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According to Seattle University Editors Curtis, Galbreath and Curtis, students with emotional and behavioral disorders are struggle to change over a long period of time because they are labeled as having emotional instability and challenging behavior. It also affects the child's educational performance. According to the U.S. Department of Education Office of Special Education Programs stated in the DSM-IV, the criteria for EBD includes, but not limited to; the inability to maintain a healthy interpersonal relationships with other classmates and adults, incapability to learn by logical, physical, or health factors, period where they express symptoms of depression and dissatisfaction, likely to develop a tendency to develop fears that are visible to others and affect them personally and at school. Children with emotional and behavioral disorders must be given special attention in school. The logic behind this is that the children with emotional and behavioral disorders are not on the same level as children without emotional and behavioral disorders in school. Teachers who are not trained to provide instruction and intervention to this specific population of children cannot effectively meet all the academic needs of the kids. When it becomes apparent that these children in regular classrooms are not growing academically, teachers should immediately take action and refer the students to Special Education and a Counseling program within the school system. According to the Special Education Laws, an Individualized Education Program (IEP) is a written document that provides and describes what services a child needs the school to give. As explained under the IEP, the special education services provide a breakdown of the students involvement in school. Involvement in school refers to the general education curriculum, extracurricular activities, as well as the non-academic activities. This program is an aid for identifying the student's academic strengths and weaknesses. After the necessary assessments and identifications are done, students who are identified as needed special attention will be placed in a special education class that will give this population of students the academic attention that they need. However, there still needs to be a balance driven between the academics and the emotional disturbance that will most likely display inappropriate behavior. There are programs that are put in place in the schools that address students with Emotional and behavioral. These programs will enable instructors and counselors to work as a team to help children who are struggling with emotional and behavioral disturbances excel academically. With the much needed support from teachers and counselors, these children will be successful in overcoming their learning barrier. One the children overcome their learning barrier they will then be able to function productively at school.
This process is done by a variety of Clinical approaches such as: Behavior Modification and Multi-systematic Approaches. Behavior Modification is a medical approach that modifies inappropriate behaviors through implementing coping skills to lead to new and appropriate behaviors. This multi-systematic approach is designed specifically to fit the individual and aims to provide clinical treatment through different approaches. For a child with Emotional and Behavioral disturbances, family therapy interventions and support therapy interventions are highly recommended. After Psycho-educational Therapy interventions children will soon be able to cope with their stressor and finally be able to reach his or her fullest potential. By reaching their fullest potential the children will be able to become a lifelong learner. With the new acquired skills from the interventions the children will be more productive community and society members who are able to achieve their goals.
Curtis, Curtis, Galbreath, (2005) examined studies on General and special educators. These educators reported having the lack the knowledge, confidence, and skills to provide effective intervention for these students. For example, George and her colleagues George, George, Gersten, & Grosnick,( 1995) reported that two-thirds of teachers of students with EBD indicated their college programs provided poor preparation for working with this student population. Teachers become overwhelmed with all the requirements and demands that have to be met with children who have emotional and behavior disorders. Disruptive behavior exhibited by these students takes much teacher time and even more time when teachers do not have the knowledge base, practiced skills, or confidence in working with these challenging students. Because some teachers aren't familiar with the complications and extra skills required to assist children with emotional and behavior disorders the teachers become inferior with ability to teach these children. (Curtis, Curtis, Galbreath, (2005)
Curtis, Curtis, Galbreath, (2005) researchers found that having a greater understanding about the constructs and developmental factors linked to challenging behavior help enhances the intervention efforts towards these youth. Whether the behavior demonstrated is positive or negative, it is still labeled as being intricate. Trying to find the exact answers to why a person performs simple behaviors as well complex behaviors is impossible. It's very difficult to understand why a person has more emotional and behavioral difficulties than someone else. As the students with EBD gain more insight about the causes of their EBD the rate of effectiveness from the planned interventions is increased.
According Curtis, Curtis, Galbreath pg. 4, Developmental psychopathology is general structure that is used to gain understanding about how abnormal behaviors relate to normal development. Developmental psychopathology operates through the combination of a spread of perspectives centered around developmental issues and questions.
" To address the multiple causes of emotional and behavioral difficulties in youth with EBD, it is essential to use a multidisciplinary approach, such as that used in the programs at the Oak Grove Elementary School, Firwood Secondary School, and the Child Study and Treatment Center. These programs involve a variety of professionals: special education teachers, psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, psychiatric childcare counselors, nurses, and recreation therapists. They are also based on multiple theoretical paradigms. This multidisciplinary effort allows professionals to draw from multiple theoretical paradigms, which encourages the conceptualization of problems from multiple angles.
