The Education Level Of The Vietnamese Work Education Essay

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Chapter 1:


The education level of the Vietnamese work force has increased dramatically in the last twenty years. Surprisingly little is known about the actual impact of education on the behavior of individuals in organization and in person's career. Nonetheless, there is enough evidence to suggest that the changes which have taken place may have important implications for how organizations should be managed.

At the same time as the education level in Vietnam is increasing, there is a growing national concern over the amount that is being learned by students. During 2007 and 2011, a number of studies were completed. Without exception they stated that the quality of education was decreasing in the public school system as well as in the private one. They also pointed out that the problem was particularly serious in management strategies, academic curriculum and teaching-learning methods.

Learning is a lifelong process and is a continuous and never ending improvement that should be integral to the way courses are taught at colleges and universities in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. In such a fast changing global market, management methods once considered as highly advanced can easily become outdated. Management boards must access their management strategies, academic curriculum as well as change from passive teaching to active teaching, explore students' learning style preferences and then approach delivery to improve the pace of modern society.

Administration of top colleges and universities in HCMC, therefore, is a very difficult and sensitive job. Firstly, the administrators have to decide (1) which is the most suitable academic curriculum and the necessary facilities for their institution; (2) what rules to maintain classroom discipline for a productive teaching-learning process; (3) how to establish good rapport between teachers and administrators as well as teachers and students and vice versa; (4) how to create pleasant teaching-learning environment for both teachers and students and (5) how to keep track of the global developing tendency as well as modernize their academic institutions.

Statement of the problem

After many years in researching the quality of education on a large scale in 60 countries joining PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), it was concluded that there was no result when the government paid more for education and the quality of education would rise up together as well as the institutions were equipped well, teachers were received higher salaries and the school would have higher quality of teaching and learning. In addition, there was no evidence to add more classes for each class and it would make students study better. In some countries, students study less time than students in Vietnam but their academic performances are better or the institutions reduce the number of students in each class room and the students' academic performance will improve.

The conclusion was that the teaching quality of lecturers would decide the students' academic performance. The quality of lecturers depended on the training quality and management quality from the institution. Management ability is the most important thing in improving the quality of the institution (Tuoitre newspaper, 2012:2).

In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), the enrollment of students to top universities and colleges reduce yearly as well as the complaints increase drastically. In addition, the conflict between teachers and administrators over wages and working environment became more serious and there were many resigning applications from teachers in those institutions. Therefore, there must be a study to find out key factors related to these problems and overcome them.

The study aimed to look into the factors related to management strategies of some top colleges and top universities in HCMC such as Sai Gon college of Art, Culture and Tourism (SG CACT), Ho Chi Minh University of Industry (HUI) and Ho Chi Minh University of Law (HUL).

Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions.

What are problems faced by the students and lecturers in learning and teaching at their educational institution?

Whether the current teaching methods of lecturers affect the quality of teaching and learning?

Which parts of the curriculum do students and lecturers have problems with?

Does the current curriculum applied in each educational institution meet the requirements from the society?

Is there a correlation between the management strategies and the quality of teaching and learning at colleges and universities in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam?

3. Hypotheses

The above-mentioned research questions are based on the following hypotheses:

The null hypothesis is there is no correlation between the management strategy and the quality of teaching and learning.

Alternative hypothesis is there is a correlation between the management strategy and the quality of teaching and learning.

4. Importance of the study

The findings of the study have a great value in helping the administrators, teachers as well as students.

To the administrators, it would serve as a basis on the kind of setting goals, securing resources to achieve goals as well as policies that might be complemented to improve management style, relationship between administrators and teachers, students' satisfaction, learning style preferences and quality of teaching-learning at colleges and universities in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

To the teachers, the study would provide additional knowledge on how factors related to Academic performance could be improved for the greater improvement of the academic performance of the students. The factors would be used as a guide in the classroom management on student responsibility and interaction; attention could be focused on them how to improve academic performance and quality of teaching as well as techniques to meet learners' satisfaction.

To the students, the study would help them perceive management and leadership styles within college and universities. Furthermore, they could set the studying goals to meet the social needs as well as the recruitment requirements from companies and organizations and improve their academic performance.

To future researchers, this study would be another source of literature which would reflect on the management strategies of colleges and universities to implement approaches to make universities more "business like" and entrepreneurial.

5. Scope and Delimitation

This study aimed to look into the factors related to management strategies of some top colleges and top universities in HCMC such as Sai Gon college of Art, Culture and Tourism (SG CACT), Ho Chi Minh University of Industry (HUI) and Ho Chi Minh University of Law (HUL).

