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Knowledge is deemed an essential part of coaching within any sporting environment. Furthermore, within any sporting environment all coaches require some kind of coaching knowledge whether novice or expert in which constructed throughout life or coaching experiences. Coaching knowledge is vital whether planning, coach/athlete relationship, analysing, and observation etc... In which is significant towards participants learning. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to determine whether any knowledge has been extended and how further knowledge can be constructed to enhance personal coaching towards achieving long time personal goal of expertise coaching. This will be completed via twenty completed hours with the CSA Trinity (CSA) and coaching sessions which were delivered within the twelve weeks at Oxford Brookes University to discover if any progression from a novice to expert knowledge base coach.
Stages of development
Throughout the duration of coaching CSA trinity Football Club coaching observations were deployed towards myself via feedback from participants and parents to determine what coaching level performance stood. Refer to appendix 5, coach performance feedback sheets. As Bloom (1985) states, three phases of the module include initiation, development and perfection in which designed to improve young athletes within a suitable environment and therefore enhances the development of expertise. However, a slightly different view from Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986) whereby expertise achievement involves five stages of completion novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient and expert within anyone's field of expertise. Conversely, further studies demonstrate several transformations of sport context as Cote (1999) adopted four stages and designed a module to nurture and develop participants, but also could drop out at different stages in required during the sampling, specializing, investment and recreation phases.
Another model as Bush and Roberts (2011) Schempp et al (2006) suggest coaches' requirements of becoming an expert practitioner involve extended knowledge base. However, in order to reach extended knowledge base coaches require commence through four stages of development, novice, competent, proficient and expert. Though each model requirements are significant in order for development to reach a one's goal "expertise" importantly for different types of work industries and levels of abilities.
However, Hargreaves and bate (2009) state; experience and knowledge are beneficial as developing and coaching the participants within the session to obtain improved skills and knowledge of the game, rather than running a session via accumulation drills. Furthermore, Bush and Roberts (2011) Schempp et al (2006) suggest, novice emphasis lay on participant's behaviours than somewhat developing the participant and therefore, no future engagement of knowledge to improve learning. However, Schempp et al (2006) continues, within the competent phase, knowledge is consumed to decrease the amount of mistakes that occur, but equally concerned with rules, such as no talking policy when coach is talking.
Therefore, competent coaching within the first five or six weeks at University and (CSA) as slightly confusing due to missives of information received within lectures. Consequently, lack of experience and knowledge prevailed as technical knowledge, reflections; planning, coach/athlete relationship and coaching styles etcâ€¦ were somewhat a learning phase and therefore running instead of coaching a session in which no learning or developments took place when delivering sessions. Refer to appendix 4, reflective diary and one to six weeks of session evaluations/reflections for under 8's and 11's.
For that reason, constructing knowledge was the next stage in order to achieve a level of proficiency as Perlus (2008) feels that, coaching knowledge comes from personal experiences, i.e. playing the sport, expertise level and context etcâ€¦ and therefore playing ability is essential in which refines coaching knowledge. However, these attributes would have a certain degree of effectiveness, although not essential to become an expert coach. For example, Linford Christie's ex-coach Ron Roddan highest achievement was running for his county Middlesex and Jose Mourinho current Real Madrid manager both encountered short low profile, playing careers. As Carter (2006) states, Jose Mourinho playing career was very brief, however, during his brief spell as a player whilst studying football methodology within Lisbon's Sports University. Therefore, increased his knowledge base in which Mourinho encountered all stages to expertise which lead him to various assistant/manager jobs at high-profile clubs.
However, gaining experience from previous playing career is not essential to gain expertise knowledge. Whether professional athlete or playing recreational sports expertise knowledge can be gained through sheer determination and motivation and create solid foundation within coaching. Therefore, essential for different aspects to gain knowledge, i.e. experiences, books, journals, analysing performance, playing experience and observing other coaches- insight into tactics and technique and feedback are crucial components to reach desired goal of expertise. Refer to appendix 1,2,3,4 and 5 of portfolio.
However, gaining expert knowledge requires hours and years of deliberate practice according to Ericsson and Charness (1994), Nelson et al (2006), Ericsson et al (1993), Schempp et al (2006), cote (2006) and Gilbert et al (2006) which are from different fields and somewhat indecisive within the duration and experience to require expertise knowledge base. Nevertheless, all theories fluctuate and suggest five, ten and thirteen years, 3,000 to10,000 hours to reach full potential. However, Schempp et al (2006) states, expert knowledge are neither genetic nor distinctive characteristics, but fineness within coaching which education and experience in which can be expanded over hours or years of deliberate practice dependent on the individual motivation of success. Though, depending on what type of coach/person, sheer determination, personality, visions, passion, motivation and goals etcâ€¦ you possess knowledge. Hence, experience could be administered quicker to excel from novice to expert to achieve the goal they require as Schempp et al (2006) points rightly out. Finally, if required enough knowledge and content with the level of coaching/knowledge, coaches may opted to stop if gained a level of efficiency.