Duchnowski, AJ, Kutash, K. (August 2011) examined the connection between school modification activities outcome and mental health services for students who have emotional disorders and have been placed in special educational programs. The researchers compared the level of academic performance and function of students from schools who have high involment in modification activites against schools where there is low involments of modification activities.
As a result, they found that school engaging in higher levels of school reform may also be collaborating more frequently with community agencies to higher the capacity to provide mental health services to students with EBD.
Adelman and Taylor (2006) proposed that interventions be implemented to help eliminate all psycho-social barriers that hinder learning in order to become a part of the school's reform.
In the study schools were classified along a continuum of their engagement in school reform and improvement activities. These schools reported activities aimed at achieving factors such as desensitizing site based management the use of scientifically supported curriculum and parent involvement. The article concluded that, students who have disabilities and are educated in special education programs present a new source of concern for school administrators as NCLB requires all students to take part in testing and all scores will be reported. Effective school reforms activities may provide as an important facilitator of improved collaborations between the education and mental health system. As the role of mental health services become refocused on the core function of school, mental health professionals need to understand how factors related to school reform such as evidence base instruction, effective class management and pro social discipline can be supported by expertise.
Kostewicz, Ruhl and Kubina Jr, (2008) examined a focus on classroom rules. Students with EBD receive services in a variety of settings (e.g.,resource, self-contained, and inclusive classrooms), and the absence of clear structure in any of these settings negatively affects learning and effective behavior plans(Malone, Bonitz, & Rickett, 1998; Steinberg & Knitzer, 1992). Unlike effective teachers who monitor classroom behavior, provide clear expectations (e.g., classroom rules), and promote student accountability for meeting those expectations (Stevenson, 1991), some teachers of students with EBD fail to use effective classroom management techniques (Sutherland & Wehby,2001).
Nahgahgwon, Umbreit, Liaupsin, and Turton, (2010) lead a study to explore the value of function- based interventions with young children who have a high risk for Emotional and behavioral disorders in a comprehensive setting. It also tested how much impact the classroom interventions had when the staff applied them. The results showed that function-based interventions enabled improvements in behavior for each student. However, each student's targeted behavior was different and required different methods of intervention. Assessments that tested social validity before and after coincided with the function-based interventions.
Treatment integrity data, collected daily, confirmed the interventions were produced with high levels of fidelity. With one exception (i.e., Ian in Session 20),there was no connection between the data points between the baseline and the conditions of the intervention. Singlehandely this occurance coincided with the only day of poor implementation by any of the teachers. Yilmaz, Ozgul; Wasburn-Moses, Leah.Anderson, Sheri (Spring 2004) examined the use of an academic interventions that were effective in enhancing the academic performance of middle and high school students with learning disabilities, which could ultimately enhance the academic performance of students without LD. The interventions used in this study were not content based and could be used in any area the teacher desired.
This review presents five types of strategies that are applicable across different academic content areas (e.g., English, math, science, social studies). Researchers found that there were rarely any intervention strategies used consistenetly for students with disabilities, instead most teachers use strategies that will only reach those students short-term. (Kauffman, 1999; Scanlon et al., 1996). In spite of the few limitations, we believe that the interventions shared in this review give new teachers and veteran teachers a starting point regarding their responsibility of teaching students with learning disabilities in general education classrooms.
In conclusion, the effectiveness of behavior modification and multisystem intervention for children with EBD is a very effective study if certain criteria are followed. Because children with Emotional and Behavioral disorders come with a number of behaviors, successfully teaching these children can be very challenging for the teachers. Emotional barriers like depression, low self-efficacy, periods of anxiety and home environments can hinder a child who suffers from emotional and behavioral disorders. These barrier cause negative behaviors to emerge in the child and can cause the child to behave negatively towards teachers and classmates. The children who suffer from EBD are unaware of all the details surrounding their behavior so they have little control over it. Instead of trying to understand why the children with EBD behave the way they do, teacher choose to retaliate against the children who have EBD by punishing them. Teachers face pressures of getting all their tasks done in a small amount of times. The children with EBD often are left behind and do not excel academically because proper interventions in class are not implemented. However, teachers can help these children excel academically as long as the teacher has proper intervention strategies in place during class