The study specifically determined the level of academic satisfaction of the students and teachers joining at these top colleges and universities in HCMC. The personality factors from recruitment officers and employers were also measured to appraise the quality of teaching-learning in those institutes from social views. The three sets of questionnaire were conducted to investigate the satisfaction of facilities, services, teaching methods, textbooks, curriculum, banking services as well as management style from students' and teachers' views. Besides, there were also requirements from the recruitment officers' and employers' view for the college and university to consider when planning academic curriculum, management styles, training methods as well as using teaching materials to meet the daily changes of the society.

The study also determined the relationship between management strategies and quality of teaching-learning at top colleges and universities in HCMC, Vietnam. The subjects of this study were 496 students in the second year at SG CACT, HUI and HUL in HCMC, Vietnam, during the school year 201l-2012; 60 teachers and lecturers from these three colleges and universities and 60 respondents from private companies and government organizations.

6. Limitations

The research for this study includes one limitation. The study lacks of examples of successfully educational management organizations within the institutional management field. This paper presents the needed data to answer the research question " Is there a correlation between the management strategies and the quality of teaching and learning at colleges and universities in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam?" by using a combination of three sets of questionnaires delivered to the students, teachers and recruitment officers throughout HCMC.

7. Definition of terms used in the study

The following section presents definition of key terms used in the thesis,

Classroom management is based within a 'teacher-oriented' model involving a clear set of expectations for student behavior and using a range of appropriate rewards and punishments to reinforce these expectations. (Canter, 2010)

Course-book: a book for studying from, used regularly in class. (Hornby, 2005:352)

Curriculum: "The term curriculum can be used in two ways. In one sense, it refers to the program studies of an educational institution. In a more restricted sense, it describes the substance of what is taught in a given subject. In Britain, the term syllabus is roughly equivalent to curriculum in the more restricted sense." (Stern, 1996:21)

Educational administration is considered as a mode of organizing "tells of and generates the perfectly well-regulated organization. It tells of people, files and machines which play allotted roles; it tells of hierarchical structures of offices with defined procedures for ordering changes between these offices; it tells of organized and rational division of labour; and it tells of management as the art of planning, implementing, maintaining and policing that structure. (Law, 1994:77)

Exercise is a set of questions in a book that tests your knowledge or practices a skill. (Hornby, 2005:531)

Globalization is a term that has been analyzed and defined in a number of ways. The concept of globalization has become a central focus in scholarship since 1980 and with the collapse of the Soviet Union during the 1990s; it became a world-wide concept with social, economic, political and educational dimensions (Abali, 2005)

Leadership is identified as "the ability to influence people to set aside their personal concerns and support a larger agenda - at least for a while". Boseman (2008:36)

Leadership styles can basically divided into three main types which are Hierarchical or the Autocratic, the Collaborative or Democratic or Transformational or Participative and the Laissez-faire or Delegative. (Cherry, 2011) [1] 

Learning styles are various approaches or ways of learning. They involve educating methods, particular to an individual, which are presumed to allow that individual to learn best. Most people prefer an identifiable method of interacting with, taking in, and processing stimuli or information. Based on this concept, the idea of individualized "learning styles" originated in the 1970s, and acquired "enormous popularity". (Pashler et al, 2009:105-119) [2] 

Management approaches such as strategic planning, human resource management and performance management, including target-setting processes, performance indicators and appraisals have come to characterize the 'new' view of management. (Mol, 2008:76)

Syllabus: "A document consists, esstentially, of a list This list specifies all the things that are to be taught in the course(s) for which the syllabus was designed". (Penny Ur, 1996:176)

Teaching materials: "A teaching material is a tangible item that you can use to facilitate teaching and learning. Examples of materials include textbooks, handouts and worksheets; written texts such as stories, songs and poems; audiovisual materials on DVD, CD, or tape; and computer software." Epstein and Ormiston (2007:3)

Chapter 2


The previous chapter has presented the background information to the study. This chapter reviews the literature relevant to the aim of this study. The combination of all the information obtained from the literature establishes the basis for the argument made in the discussion of presentation, analysis and interpretation of data in Chapter 4. This chapter consists of six parts: Management definition; Management and leadership relationship; School as Organizations; Changing schools, teachers as well as teaching methods; Globalization on the educational systems and schools; and finally syllabus evaluation.

2.1 Management defined

Management is defined in so many ways depending upon the viewpoints, beliefs and interpretation of the manager. For example, Gatewood et al. (1995) define management as "the force that runs the organization and is responsible for its success and failure". Other claim, "management is the performance of conceiving and achieving desired results by means of group effort consisting of utilizing human talents' and resources" (Coleman, Marianne, 2002). Still others state that management is simply "getting things done through people" (Barromeo, Roberto, 1995), while others claim that it can be summarized as planning and implementing. An additional definition is "management is satisfying the economic and social needs by being productive for the human being, for the economic, and for the society" (Coleman, Marianne, 2002). Some state, "Management is resource used by everybody to achieve goals" (Keith, Sherry, Robert G., 1990). [3] 

All these definitions have merit. For the purpose of this module, the following generally-accepted definition is used:

Management is a distinct process consisting activities of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish stated objectives by the human being and other resources.

