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Experienced and trained personnel are needed to ensure students' IEP's are in close alignment with supplemental education service instructional plans are essential in improving student achievement for students with disabilities. This study will investigate the challenges managers and directors in (SES) supplemental education services programs and school system personnel have when serving students with disabilities.
The works of Marzano, Hargreaves, and Wenger will be highlighted in this study. Hargreaves (1995) suggested that effective educational change requires the educational environment to be a" moving mosaic" that fosters collaboration through networks, partnerships, and alliances within and beyond the school setting. The literature review was conducted through scholarly articles, and research databases that focused on examining the need for experienced personnel who are prepared to ensure that the students with disabilities supplemental educational service ILP is in closer alignment with their IEP. Supplemental education services information was obtained by searching relevant databases. Survey reports and related articles from 2002 to present. Walden's Dissertation and Theses database, EBSCO, and ERIC served as database resources. Data on the school districts not making AYP was obtained through the Virginia Department of Education web site and press reports and NEA state affiliates. The search terms used in this study include supplemental education services, supplemental education services (SES) provider, No Child Left Behind Act of 2002, Tutor, Academic Assessments, and Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), Individual Education Plan, Individual Learning Plan and students with disabilities. The topics in education that led the researcher to organize the presentation of literature into the following sections include : No Child left Behind Act of 2002 and Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) ,Current Research in SES ,The Process of Informing Parents, The Increasing Number of SES Providers, Classroom Curriculum and SES Reading and Math programs, SES Effectiveness, Students with disabilities in SES programs, This chapter seeks to answer the following question as it relates to the research questions that guide the study: What are school leaders and SES Manages and directors perceived challenges with the SES tutoring program? What are some challenges staff members encounter when working with students with disabilities in SES programs?
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)
After-school programs have become a popular approach to enhance academic opportunities and outcomes of public elementary and secondary school children in the United States.
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
NCLB's current accountability system places considerable weight on the percentage of students scoring proficient on state tests, but this measure of achievement has limitations and is defined differently in every state. The current system is also based on an unattainable goal of 100% of students reaching proficiency by 2014. This would make the AYP accountability system pointless and there would be no reason to identify specific schools as underperforming. This would also financially overburden state departments of education, which must provide assistance to these schools. Many states school accountability plans have call on schools and school districts to make impossible achievement gains in the final few years before 2014.
Current Research on SES
The Process of Informing Parents
School districts' responsibilities under supplemental educaÂtional services are to no Under the No Child Left Behind Act parents of students eligible for supplemental educational serÂvices are able to choose a provider for their child from the state-approved provider list. Although parents can request the assistance of their local school, parents make the final decision. Parents must ensure that their child attends and participates appropriately in the supplemental services sessions and work with the school district and the provider to develop and identify specific acaÂdemic achievement goals for their child. The quality of district notification letters varied considerably; some were easy to read and presented the options in a positive light, while others were confusing, discouraged the use of the options, or were biased in favor of district-provided services.
The Increasing Number of SES Providers
In a study conducted by the Civil Rights Project, UCLA, 2007 examining the trends in implementation of supplemental educational services and student participation in SES, from 2002-03 to 2006-07. The study concluded that the total number of students receiving SES services had increased over a five years period. The percentage of eligible students actually receiving services declined or leveled off after five years. The study concluded that over a five year period the number of SES providers expanded greatly in four of the six states studied. In one of the six states studied the number of SES providers remains the same and in one of the other states included in the study the number of SES providers declined. The number of providers grew substantially in all 11 districts.
