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Research in education can be utilized as a means to investigate the patterns of behavior among stakeholders in schools. The most common method of research in schools is done through standardized tests which track the progress and regress of students and teachers alike. Data is collected both qualitatively and quantitatively and conveyed to various audiences. Studies are done in attempts to best understand successful strategies and improve upon those that are not deemed successful. These studies include research on topics such as teaching, classroom management, psychology, child development, testing and cognitive science (The American Education Research Association, 2010, para. 1).
Research methods used
In order to adequately and succinctly convey the needs of stakeholders in education, quantitative and qualitative research methods are used. The quantitative research approach pursues facts consistently. The qualitative research approach will ensure and recognizes that the view point of the research is central. Statistics are trends are determined based on research and multiple means of testing, and reported quantitatively. The qualitative research approach is used if the researcher wants to observe in detail by his or her own research viewpoint (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2000, pp. 3-70).
In education, the teacher is the primary point person used to convey the needs of the stakeholders. Teachers facilitate the educational process, and the role of a teacher helps to ensure that the students learn, and that facts determined by research are used in assisting in this process. In order to be qualified for this profession, all states require that individuals pursue and acquire the proper credentials and prove competency through certification classes and passing the required exams. Another crucial component in ensuring effective teaching and effective delivery is classroom management. Classroom management ensures that the curriculum can be carried out and delivered as intended. For many teachers, this becomes one of the most difficult feats to master as a professional. Researchers apply educational psychology to gain knowledge in educational environments, view and evaluate the educational process and its effects, and interpret the social psychology of the school and the schoolsââ‚¬â„¢ teaching psychology as an institution. It is concerned with how students will learn and develop. A great emphasis is usually placed on special cases such as students with a specified disability as well as the children labeled as gifted.
Educational psychology and school psychology are terms that are often used interchangeably. Student progress, skills and aptitude are assessed by use of an state approved exams determining proficiency across various curricula. The administered assessments are generally in the form of questions, primarily selected response. However, not all assessments are presented as questions with some requiring the respondents to give an opinion on a particular subject. Some items may be phrased as a true or false statement or as a task that needs to be performed. Cognitive science is a discipline that shows how information is represented and transformed in the brain of individual pupils or students, for example, language, reasoning, perception and emotion. This is made up of numerous research aspects. Some of them are anthropology, sociology, education, neuroscience and artificial intelligence, and analyzes individuals throughout several stages of learning. These are from inferior levels of learning and decision making processes to superior levels of judgment and planning (Bialik, 2010, pp. A14).
Educational research studies encompass many aspects including studies yielding results used to influence and improve the educational process. It gives room for discussion of topical issues that look at educational institutions both locally and abroad. Educational research topics stretch further to cover subjects such as assessment (testing), students' attitudes, study support, education policy, social deprivation, school culture, teachers' image of themselves, bullying and special educational needs. Educational research the outcome of education through reform in curriculum and instruction, it provides quality in educational policy through a rational educational system, it also ensures fairness in society through diversified testing and evaluation, it provide deeper national strength through mastery of societal trends, it contributes to stronger information dissemination and implementation by combining of theory and practical and greater international prestige by promoting academic exchange (Garsdal & Ydesen, 2009, 1-10.)