In other words, there are different activities which make up a management process. Furthermore, these activities are performed to accomplish stated objectives, and they are performed by men with the help of other resources.

Management affects and influences the daily activities of every human being. Management makes us aware of our potentials; shows us the way toward better accomplishment, reduces obstacles, and causes us to achieve our personal or business goals.

Managers affect the establishment and accomplishment of many social, economic, and political goals in any country making a better economic life possible, improving social standards, and achieving more efficient and effective challenges to modern managerial ability.

Management gives effectiveness to human efforts. It is useful in acquiring better equipment, plants, offices, products, services, and human relations. It always adjusts to changing conditions, and supplies foresight and imagination.

It is also now recognized that management is the criteria and important tool in a nation's growth and progress. An underdeveloped nation, for example, usually lacks adequate management know-how. National development is not only dependent on transferring capital, technology and education to citizen of an undeveloped nation; it is also supplying and developing management, which generates and directs effective human efforts. Management know-how uses the available basic resources of business effectively toward the fulfillment of basic needs.

2.2 Leadership and Management

Leadership and management are often regarded as essentially activities. The determination of vision, the allocation of the resources and the evaluation of effectiveness all involve action. Practitioners tend to be dismissive of theories and concepts for their alleged remoteness from the 'real' school situation. Holmes and Wynne (1982:1-2), for example, are skeptical about the value of theory in informing practice: "There can be little genuine theory in educational administration. It is an applied field ultimately dependent on human will acting within a social context'. 'Theory is also unfashionable with policy-makers and government agencies such as the English Office for Standards in Education'(Bush, 2003:22).

The implementation of the Educational Reform Act 198 and similar legislation in other countries, has led to an emphasis on the practice of educational leadership and management. Heads and principals have been inundated with advice from politicians, officials, academics and consultants, about how to lead and manage their schools ad colleges. Many of these prescriptions are atheoretical in the sense that they are not underpinned by explicit values or concepts (Bush,1999:246).

It is evident from these comments that theory and practice are often regarded as separate aspects of educational leadership and management. Academics develop and refine theory while managers engage in practice. In short, there is a theory-practice divide, or 'gap'. Yet leaders and managers often operate on the basis of unconscious theories or notions about how to respond to particular situations or events. Arguably, decisions would be better informed if their understanding of theory is more coherent and systematic.

Two of the very best writers on theory in this field are Eric Hoyle and Mike Wallace. Hoyle's (1986) book on the Politics of School Management is a classic while Wallace has applied theory skillfully in interpreting findings from his research, notably in his work on school leadership and management teams (Wallace and Hall, 1994).

These authors revisit theory in the first article; 'Educational Reform: An Ironic Perspective'. They note that irony is rooted in ambiguity, where there is only a loose relationship between goals, structure, decision-making, technology and outcomes and add that it is 'emergent and unintended'. They say that irony flows from the fact that organizations are characterized by 'fundamental dilemmas'. One such dilemma is the establishment of specialist schools, which are simultaneously required to be fully comprehensive.

Over the past couple of decades, it has been common practice to refer students with special education needs (SEN) to schools or classes for full-time special education, but in many countries that has changed (Pijil et al., 1997; Vislie, 2003. In the past decades the trend has been towards more inclusive forms of education. The term 'inclusive education' refers to schools having a large diversity of students including those with SEN and providing differentiated education for them. As Hegarty (1991) stated, the focus of inclusive education is neither on where students are placed, nor on providing access to pre-set norms of learning and behavior, but on enabling schools to meet the needs of all students. Inclusive education aims to remove barriers to learning and participation.

Looking at the implementation of inclusive education, one cannot but conclude that impressive progress has been made (Daniels and Garner, 1999; Meijer, 2003a). On the one hand, there is growing societal awareness of the benefits and necessity of inclusive education. On the other hand, educational policies, legislation and regulations have promoted inclusive education by changing funding methods creating incentives for regional organization of schools and supporting teacher training (Daniels and Garner, 1999; Fletcher-Campbell et al., 2003; Meijer, 2003a; OECD, 1999; Vislie, 2003). However, the true criterion for successfully implementing a more inclusive system ultimately depends on what goes on in schools and classrooms (Ainscow, 2007). Many would state that at grassroots level much progress has been made; others would argue that still much has to be done before schools are really inclusive (Ferguson, 2006). These different evaluations are partly due to the fact that different perspectives on inclusiveness exist.

