The Difference Between Chinese And American College Education Essay

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America is a country advocating organization and association, its organization form dates back to colonial period, there are mainly two kinds up to now, one is charitable institution, namely non-profitable institution; the other is non profitable groups, such as women organization, national organization, professional organization, etc. According to the statistics, until now there are about 23 thousand national associations and more than 100 thousand local associations. Among them, most famous are American Philosophical Association, American Federation of Arts and American Economic Association, etc. Americans usually think that, the reason for participating in certain association is because of some common interest and that it can solve some problems and protect one's own interest. As a kind of new philosophy, community socialist has rooted in American political theory and moral thoughts. All these provide mature mode and thinking cultural background.

The guiding ideology of American college student work got through three periods, they are colonial period which focused on religion and moral education; industrial revolutionary period which was aimed at cultivating lots of engineering and technical personnel, scientific research personnel and management personnel; After the World War II, until today, it always emphasizing that higher education should cultivate "complete student" period. The earliest carrier of students' activity was "students' activity center", the practice of establishing students' activity center has a long history in European countries.

In 1937, American Council on Education published《The student Personnel Point of View stressing that student should develop as a complete person not just practice intelligence. The oldest theoretical basis of American college student affairs was Britain's traditional system instead of parents, this theory didn't lose its conducting position until the 20th century. Instead, "student personnel work" and "student service" took the place of it. Led by this ideology, students' extracurricular activities began to thrive. As an effective carrier of students' extracurricular activities, student association followed and improves construction method of social association organization, gradually becomes beautiful scenery of campus culture.

The establishing program of our country's college student association is relatively simple, relative functional department s of school's Party Commission just need to record. Lunching an association must be equipped with community articles, sponsors list, organization recommendation, guiding teachers, funding conditions, there is no uniform requirements. Some condition of college students ' Association set up loose, a few students can set up a student association, new students going into the school to recruit some of the members, after the collection of contribution fees, societies are in obscurity. A more common phenomenon is that some student associations that have more problems are often not old ones, but rather are newly established communities. One of the reasons is student inexperience, but I'm afraid that the major is not taking a good program of setting up and approval, so that newly established associations appear the lack of location, institutions, guidance, funding, and other basic conditions.

American association's establishment and approval take Harvard University as an example. The Committee on College Life in General is responsible for setting up approval and management of students ' associations. In this college which advocates the tradition of association, many students aspire to be initiated the establishment of associations. To each student having the potential to become the head of a community, when they start school Dean's Office (the Office of the Dean of Harvard College) will provide them a guide manual to college life. Manual indicates the basic procedures of establishment of associations. Students can also download consulting-related content on the official website of the Harvard (Web site: www. College. Harvard University has also specially formulated the《 University students ' association management rules 》(Regulations For Undergraduate Organizations) for reference to lunch an association. In addition, Harvard University also established electronic registration system declaring the establishment of student association online at the campus.

Harvard University 's《 University students ' association management rules 》clearly formulate the conditions of officially approving the establishment of students ' associations: students initiating the establishment of associations should apply to the Office of the President, issue the Constitution of the society, submitted to the membership list, and employ guild teachers; in the Constitution of the society, membership shall not be discriminated because of race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation and disability; You must provide a detailed list of members, members should be the registered students that perform well, each society should have at least 10 students; There must be two instructor letters of recommendation, two guidance teachers must be the officials of Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Guidance teachers must have the ability to fully assume financial responsibilities of societies. A Teacher' identity is only formalized upon the approval of the life Commission. Society sponsors and community leaders are responsible for associations, and organize well the relevant provisions of the societies all communities commonly obey. Society members are to abide by the rules and regulations of the school. Once the case of a violation of the system of societies appears, life Committee will withdraw or cancel the Constitution of the society.