Another method which coaches construct knowledge is formal, non-formal and informal coach learning whereby on-going and lifelong development to construct further knowledge in different organizations. As Nelson et al (2006), Bush and Roberts (2011), Smilde (2009) and Edwards et al (2006) report that, formal learning is institutionalized and organised education system with static or linear learning objectives and main focus is the product and not the process for example, curriculum organisations i.e. BTEC, national governing body (NGB) courses and degrees-foundation degrees etc.. "certification constructed" . For instance Ehlers (1998) found that, disadvantages occur within formal learning 'learners remember only 20% of the information presented during a formal lesson'.
Consequently, formal learning has no consideration for the individual/learner and low impact on knowledge and therefore, decreases the difficulty of the requirements of the coach. For example, coaches, maybe hesitant when applying knowledge to practice, when and how to coach.
Although, Nelson et al (2006), Bush and Roberts (2011), Smilde (2009) and Edwards et al (2006) continues, non-formal learning takes place outside formal learning within workshops, groups, organisations and best practice etcâ€¦ learning does not occur, because, on the other hand good for basic understanding. However, extraordinarily hard to measure if learning/knowledge has taking place as no pass or fail occurs and therefore, does not provide a framework which is vital for constructing coaching knowledge. Though, Informal learning consists of constructing knowledge, developing skills and behaviours which benefit coaching practice via the use of journals, books, videos and self-direction etcâ€¦. Therefore, research and learning within the environment over on-going life long process is beneficial for expertise knowledge. For example, observing to challenge something, reflecting in (within session) and on (after session) practical, technical and critical problems can create a deeper learning or development of coaching knowledge. Refer to appendix 6, readings-development of expert coaching page 2 and 6.
However, individuals are somewhat different and learn at different speeds, ways. Therefore, to create a sound knowledge base, formal and non-formal learning would provide not only certification, but a foundation for practices, drills and the basics understanding of the coaching environment. However, informal, the most beneficial, but applying knowledge from informal with the use of the non-formal and informal would prove somewhat beneficial for some individuals within the coaching environment. Hence, individuals learn differently i.e. in their own in way which they feel conformable, experience different opportunities to discover the outcome themselves etcâ€¦ to achieve a certain goal.
Areas of knowledge
The opinion of Cassidy et al (2004) and Robyn et al (2008) is that, the work from researcher Shulman (1986) in regards to content knowledge required three sections, subject matter content knowledge (SMCK) refers to the coach and knowledge to deliver a session i.e. core skills accomplished by the participants whilst the rules are coached etcâ€¦ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is the ability to teach or communicate whilst engaged with the (SMCK) participants. Finally, curriculum content knowledge (CCK) 'tools of the trade' as mentioned by Robyn et al (2008), meaning explaining and analysing the subject matter towards student learning.
However, Metzler (2000) suggests, Shulman's work is a great starting point in regards to content knowledge. However, Metzler (2000) continues, further breakdown of the current components into a further three categories declarative, procedural and conditional knowledge would be beneficial as it would become intimate within the designated sport. Therefore, Metzler (2000) and Bush and Roberts (2011) share the same view in that declarative knowledge (DK) in which coaches explains and express verbally or within a written format, i.e. the knowledge about and facts and things. Metzler (2000) and Bush and Roberts (2011) continue, procedural knowledge (PK), meaning "knowledge how too/ how to achieve it" i.e. how to perform a task or procedure and conditional knowledge refers to when and why to do something and what happens if. Refer to appendix 6, readings-development of expert coaching pages 5-6.
However, both Metzler (2000) and Shulman (1986) in regards to all categories are somewhat beneficial when applying both methods together within the coaching environment whereby coaches can improve participants' performances and therefore, learning takes place as the knowledge to get something done had occurred "expert Coaches". Refer to appendix 2 sessions plans 9 and 10 of both under 8'& 11's.
The latter stages of the twenty hours coaching and lectures becoming more confident as expanded knowledge and experience was clearly evident as some learning took place. Therefore, technical knowledge, reflections/evaluating, planning, coach/athlete relationship and coaching styles etcâ€¦were developing together not just certain aspects of coaching.
However, due to vast accumulated knowledge and experience proficient knowledge base was more distinguished, but still needs improvement. Refer to appendix 4, reflective diary and seven to ten weeks of session evaluations/reflections for under 8's and 11's.
Though, focusing more on the participants' performance/development, participant engagement rather than running a session as before. However, expert knowledge more formidable and therefore, more knowledge and experience required to reach lifetime goal "expert knowledge base coach". As Schempp et al (2006) Wiman et al (2010) conclude to gain expertise knowledge involves constant planning for desired outcomes of sessions, gaining knowledge all the time via journals, books, workshops, programmes which involve certification etc.â€¦ Furthermore, learning and observing from other expert coaches, experience etc... Refer to appendix 5, peer observations-strengths/weaknesses
Given this evidence, it can be seen that coaches acquire knowledge they need to be effective and expert coach via different methods through a number of formal, non-formal and informal learning environments. However, learning is diverse and dynamic process in which is very distinctive and therefore, different to being taught something within education. Therefore, essential to gain knowledge through all types of experiences from playing recreational to professional sports, reading journals or books, written work, workshops programmes which involve certification etcâ€¦ Furthermore, gaining expert knowledge requires hours and years of deliberate practice all dependent on what type of attitude the coach/person requires as sheer determination, passion, and motivation to reach the desired goals could excel towards the journey of dream goal "expert coach".