It is obvious that policymakers in undeveloped countries are eager to learn the 'secrets of successes from the more experienced countries but note there is no blueprint valid for all countries. This leaves policymakers in each country no option but to use some ideas from comparative research, which offers certain guidelines, and to adapt these to one's own national context. Issues like formulating clear policy statements on inclusive education, abandoning special education legislation, removing hindrances for inclusion from funding systems and empowering the position of parents all seem essential prerequisites for a successful inclusion policy. But working on prerequisites alone does not necessarily change daily practice in schools, the behavior of teachers and the attitudes of all involved. Clear policy statements for instance do sometimes change the rhetorical nature of policies, but not necessarily educational practice (Chadbourne, 1997; Elmore, 1980).

This literature study addresses that question by first looking at schools as organizations. It argues that schools have to change, but that this change process is hindered by management style favored by many policymakers. The effect in schools is 'disconnection' between the formal organizational structures and he work that is actually done. To avoid this, policymakers should focus more on supporting teachers in implementing inclusive education themselves and steer only on headlines.

2.3 Schools as Organizations

A practice of segregation in schools implies that schools and teachers have to change. The school as an organization has to adjust to new tasks, that is, instructing larger numbers of students with special needs. Policymakers are inviting schools to adopt a more inclusive setting. Local authorities and/or school governing bodies are often responsible for managing this change process.

Through analysis of organizations we know that different types of organization use different strategies in order to adapt to new tasks. Mintzberg (1997) distinguishes among others the machine bureaucracy and the professional bureaucracy. Organizations with a machine bureaucracy do simple work in a straightforward and not rapidly changing environment, which can be divided into small, routine tasks. The tasks are standardized as much as possible and formalized in instructions, rules and job descriptions. Organizations with a professional bureaucracy do more complex work in a complex environment that in itself is not that turbulent. Work in such a bureaucracy cannot be divided into small, routine tasks. It is the sort of work in which professionals apply general knowledge and skills to individual cases. Standardization and formalization of the tasks is difficult as the needs of the individuals and the circumstance need situational assessment. Coordination has to be done by the professionals themselves and is guaranteed by professional schooling, counseling and training. Standardization and formalization is only possible on a peer review basis. Examples include lawyers' offices and researches institutes.

There is some risk of being too simplistic, but one could conclude that simple work can be coordinated by rules and regulations and complex work by schooling and training the workers.

In most countries in the West, teachers have had three or four years initial training while many have also participated in various forms of additional schooling (Soriano, 1999). They perform their jobs fairly independently, work with student groups that change constantly and adjust the educational offering to students' needs. The quality of schools depends more on the schooling, training and attitude of its teachers than on rules and supervision from outside the school. Schools have many of the characteristics of a professional bureaucracy.

Policymakers, however, tend to steer schools using tools appropriate for managing a machine bureaucracy: they opt for centralized boards, ask for rational planning, analyze assessment data, require reports, want expenses to be accounted using formal systems, etc (Evans et al., 2005; Walsh, 2006). This is a steering conception rather common in western society because it is based on a rationalistic machine-like world view (Morgan, 1986). And because this world view seems both reasonable and just, it is so persistent.

For some decades now neo-liberal policy changes have brought deregulation and market mechanisms also in the field of education policy (Lundahl, 2002; Pijil, 2004). Although these changes have resulted in a reduction of centrally orchestrated regulation, the basic concept of machine-like governance has not disappeared. On the contrary, sometimes with contractual relations based on performance indicators, benchmarks, planning and control cycles, the rationalistic world view seems more pervasive than ever. Besides, regional and local governments tend to fill the gap created by central governments stepping aside, immediately.

Working in schools has, therefore, the characteristics of a professional bureaucracy while at the same time some of the operations in schools are managed from a machine bureaucracy viewpoint. Among others, Skrtic (1990) points out that using a non-fitting management style creates a number of problems in schools. If schools are managed with the wrong model in mind, the formal control and organizational structures are being disconnected from the work that is actually done (Skrtic and Sailor, 1996). For instance, schools produce planning documents for external bodies, while nobody in the school uses these. Or schools try to meet output criteria formulated in terms of student progress by sending students with special needs home. Schools can be maneuvered into a position that makes it rewarding to act as a machine bureaucracy because it provides them with the means they need. Schools then have no option but to produce 'perverse effects' (Frissen, 2005). The reality of planning and control documents is either completely disconnected from the reality of the class, or the planning and control requirements are a time consuming form of red tape, shifting the means from education to bureaucracy and administration.

A professional bureaucracy requires a stable environment in order to perform one particular task well. In terms of schools this means each year a certain syllabus for a group of students. If the student groups change, for instance by placing a growing number of students with special need, the organization is in trouble. The first reaction is to force the deviating students into existing programs or existing versions of these. Schools prefer to avoid developing and implementing new programs for students with special need (Pijil, 1989, 1992). Thus, in a professional bureaucracy, new problems are tackled by old, well-known ways of working and methods. According to Mintzberg (1997), 'pigeonholing' is the professional practice of defining clients' needs in terms of existing professional knowledge and routines. If that does not work, the disturbing factor is pushed out of the system.

