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Emotional intelligence (EI) describes the ability, capacity, skill, a self perceived ability to identify, assess and control the emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups. Different models have been proposed for the definition of EI and disagreement exists as to how the term should be used. The earliest roots of emotional intelligence can be traced to Darwin's work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and second adaptation.
Emotional intelligence has been conceptualised as a multidimensional construct as proposed by Goleman (1995, 1998) and Mayer and Salovey (1993, 1995). According to this conceptualization, emotional intelligence consists of abilities such as being able
To motivate one and persist in the face of frustrations
To control impulses and delay gratification
To regulate one's moods and keep distress from swamping the ability to think;
To empathize and to hope.
Emotional intelligence is made up of a set of skills and these skills can be improved through education. Colleges serve as the prime location for the promotion of emotional intelligence.
INDIA TIMES STRATEGY SUMMIT ON EQ IS WILL FOCUS ON :
Understand how emotions can influence thoughts, behaviour, goals, decision - making and work / personal relationship.
Make the link between emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness.
How to build motivation into your work
How to build constructive thinking patterns to facilitate goal achievement.
Emotionally intelligent person is likely to be skilled in two key areas within one's emotional competence framework, namely
Personal Competence - How one manages relationship. It implies self awareness, self regulation and motivation.
Social Competence - How one manages relationship. It comprises 'empathy' (the ability to understand other's emotion and other's talents or skills needed to influence, communicate, lead, develop others, manage conflicts, promote team work or catalyse change) and 'social skills' (such as expertise in inculcating desirable responses in others).
A widely reported national study by the American college Test organization on the topic of drop-outs in the freshman year of college revealed that academic ability (cognitive domain) was not the major factor. The primary reasons for dropping out were hot academic but personal factors ( Emotional domain) such as loneliness, lack of purpose, and feelings of inadequacy. Which academic development is the primary purpose of education, there is a wealth of information and experience that confirm the importance and impact of emotional intelligence skills and competencies.
Emotional intelligence skills and competencies are key to creating and maintaining a healthy and productive college climate.
A HIGHER EDUCATION PERSPECTIVE :
To achieve the educational aspirations of the 21st century, there is an increasing need to develop healthy, responsible, and productive students, teachers, faculty, staff and administrators in all academic disciplines. Accountability needs to be embraced and in effect in academic, behaviour and emotional development.
Interdisciplinary research clearly connects emotional intelligence and emotional skills to achievement, career success, personal health and well - being and leadership.
Fundamental beliefs and core values of student development in education have included the following:
Respect for the integrity and well being of each student
Commitment to actively building a healthy and safe learning environment.
Quality and fairness in serving all students
A celebration of diversity
Recognition of the pre-eminence of the academic mission of the university.
MAJOR VALUE FOR STUDENT DEVELOPMENT :
Individuation - positive emotional learning and development are central to the value of individuation.
Community - A college or university is viewed as a place where students grow through their involvement in meaningful relationships. Students benefits from relationship that,
Make them feel valued
Contribute to positive self-worth
Create a healthy, productive learning community
Form a personal sense of belonging
Healthy relationships are important to the academic, behavioural and emotional growth and development of students.
ELEMENTS OF A STUDENT DEVELOPMENT MODEL FOR BALANCED COGNITIVE AND AFFECTIVE LEARNING :
Systematic and sustained as a normal part of the educational experience.
An emphasis on the understanding of meaning rather than an accumulation of knowledge facts.
Communal with respect to the development of individuals and community.
Team building and human relationship development are inherent aspects of the learning environment.
Cross - disciplinary, inter connected, integrated and holistic.
Cognitive and affective learning given great breath, depth and width throughout the curriculum.
Active and collaborative learning maximized.
Service learning integral to the process of education and leadership development.
Powerful partnerships between those responsible for " in -class" and "out-of-class" learning.
Learning viewed as an inherent outcome of the total environment.
Applied institutional research used as a mechanism for improvement.
A balanced system of accountability and commitment is needed. Student development programs, utilising an education and research - based model of emotional intelligence competencies and skills, are needed to demonstrate this institutional commitment to accountability.
Emotional knowledge, skills, and competencies are essential to the student development values of individuation and community. The affective or emotional learning domain is central to student development. Experiential and self-directed learning activities need to be systematic and accountable. Colleges and universities need to be able to demonstrate and show faculty, students and the entire academic community how courses, programs, services, and resources make a difference in professional and personal development. Student development programs are positioned to meet this type of institutional accountability.
A RESEARCH - BASED EDUCATION MODEL OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE :
The educational model of emotional intelligence at Texas. A&M university -Kingsville defines emotional intelligence as a confluence of developed abilities to
Know and value self
Build and maintain a variety of strong, productive and healthy relationships.
Get along and work well with others in achieving positive results.
Effectively deal with the pressures and demands of daily life and work (Nelson and Low, 1998).