Classroom Curriculum and Reading and Math Programs
Supplemental education providers must use a high quality, research-based reading and math program designed to increase student achievement and consistent with the instruction provided by the local education agencies and aligned with the state standards. Many states have had to grapple with controversy surrounding "effective" reading and math programs. Several providers have pre-and post-assessments and only a few have research-based reading and math programs (Casserly 2007). Several school districts are discovering that they make the greatest academic gains when they use more organized and sometimes more rigid instructional programs that are evenly aligned with state test. Districts with the best instructional results often have specific requirements or materials for their SES program. The problem is compounded as the number of providers increase and the variety of student skill deficits grows. It seems that providers in each state are aligning their supplemental education program curriculum with state standards to the same degree. Most providers have the same reading and math program that they use in every state. In a report evaluating Supplemental Educational Services (SES) in Virginia, conducted by the Center for Research in Educational Policy (CREP) at the University of Memphis. In 2007-2008 a large majority of SES provider representatives (96.5 percent) reported that they aligned their services and curriculum with local and state academic content and standards either frequently or occasionally. Most SES coordinator responses (83.4 percent) indicated that SES providers 'services were aligned with state and local standards. The majority of SES coordinator responses (93.9 percent) indicated that SES providers complied with applicable state and local laws. The majority of SES provider representatives (85.7 percent) reported that they were able to adapt services to each school's curriculum either frequently or occasionally. Three-fourths of SES provider representatives (75 percent) noted that tutors frequently or occasionally integrated SES services with classroom learning activities. The majority of SES coordinator responses (78.8 percent) indicated that SES providers collaborated to set goals for student growth either frequently or occasionally. Over half of SES division coordinator responses (68.2 percent indicated that provider's adapted SES services to each school's curriculum.
The Effectiveness of SES
The Center on Education Policy, 2007 examined efforts states have undertaken to carry out the supplemental educational services requirements of NCLB, focusing on school year 2006-07. The study describes the procedures used to review and approve potential SES providers and the extent to which states were able to monitor the quality and effectiveness of SES providers. There study drew data from a fall 2006 survey of state education agency officials in 50 states. Thirty-eight states reported being unable to monitor the quality and effectiveness of SES providers "to a great extent." Only 10 states reported being able to do so "to a great extent." States attributed their inability to monitor to insufficient staff and funds. The greatest challenges to implementing supplemental services related to monitoring the quality and effectiveness of SES providers. Forty-one states and about half (51%) of school districts called this a moderate or serious challenge.
In a report evaluating Supplemental Educational Services (SES) in Virginia, conducted by the Center for Research in Educational Policy (CREP) at the University of Memphis. In 2007-2008, 35 SES providers delivered SES services to 3,344 students in 26 school divisions. In total, 3,344 SES students (3,758 contracts) received SES tutoring services from 35 providers across 53 schools in 26 divisions in Virginia in 2007-2008. Within the 26 divisions, 55 Title I schools were required to offer SES services. Twenty-six (26) SES providers established 1,357 contracts in mathematics, while 32 SES established 2,401 contracts in reading/language arts. In the state-level analysis using data from all SES providers combined, no significant differences in either reading/language arts or mathematics performance were found between students receiving SES services and those not receiving SES services. While the survey findings revealed overall satisfaction with SES implementation and services, all respondent groups noted areas for improvement. These areas include: 1) integration of SES services with classroom instruction; 2) parental participation and division assistance in notifying parents about SES services; 3) limited hours of SES services; 4) monitoring of SES services both at the school site and in homes; and 5) transportation to and from SES services. Most SES provider representatives (78.6 percent) reported that they gave instruction to students with disabilities frequently or occasionally. Many SES provider representatives (71.5 percent) also reported that they offered appropriate instruction to ELL students as needed either frequently or occasionally. Many SES coordinator responses (67.4 percent) indicated that SES providers offered services to special education and ELL students.
Nineteen (19) percent of students receiving SES services (572 students) were
students with disabilities. Seven school divisions in Virginia participated in a United States Department of Education (USED) pilot for reversal of Public School Choice (PSC) and Supplemental Educational Services (SES) during the 2007-2008 school year. These divisions offered SES to eligible students attending schools in their first year of school improvement.
Students with disabilities in SES programs
The State Department of Education requires that provider hire only staff who meets NCLB's highly qualified requirements. NCLB mandates "highly qualified teachers," (Casserly 2007) for every classroom during the day. However, the law is not specific on the qualifications of tutors. The tutors in supplemental education service programs do not have to be certified teachers some are college graduates without teaching experience and 7% are high school students (Casserly 2007). However there only a few experienced personnel in the SES tutoring programs trained to ensure that students with an (IEP) are in close alignment with the student's supplemental education service instructional plans.