If a professional bureaucracy has to adjust to change, the professionals working in the organization have to change. Managing change in schools from a machine perspective means changing task descriptions, rules and reshuffling workers and jobs accordingly. This is exactly what happens in many policy programs, although this is precisely what does not work in a professional bureaucracy. In the latter change can only be achieved by schooling, motivating, influencing professionals or even appointing other professionals.

If the management of change is machine bureaucracy in approach, schools will create the illusion of change. The semantics in the external communication, reports and plans are in order, but in reality this means disconnection again. If the school is obliged to place students with special needs, it will do so; but not by changing the educational offering, but by creating a separate nit next to the regular program with a special teacher (Riddell, 2007). Externally, everything is in order; internally, nothing has changed. If additional funding is made available for special needs education, schools re-allocate individual special needs funding as school sees fit (Crowther et al., 1998). The intended changes are realized by implementing other changes that fit in better with the school's existing practice.

The corporate approaches introduced in the late 1980s and now prevalent in universities in many countries have led to irrevocable changes in the way universities are managed and academics work. The management approaches widely applied in many universities are largely based on a top-down corporate management model, with central control over policy and budget driven by the need to meet stringent external accountability requirements. This form of management rewards compliance and predictability. The economic environment over this period has changed drastically, becoming more global and uncertain. The prevailing management processes are not suited to the modern economic environment. A modern university is expected to operate more as an enterprise, but to do so effectively; it needs flexible and responsive forms of management that are more inclusive of academics in the decision making process (Kenny, 2009:629-630).

The corporate approaches, aimed at making universities more "business like" and entrepreneurial, led to the introduction of strategic planning, budgeting, staff appraisals and quality assurance processes.

When considering effectiveness as opposed to efficiency, difficult questions are raised concerning the values and culture of an organization. Toma (2007) claims that a corporate approach 'shifts the balance [in decision making]…away from faculty and towards managers.' He argues that as academic culture 'values autonomy and independence' it 'aligns poorly with the political and corporate cultures' more prevalent in higher education and this can potentially lead to conflict (p.58-59). Furthermore, Abbott-Chapman (2005) notes 'there is a perception among many individual academic staff of the marginalization of their power and identity within the new commercial environment, with growing pressures on time, workload and morale…[and] anxiety about the increasing emphasis on institutionally imposed measures of performance and on professional standards and accountability (p.15).'

The nature of academic work has changed in other ways due to the widespread adoption of the corporate management paradigm. In addition to more external accountability, there has been increased casualisation of the workforce and the 'intensification' of academic work. Dearman (2003) argues that the inherent 'isolation' of academics has left them more vulnerable to 'institutional pressures' than ever before (p.26). Academics today have less influence over educational and research policy decisions and have generally less autonomy in their work (Dearman, 2003; Dearn et al., 2002; Kenny, 2008a).

Policy decisions in higher education should be critically examined by all stakeholders to ensure their longer-term effectiveness and sustainability. As Marginson (1993) points out, improvements in effectiveness can lead to improved efficiency, but 'the reverse is not the case'. Effective policy and strategy formation demand that critical decisions should first be made about what sort of educational outcomes are desirable, this approach would have quite 'different policy implications' (p.114). Thus considerations of effectiveness should precede considerations of efficiency. The formation of strategy in a university context cannot hope to be effective without the critical input of key stakeholders, including academics. Over time, however, there has been a gradual silencing of the academic voice (Crebbin, 1997; Dearman, 2003), which is likely to lead to reduced effectiveness in educational policy. This study argues that in the modern climate, more inclusive approaches to university management are needed to ensure effective decision making.

Along with Marginson (2000), Ramsden (1998) argues that an enterprise form of university is the most appropriate for the modern environment. Ramsden's idea of an 'enterprise' university is one founded on entrepreneurial activity, with a focus on adapting to change and innovation. He argues that it would be a potential 'disaster' if academic work was to be limited by managerial control (p.31): the traditional autonomy of academics is an asset for an enterprise. By necessity, an enterprise university will need to move beyond an efficiency orientation, to one geared towards effectiveness. This change in focus will require organizational structures and processes fundamentally different to those currently operating in most Vietnamese universities.

Priority decisions need to be made in all organizations about what is important and how resources should be dispersed. These decisions tend to reflect the values of the dominant group in the organization. The formation of effective educational and research strategy relies on a strong academic culture and is less likely if the managers and academics are not able to somehow reconcile their fundamentally different value systems. Both groups, as legitimate stakeholders, have a contribution to make to organizational decisions and academics have a particular responsibility to contribute to decisions that relate directly to teaching and research. Establishing processes that can marry the different values is a fundamental issue to be addressed in modern tertiary institutions if they hope to be effective.

