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To start the investigation of the study, as a researcher, I have found some literatures that might help as a guideline for this study. These literatures act as a support and sources for the study that will be investigate as well. The first journal that I have found is written by Paul Denton in 1992. The title of his journal is entitled "Seating Arrangements for Better Classroom Management". This journal is conducted to investigate the seating arrangement of a class so that it can achieve a better management in the classroom. It is stated that the classroom environment and arrangement determine the efficiency of the teaching process in the class. The second journal is written by Megan E. Eash in 2005. The title of this literature is "Do Classroom Spaces Really Work? ". Megan as an educator finds that it is her duty to improve students' individual academics by establishing her own belief and thoughts.
Students with different learning style prefer different classroom arrangements (Gregorc, 1985). In addition, the journal stated that different activities and events required different style of arrangement to achieve maximum efficiency. Flexibility is recognized as the key for seating arrangement in a class. In this journal, researcher had come out with different style of seating arrangements according to different events and activities. The researchers have divided the seating arrangement into two groups which is individual desks and small tables. As for individual desks, Paul Denton suggested a few types of arrangement. Tables placed minutely can adapt maximum access for other subjects. Moreover, this design of classroom allows teacher move around freely in the interior when teaching process is being carry out. In every subject, teachers would probably divide students into groups to build up relationship and teamwork spirit. So, researchers suggest that short horizontal rows around a walk way would perfectly suitable for grouping and discussion session in the class. Besides horizontal rows, Herringbone style of seating arrangement is recommended for discussion in the class. This is because it allows students to face their teammates for discussion and indirectly increase the interaction between educators and students. This style is similar to the horizontal rows but the tables were placed in 45 degree angle. On the other hand, Paul Denton mentioned that some classes provide small tables. So, they also suggested a few style of seating arrangements with these small tables. The common arrangement of table is in rows. This is very convenient and simple for students to move around thus prevent plagiarism in examinations. However, researcher finds that some students might face difficulties as their seats are far away from the chalkboard and other events at the front of the classroom if the interior is spacious. Double E can increase the seating capacity in a room by placing the tables in the right angle as mentioned in this journal by Paul Denton, 1992. This mitigates the long walk for students as in rows. Semicircle is the favourite seating arrangements among teachers as they need to demonstrate materials or sources to the novices. Besides seating arrangements, Paul Denton had also come out with several elements to improve the classroom environment so that they could achieve better management in the classroom for example lighting in the classroom as well as traffic flow of the staffs and students.
As mentioned just now, Megan is an educator in Ferguson Township Elementary, United States. She decided to investigate how classroom arrangements affect students' individual academics, social as well as behaviour needs. Throughout her research, she had come out with several methods to investigate her question on the research. The method that Megan, 2005 used is designed different style of seating arrangement in the classroom. So, these seating arrangement patterns are designed and noted down on every reaction of the students in the class as a reflection journal. As for the first seating arrangement, Megan decided to give her students to choose their seating pattern anywhere in the classroom themselves without command them. In this pattern, researchers found out that students choose to sit with their friends and half of the boys in the classroom were seating in the middle of the classroom. The students respond that they wanted to sit together and no girls wanted to sit with them. This causes the incident happen that they sit in the middle of the class as a set. From the survey session between researcher and participants, researcher come out a result that some of the students are still consider their own needs before placing their desk in the classroom. Then, the researcher decided to place the students in rows as they were very talkative during the teaching session. The researcher carefully placed the students according to a certain scale based on academics, social and behaviour needs. Students with academically needs were placed in front which is near the board. This is to make sure students can clearly view the board in lecture session. Students with behaviour needs were placed in the middle part. However, students were still able to view the board clearly although they were in the middle area. Students that the researcher thinks they will not be distracted and tempted to talk during school times were place in the arrangement lastly. The third arrangement is rows in three which is the best arrangement according to the analysing data that is resulted. This is efficiently showed that students are able to view board clearly, focus on learning session and also avoid students to talk to their neighbours. Megan felt that rows help students to stay on task the whole day in the school. In addition, researcher was able to fix some problems in small group such as individual spaces, accessibility of students in class and traffic flow of the students. As for the last arrangement, Megan asked a third party that unaware of the students' academic, behaviour and social needs to randomly placed them in rows of six to investigate the question that mentioned before. In the end, the result was not that brilliant as rows in three. A survey was carried out and students preferred the style of rows in three in the classroom throughout the research by Megan.
In a nutshell, I feel that both of the literature that I had reviewed inspired me to carry out my research on "how does the classroom arrangement affect the level of focusing of the students and affect the academic achievement? ". First, the journal by Paul Denton, 1992 had come out with several methods of seating arrangements which I think contributes knowledge to the research of mine. Furthermore, the first journal that I have found increase my curiosity on the seating placement in the classroom that might affect student's focusing level during teaching session. From the research entitled "Does Classroom Spaces Really Work?" written by Megan E. Eash, 2005, they have some evidence showing that certain style of classroom arrangement can ease student's academic, social and behaviour needs. However, it can still be able to investigate thoroughly on how the classroom arrangement does affect the level of students' academic achievements?
Christina Kiew (FIAD TOAS) 1177 words