This definition provides for a practical, easily understood, skills and competencies - based approach to emotional learning and emotional intelligence. With a skills and competencies - based approach, emotional intelligence can be organized, integrated and taught in a sequential, step-by-step, learner centered process.
THE EMOTIONAL LEARNING SYSTEM :
Emotional and experienced - based learning is different from Traditional academic content learning. The emotional learning system is based on this difference. It's five steps are systematic and sequential, yet fluid and interactive the system is designed to ensure a learner- centred development process built on honest, positive self assessment.
Step 1 (self assessment; Explore)
Step 2 (self awareness ; Identify)
Step 3 (self knowledge ; Understand )
Step 4 (self development ; Learn)
Step 5 (self improvement ; Apply and model)
The development of emotional intelligence is an intentional, active and engaging learning process rich with personal meaning. The foundation of the emotional learning process is a positive assessment of thirteen emotional skills organized around four key competencies.
EMOTIONAL SKILLS ASSESSMENT PROCESS
KEY EMOTIONAL COMPETENCIES
KEY EMOTIONAL SKILLS
I. Interpersonal development and healthy relationships
2. Anger management
3. Anxiety management
II. Personal Leadership
4. Social awareness (comfort)
7. Positive influence
III. Self management ; Career & Life
8. Drive strength
9. Time management
10. Commitment ethic
11. Positive change
IV. Intrapersonal Development
12. Self esteem
13. Stress management
HOW TO ATTAIN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE :
Many people do not yet grasp the concept of emotional intelligence. It is because of this fact that people tend to forget to practice and enhance it. It is not only your intelligence quotient that makes the world go round. Attaining the right emotional intelligence will help you remain standing strong even when the world keeps going around you. So what is emotional intelligence? Emotional intelligence is the ability to better attune your self with your feelings. Many people do not have emotional intelligence because they have a difficulty expressing what they feel or understanding their feeling in the first place. When you do realize the need to attain emotional intelligence it is best to do it under the guidance of someone who has attained sufficient emotional intelligence them selves. It is also best to attain emotional intelligence by emulating a model, parents or friends would help a great deal in this aspect. Feelings cannot be dictated, it just appears.
TO UNDERSTAND THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS VERSUS SCHOOL STUDENTS, A STUDY HAD BEEN MADE BY DISTRIBUTING QUESTIONNAIRE AMONG 100 STUDENTS AT COLLEGE & SCHOOL LEVELS.
THROUGH THIS PRIMARY SOURCE THE FOLLOWING ARE THE FINDINGS OF THE STUDY.
There is no significant difference between the emotional feelings of college students and school students.
Both the school and college student felt secured if they are with their family members.
Both of them are of the opinion that they are equally encouraged for their good activities. It ranges between 54% to 56%.
70% of the school students and 66% of the college students feel guilty for their mistakes.
They expect a close attached always from their friends and they never feel jealous for their friends wealth.
Both school and college students had the same feeling of anxiety whenever they face problems. It ranges between 36% to 42%.
Confidence level of the college students are 56% and school students are 58% so both they have a high hope about their future.
Acceptance level of the school students are 32% and college students are 28% so they don't like to accept their fault.
Curiosity level of the school students and college students are 48% it shows that they are very much curious to know new things.
They use to feel and compassion when the public is affected even for their personal problem. It ranges between 28% to 30% .
72% of the school and college students have attachment with others.
40% of the college student and 41% of the school students have high level of emotional feelings.
Both of them don't feel scared whenever the responsibility is entrusted to them
The tolerance level of the school students are 30% and the college students are 22%, it indicates that the tolerance level of the school students as higher than college students.
36% School students and 22% of the college students does not like the advise of others.
In case of sharing of their ideas with others, college students views are comparatively higher as 18% than school students.
Majority of college students felt that they have never come across loneliness but among school students only at times they felt loneliness.
56% of the school students and 46% of the college student felt that they are so angry when they come across any corruptional activities.
College students often getting boredom unnecessarily than school students.
Among the school students, majority felt that they had emotional feelings at times but among the college students majority had an emotional feelings at high level.
In order to attain emotional intelligence, you have to understand what other people are feeling and respect them for it. It is important that you empathize with other people and accept their feelings. People who have attained emotional intelligence know how to give regard to other people's feelings and listen to what's evoking those feelings. Give your emotional intelligence room to grow and develop by surrounding yourself with positive people willing to support you.
Improving emotional intelligence is a key factor in physical and mental health, academic achievement, personal satisfaction and career excellence. The emotional intelligence program is a student development model that attempts to convey this message in an applied university context.
Educational psychology - Dr.K.Nagarajan
Advanced Educational psychology -Dr.A.Meenatchi Sundaram
Experimental psychology - Dr.A.Meenatchi Sundaram
HRM Review - India Times.