Houston et al. (2006) claims that academics adopt a 'vocational' approach to their work and tend to be motivated by the intrinsic rather than the extrinsic aspects. Such things as flexibility, responsibility and variety are seen as more satisfying than external rewards linked to pay and promotion. Crebert (2000) argues that, in general, academics value process more than outcome, thus favouring a consultative and participatory model of strategic planning. Rae (1997) suggests that academics have a sense of purpose that make them more akin to volunteers in their organizations, rather than the typical notion of employees:

If managers do not value and incorporate the expertise of their academic leaders within their management practices, leadership will not be effective. (Yielder & Codling, 2004:321).

2.4 Changing Schools, Teachers and Teaching method

2.4.1 Changing Schools and Teachers

Not only do we change the management style, we but also have to change Schools and Teachers. Implementing inclusive education is about schools and teachers changing practices in order to combat segregation (Ainscow, 1995). Integration is often described as 'just' placing students with the same needs and implementing (minor) adaptations to the standard curriculum and the classroom organization, while implementing inclusive education focuses on a broader process of meaningful access to the general curriculum for all students (Gersten and Santoro, 207; Pijl et al., 1997). The 'Index for Inclusion' of Booth and Ainscow (2002) gives an idea how broad this process can be. It introduces a few hundred questions focusing on possible issues for change, among others, their attitudes, ways of working, materials used and their cooperation with other professionals in and outside the classroom (Ainscow, 2007). Teachers often respond to implementing inclusive education by pointing at their lack of knowledge and experience in educating students and by asking for additional training (Hamstra, 2004; Kavale, 2000; Kershner, 2007).

According to the pressure from the society and the competitive market, the board of management in the schools and universities tend to fire former teachers and recruit new ones to meet the requirements from parents and students. Next to training professionals in a professional bureaucracy, change can also be based on firing the professionals working in the organization and hiring new ones. It is obvious that no government or school governing body could do that. It would be socially unacceptable, too costly and there are simply not enough new professionals on the labour market.

As a first step towards inclusion, many countries have started 'experimental' inclusion projects with extra funding. It was expected that the experiments would develop 'good practice' that could be transferred to other schools and situations. With much extra funding available, many schools were interested to participate, but large scale implementation with so much extra funding is generally too costly. Implementing the 'good practice' from experimental projects without extra funding was seen to be unrealistic by other schools. So, experimental projects with much additional funding can easily lead to set back in implementing inclusive education and policymakers should be careful in using this as an instrument in promoting inclusive education. This pattern is quite common in education: schools want more autonomy and demand the government to step back, but certainly state schools hold the government responsible for all changes and innovations and ask for additional funding. This grant-addiction (Frissen, 2005) does not fit in with the image of being a strong, self-regulating school system. Criticizing the government for being meddlesome does not go along well with inviting the government to intervene and provide additional funding all the time (Frissen, 2005).

2.4.2 Changing teaching method

All cultures have their own concepts of teaching, learning, and education. There has long been a debate about the appropriateness of many of the methods used by the teachers and those trained in expatriate methods. Increasingly, it is recognized that pedagogical action needs to be sensitive to the cultural and environmental contexts in which teaching takes place and the fuction of an educational system is to create the conditions whereby learners might generate their own skills and knowledge (Nunan, 1999).

Therefore, the role of teachers is very important in the classroom. The teachers have to change their teaching ways to be suitable to the context and the need of the society. Communicative language teaching, learner-centered instruction and task-based teaching are three concepts that have had a particularly important influence on our teaching field over the last twenty years. These three ideas, which are all interrelated, are part of an interpretative view of education, a view that argues against the notion that learning is a master of having skills and knowledge transmitted from the teacher to the learner. The interpretative tradition, which is strongly rooted in humanistic psychology, argues that, in order for learning to take place, learners must reconstruct the skills and knowledge for themselves; they cannot simply "receive" these from external sources (Nunan, 1999:5). The cliché, "If students are to learn, then, ultimately they have to do the learning for themselves" is an apt summation to the belief.

It is necessary to turn from the concept of learner-centeredness to the closely related concept of learning-centeredness. A learning-centered classroom is designed to enable the learner to make critical pedagogical decisions by systematically training them in the skills they need to make such decisions. Such a classroom is constituted with complementary aims. Learners are, therefore, systematically educated in the skills and knowledge they will need in order to make informed choices about what they want to learn and how they want to learn. From the above discussion, it can be seen that learner-centered instruction is not a master of handing over rights and powers to learners in a unilateral way. Nor does it involve devaluing the teacher. Rather, it is a matter of educating learners so that they can gradually assume greater responsibility for their own learning.

There is one other sense in which the term leaner-centered is often used. This is when it refers to classrooms, not in which learners are involved in making choices about what to learn and how to learn, but in which learners are actively involved in the learning process, classrooms in which the focus is on the learner in the sense in which they do all the work. As this kind of classroom is, in fact, consistent with a particular line of knowledge acquisition in which acquisition is facilitated when opportunities for learners to interact are maximized (Nunan, 1999:14).

