students are ready for reading and writing activities. He/she should plan reading lessons which will provide students with an aesthetic experience. He/she should incorporate writing activities which will lead gradually to more creative, «free» students' expressions when possible. He/she should provide students with cultural insights into the foreign country.
-Make sure that students retain their sense of individual dignity and national pride.
-Select and use only the audio-visual aids which will help the students acquire a particular language structure.
-Give frequent tests which will help gauge the achievement of students, diagnose individual's leaning problems; and judge the effectiveness of his teaching.
Effective tutors are essential to ensuring that students work satisfactorily. Any teaching event will be more successful if the teacher:
has organised the session well
has a feeling for the subject
can conceptualise the topic
has empathy with the learners
understands how people learn
has skills in teaching and managing learning
is alert to context and 'classroom' events
is teaching with their preferred teaching style
has a wide range of skills in their teaching repertoire, including 'questioning, listening, reinforcing, reacting, summarising and leadership' (McCrorie, 2006, p.8).
ROLE OF THE PARENTS
Parents play a crucial role in every stage of childhood and can play positive role in getting the best in education. The role of parents in their children's education has always been emphasized by different groups like educators and administrators. Parents have the right to ask questions to the teachers and principals and get involved in the child's education process right from the elementary level to the school level. While at the school level, we know parents are able to help their kids with writing, reading and with their task at home. At the school level, parents can help in selecting the right school and career and encourage their children to save for school education.
Parents have a vital role in their children's education. By taking a few simple steps at home, they can help them enjoy school more, improving their studies and homework skills prepared for school.
A Parent's Role in Education is full of advice in helping them with their schoolwork, such as creating a positive learning environment to making learning fun. Parents also have responsibilities to assure their children will benefit from his/her education.
"Nothing helps a child succeed like an involved parent. A little willingness from a child's parents can work wonders in the classroom. Your child needs a special place to call their own. Setting aside a room or nook in your home dedicated to your child's education will show him or her that your really are serious about their education". Dalton Miller-Jones, Ph.D.
ENGLISH TEACHERS` PROFILE
The principal objective of English as a second language instruction is developing the proficiency to the point where they can participate efficiently in an English speaking conditions. Traditionally, English as a second language programs were designed to expand the following abilities:
pronunciation and intonation
writing and composition
grammar and vocabulary
communication and learning strategies.
The English teacher promotes effective English language teaching and learning and is intended for teachers and instructors who are primarily involved in teaching schoolchildren and adults.
Interview to the Teacher
The above stated about what is the profile of an English teacher, contrast with our interview to the teacher in our research. The interview to teacher Mariano was based on 22 questions and according to our questionnaire, we found out that he is not a teacher of the English area, and he doesn`t speak good English because we questioned him in English and he always replied in Spanish. He said ¨I began to teach English by chance because of the lack of English teachers in this school¨.
According to him, he had been training himself in the area, and we also could notice he is not in control in his classes, therefore, we find this is a negative factor for the students and it becomes a threat in the learning of the speaking ability to them in 7th and 8th grades.
He said he doesn`t have any specific methodology, and we noticed by watching his classes he didn`t have any lesson plan. In the other hand, we observed his students were out of control, his classes seemed to us very informal. There were students out of classroom; two of them were listening to music, one with his walk-man and the other one with a headphone, and the rest of them seemed like they had not interest in the class.
4.5 MAIN NEGATIVE FACTORS IN ENGLISH TEACHING AT SURESTE SCHOOL.
Most of the teachers in the Dom. Rep. and even in the sector Sureste School are not from the English area. This might be one of the main negative factors of the acquisition of the English speaking ability.
In our interview to the teachers we found out that about 15% of the students don't have English books. This might be another negative factor for English teaching at Sector Sureste Basic School. Besides, the teachers told us that the main difficulty students have - is the lack of interest in the English language.
In the same interview the teacher emphasized most of them don't live with their parents, but with their grandparents, aunts, uncles, because their parents live abroad in Spain for example, or work in another city; this is another reason of the lack of interest in English learning. In the other hand, they told us the students don`t do their homework because they download it from internet and they don't even take a glance at the homework before getting back to school, besides they aren't responsible enough.