2.5 Globalization on the educational systems and schools

Globalization is a term that has been analyzed and defined in a number of ways. The concept of globalization has become a central focus in scholarship since 1980 and with the collapse of the Soviet Union during the 1990s; it became a world-wide concept with social, economic, political and educational dimension (Abali, 2005). Globalization has transformed the world to a single system and connected countries as the sub systems of a bigger system. This connectivity increases every day, where countries can no longer be isolated from each other.

Globalization has brought many changes on the education systems and schools. These changes will be exemplified from the basis of school finance, employee rights, curriculum, administration, and school-environment relations.

With regard to educational discourses, most of the world's governments discuss similar educational agendas that include investing in education to develop human capital or better workers and to promote economic growth. Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), such as United Nations, The OECD and the World Bank, are promoting global educational agendas that reflect educational discourses about human capital, economic development, and multiculturalism (Spring, 2008:332).

With the impact of globalization, public service was minimized and these services were transferred into private sectors as much as possible. Economically strong organizations and some dominant groups emphasized the failure and low productivity of the public sector so as to make the process easier. They put forward alternative models and strategies to prevent low performance. Fast spread of the globalization and special efforts to realize the aim led the public to lose economic power while enhancing the power of the private sector. Reflections of globalization were seen in the educational sector in Vietnam as it was seen in other countries. It is inevitable to set educational institutions apart from these innovations and influences (Seyfi, 2006).

In this context, educational institutions were put under criticism as it was seen in the case of low productivity in the public sector. Some politicians, public officers, owners of private schools and some non-profit organizations (NPOs) established by those groups criticized public schools and the national educational system in a severe way, without considering the challenges experienced in public schools, by taking the support of the mass media. As a result of these efforts, the number of private educational institutions increased dramatically especially in big cities. In parallel with these developments, the purpose of education which was thought to meet the demands of the private sector changed with the idea of satisfying all individuals' learning needs. New topics were incorporated into the curriculum in accordance with the new role of education (Ali, 2009: 185).

Undoubtedly curriculum and related significant changes, which are seen in teaching and learning issues, are reflected on the organizational and administrative structures of the schools. This is because the schools which are established and administered on the traditional management principles can no longer meet the demands of these new learning and teaching approaches. For this reason, many people in and outside the schools found bureaucratic school structures inefficient to respond to the current problems of public education. Scholars argued that the traditional organization structures hinder learning and fail to address the needs of the students from the 21st century knowledge society (Ali, 2009: 186).

Economic, social and political developments emerged by globalization influenced school and environment relations. Especially total quality management practices have forced schools to be more aware of the needs and expectations of the economic and local powers, and students' parents as well as students. As a result, significant relations have been seen between the school and the partners of education in the environment in addition to students themselves. This also affected students' ideas about the schools in a positive way. While schools started to see students as customers, students began to see schools as the service providers. This perspective was commonly seen in big cities and regions with high socio-economic status. In parallel with these developments, students were given the power to determine what schools they will attend as well as making contributions in a variety of school activities like, participating in the teaching-learning activities, helping their classmates' learning and becoming a member of school community so that they would have certain responsibilities and contributions to the development of the school where they were studying. This new understanding also converted the traditional school-environment, school community and teacher-student relations into more flexible, participatory and multi dimensionally interactive models. Altin (1998) and Keçeci (2002) analyzed impact of globalization on education settings. The changes and development brought along with the forces of globalization, new forms of conflicts emerged in the educational system. Conflict is in the nature of change and conflicts can be constructive if they are handled with effective styles. However, while some schools make use of the conflicts which occur as a natural result of change, some other schools that manage change in traditional methods may come up against resistance that arises from administrators and teachers. Since it is impossible to be alienated from globalization, we should channel the changes in a positive way with the most effective methods and use this same idea for the schools. Schools cannot be isolated from the effects of globalization.

2.6 Syllabus evaluation

Syllabus also plays an important part in managing the educational institutions. Using an appropriate syllabus can have a good output for society. Concerning the syllabus roles, Hutchison and Water (1987:84) point out the following reason for having a syllabus:

The syllabus provides a practical basis for the division of assessment, textbook and learning time.

A syllabus also gives moral support to the teacher and learner in that it makes the language - learning task appear manageable.

A syllabus, particularly an ESP syllabus also has a cosmetic role.

The syllabus can be seen as a statement of projected routes, so that teacher and learner not only have an idea o where they are going, but how they might get there.

A syllabus is an implicit statement of views on the nature of language and learning. A syllabus will normally be expressed in term of what is taken to be the most important aspect of language learning…A syllabus, then tells the teacher and the students not only what to be learnt, but, implicitly, why it is to be learnt.

A syllabus provides a set of criteria for materials selection and/or writing. It defines the kind of texts to look for or produce the items to focus on in exercises etc.

Uniformity is a necessary condition of any institutionalized activity, such as education. It is deemed to be important that standards within a system are as equal as possible. A syllabus is one way in which standardization is achieved (or at least attempted).

A syllabus provides a visible basis for testing.

Regarding the textbook roles, Sheldon (1988:237) suggests that textbooks not only "represent the visible heart of any ELT program" but also offer considerable advantages - for both the students and the teacher - when they are being used in the ESL/ESP classroom. Hutchinson and Torres (1994:315) agree with his observation and say:

" The textbook is an almost universal element of teaching purpose. Millions of copies are sold every year, and numerous aid projects have been set up to produce them in various countries…No teaching-learning situation, it seems, is complete until it has its relevant textbook".

Obviously, the role of the textbook as well as syllabus is an important and complex one. It clearly satisfies many different needs. Together with correct designing and using appropriate methodologies, it appraises learners to achieve the effectiveness in acquisition of knowledge.

2.6.1 Definition and rationale for syllabus evaluation

There has been a strong surge of interest in the goals, roles and methods of evaluation in teaching. Evaluation is an effective means of measuring teaching and learning performance in an educational system with the goal of improving the teaching and learning process. In teaching programs, evaluation is related to decisions to be made about the quality of the program itself, and decisions about individuals in the programs. Nunan (1999:307) defines evaluation as "processes and procedures of gathering information about a program, or aspects of a program, for decision making purposes".

On that issue of the rationale, Finch and Crunliton (1989:300) state: "It is essential that evaluation results serve as a basis for determining if and when appropriate educational changes should be made". Evaluation has a positive impact on the syllabus, programs or materials. The real strength of evaluation lies in its potential to effect educational improvement.

Another rationale for evaluation is, as Cunningsworth (1995:14) states:

"To identify particular strengths and weaknesses in a program already in use, so that optimum use can be made of their strong points, whilst their weaker areas can be strengthened through adaption or by substituting material from other books". He concludes: "Textbook analysis and evaluation help teachers to gain good and useful insights into the nature of the material" (Cunningsworth, 1995:6).

Inevitably, evaluation involves elements of comparison, especially when course books are outdated, and in competition for adoption or where newly produced materials are challenging existing.

In many textbooks on curriculum development, the term assessment and evaluation are used synonymously. However, there should be a clear distinction between the two concepts. Evaluation is the collection and interpretation of information about aspects of the curriculum (including learners, teachers, materials, leaning arrangements, etc.) for decision-making purposes. Assessment is a subcomponent of evaluation. Assessment refers to the tools, techniques, and procedures for collecting and interpreting information about what learners can and cannot do. This reveals what learners can and cannot do because of the instructional process.

2.6.2 Types of evaluation

According to Richards (2001:228), there are three types of evaluation based on their purposes: Formative, illuminative, and summative evaluation.

Formative evaluation performed to find out what is working well, what is not, and what problems need addressing. It focuses on ongoing development and improvement of the program. This is also the type used in this paper as the evaluation in the paper done during the use of the syllabus.

Illuminative refers to evaluation that looks for finding out how different aspects of the program work are implemented. It seeks to pride a deeper understanding of the processes of teaching and learning that occur in the program, without necessarily seeking to change the course in any ways as a result. This purpose of evaluation does not go well with the one proposed in the paper.

Summative evaluation is the type with which most teachers and program administrators are familiar with and which seeks to make decisions about the worth or value of different aspects of the syllabus. It is concerned with determining the effectiveness of a program, its efficiency, and to some extent with its acceptability. It takes place after a program is implemented. Such an evaluation provides an appraisal of the value of specific teaching activities for particular groups of learners and, perhaps more importantly serves as encouragement to teachers to adopt a "reflective approach" to their own teaching. Such an evaluation to the empirical validation of teaching materials may prove more manageable and therefore less daunting to teachers.

In this study, the evaluation of the syllabus is done during the use of the syllabus, but it is mainly completed after the syllabus has been put into practice. It is also the "post-use type" as Cunningsworth (1995:14) points out. It provides retrospective assessment of the syllabus for students and is useful for identifying strengths and weaknesses that emerge over a period of continuous use. It is also useful in helping to decide whether to use this syllabus on future occasion, particularly in respect of short self, which are repeated from time to time.

2.7 Summary

This chapter has discussed theoretical and empirical literature crucial to the understanding of main issues concerning to the relationships between management and leadership, changing schools, teachers and teaching methods as well as globalization on the educational systems and schools. Besides, innovated management styles, when appropriately selected and implemented, provide headmasters and managers of schools with new strategic visions to achieve their real goal to meet students' need as well as requirements of the society.