Affective factors in Language Learning
Language Learning in the Emotional factors include the learner's attitude toward motivation, personality, anxiety, empathy, inhibition, self-confidence, learning styles and so on, the theoretical basis of humanistic psychology and human-centered educational philosophy. Emotional talking about here refers to the learners in foreign language learning in the process of hearing the feelings, feelings, emotions and attitudes. According to different phenomena, emotional factors can be divided into two categories: First, the individual learner factors such as anxiety, inhibition, and personality tendencies, etc.; Second, learners among themselves and between learners and teachers, such as empathy, classroom exchange and cross-cultural awareness. Emotional factors on foreign language learning has the following five kinds of effects (1) emotional V. Rozanov information in conjunction with the audio-visual information stored in the brain; (2) emotional memory might have caused confusion; (3) can be fed back memories of emotional content; (4) Emotion brings motivation; (5) whether the emotional premise of effective use of existing resources. As the well-known heart sees it, so that students produce some kind of emotional orientation or hobbies (G, Lozanov, 1979). Negative emotions often lead to consumer resistance and aggressive resistance, and positive emotions have the opposite effect, mainly for the study opens the way to learn. Foreign Language Learning in the negative emotion factors include: fear, shyness, nervousness, and depressed; positive emotion factors include: the self-esteem, self-confidence, empathy, motivation, happiness and surprises.
Jane Arnold pointed out that the anxiety may be the emotional factors that impede the learning process: awareness, self-doubt, anxiety, tension: (Arnold, 1999). If the student in English class are always worried about the completion of classroom tasks can produce anxiety, tension will be derived, low self-esteem, anger and negative emotional factors, resulting in poor performance in the classroom, learning efficiency at the end.
Inhibition is an important component of personality characteristics, it is shown to defend the self-absorbed and anxiety. (Ellis, 1994:121).
Foreign language learning process errors are inevitable. Because of fear of making mistakes arising from the negative emotions of self-protection response will appear slow memory loss and other hearing is not conducive to improving the psychological state, resulting in the failure of listening tasks. Under normal circumstances, foreign language learning, are all harmful to suppress one's interest. The inhibition is taken to keep safe the self-avoidance and withdrawal behavior, so often subjected to criticism and ridicule of people with a higher degree of inhibition. Therefore, the self-image more vulnerable students are often afraid to make mistakes in hearing the classroom does not actively refused to participate in language activities, as well as psychologically. This is the suppression in hearing the negative impact of learning. Tension and anxiety and inhibition as part of foreign language learning that must be overcome in a negative emotional factors. It is understood that many students into the English classroom or voice lab class feelings are complex, often curiosity mixed with fear. Therefore, the students generally reflect the special tension, mental stress; particularly the so-called psychological barrier will be formed at this time. As students start with a tense mood to lectures, once did not understand is even more nervous and tense even more did not understand that this cycle of vicious circle will do worry about the effective work of the brain, so that the listener felt uneasy, and anxiety over time and even lose interest in learning and confidence. Neuropsychological studies have shown our cortex is a memory device, in the case of a relaxed mood will become very smooth. This will enable memory devices to maximize functionality. On the contrary, if the body and mind in a state of high tension and anxiety will increase, the efficiency of the brain will decrease. Therefore, the class on the one hand, goes to the highly concentrated, free from outside interference; the other hand, emotions but also to fully relax, avoid panic, the only way to maximize the organ of hearing the voice signal receiving sensitivity, to achieve the desired effect.
Language learning, foreign language learning in particular, when the memory task particularly onerous, and often monotonous, repetitive mental work needed, the brain is vulnerable to fatigue, thus triggering the students emotional weariness.
Renowned scientist Albert Einstein once said that 'interest is the best teacher. Facts have shown that interest is to actively explore or engage in an activity of awareness or consciousness of the tendency to arise the student's motivation to learn, to promote an active learning to students, interest is an important psychological factor. However, exposure to foreign language students in the classroom environment, due to stress arising from anxiety, then, anxiety caused by suppression, the final result in aversion to foreign language learning. Therefore, Foreign Language teachers should fully understand the aversion to the English language learning to improve the adverse effects, and actively explore the root causes of emotions caused by weariness to make good use of the power source for foreign language learning students, and strive to create a relaxed, harmonious, lively, natural learning environment, helping students to gradually overcome the emotional factors that affect student learning.
To enhance the emotional exchange of teachers and students in English teaching, and how to use emotional factors to stimulate the enthusiasm of students learning English, in order to fully achieve the best results of memory, the key is whether the teachers understand the students of mental activity, it can help students to learn foreign languages to maintain an active state of mind. In the classroom teaching, teachers should avoid showing a 'parents' state of the personality structure, and guard against showing everywhere a sense of authority and superiority; otherwise, it will affect the feelings between the teachers and students exchanges, thus affecting the learning initiative.
Well-known educator Edward Thomdike pointed out to play any effective learning requires individual initiative. Educators should be the first place; student's participation should be the second place. Teaching the students to enter into teaching activities, such as active dynamic and creative way to complete the performance behavior of the inclination of learning task, is the process of learning English language skills from the application of theoretical knowledge into automated process. The classroom is the student's primary venue for language practice.
Student's participation in teaching can enable them to become the masters of teaching. They can learn according to their own reality, requiring teachers to adjust and change the progress of teaching. With the participation of students in their own desire, they will naturally design of teaching methods, and will put it forward its own ideas.