Compared to prevailing practice in Chinese universities, another different aspect to approve to set up of the student associations of Harvard University is that, before the official establishment of student societies, they generally accepted a longer period of study of life Committee. Harvard allows two types of student organizations to exist, one is that which has formally been approved the establishment, the other part is that which don't have formal approval qualifications. But associations without formal approval of qualifications are more than those that were formally approved, the student associations recognized by the Harvard are just those whose conditions are more mature. Majority of these societies that have not been officially recognized for the time are waiting for the school's accreditation, of course, there are also some basic conditions that do not have schools recognition, or were even never formally approved by school, but Harvard, a famous University of the United States advocating the spirit of freedom, also allows them to exist. The biggest difference for those that have no official access to school's recognition is the schools do not give communities a certain amount of funding support.

3.2 The categories of student association

3.2.1 The categories of Chinese student association

College students ' associations in China are the main position of students ' extracurricular activities, departments of the Communist Youth League is the students ' association business administrative , Youth League in universities and student organizations are the relationship of instructing and being instructed.

Student associations in colleges and universities in China in General can be divided into five categories: 1. Theoretical study association. Associations of university political thought are primary "study association of Deng Xiaoping theory" and the study groups of party Constitution. 2. Academic scientific associations. Such societies are mainly in the background of natural science and technical knowledge, combined with some different professionals, such as Software Association, the mathematical Association, and the Association of car enthusiasts. 3. Literature and art associations. Such associations are an important force in the construction of campus culture. The main Forms are three categories: first, literature, such as the poetry society, drama club, literary club, English salon, etc; Second, comprehensive Art Association: University students art troupe (Orchestra, band, rock band, drum team, dance team), aimed at improving students ' artistic accomplishment and training students to fully demonstrate the artistic talent ". Third, art association of the high level of popularity. Such as photography, film and television association, flower arrangement, tea ceremony association. 4. Voluntary service associations. College students use holidays, weekends and spare time to go to the society, engaged in various volunteer activities. Student volunteers are based on morality, conscience, and social responsibility, excluding any material reward, contributed to improving social services. Common voluntary service has Street publicity (publicity of traffic regulations, environmental protection, family planning, and Lei Feng spirit,), convenience service (repair bike, and obligation Barber), advisory service (technical advice, management advisory, medical advisory, legal advisory, and psychological Advisory), and "youth volunteers" action and students "three countryside" activities. 5. Physical fitness association. Such societies are combined with nationwide body-building, Sports fitness associations are dominated by four categories, namely: ball games, chess, boxing classes, fitness and dance classes. In ball game association, Such as the association of volleyball, basketball, table tennis, Badminton Association.

3.2.2 The types of American student association

Many young students in United States are keen to organize and join associations, the variety and quantity of students ' associations are so much, the name is also varied. Harvard University, for example, Harvard University currently has more than 600 students ' associations, Harvard student associations are mainly grouped into five broad categories. One is faith-communities, such as the Republican party member clubs, Palestine Solidarity Committee; Second, professional academic associations, such as chemistry Club; Third, art student association, such as the Harvard-Radcliffe Orchestra, magic association; Four is a service-oriented student associations, such as friends of the Red Cross (American Red Cross, Harvard Friends of); Five is the regional associations, with the largest number. For example, Chinese student Association, Hong Kong Society, Taiwanese Cultural Society. Six is ethnic and social activities, such as the African students ' Association. Seven is a media and publications, such as the Yearbook publication, and so on. Eight is a religious class, such as the Catholic Student Association, and so on.

3.3The sources of funds

Recently, the Community financing of the Fund of Chinese universities has three main ways: first, it is allocated from the funds of the Communist Youth League, second is the dues members pay, third is the sponsor of the enterprise. In these three ways, although the latter two is the main source of financing, but it's limited, and very unstable. On the one hand, school's recognition and emphasis on student associations is inadequate, school's fund support cannot meet the needs of community development; on the other hand, social organizations' awareness and understanding on community are biased, some associations' self-financing capability and channels are also limited, few appropriate sponsorship, support of social enterprises make it struggling in the development of associations.

Funding of student association at Harvard University is adequate, except contributions revenue, it mainly has school-related departments' funding support, self-support projects revenue of the Foundation (including holding charge activity) and funds sponsored by the alumni association and social groups. Most of the contributions of students ' associations is ranging from $ 15 to $ 35 per person per year. Harvard College student activities' funds arranged US $ 25,000 each year as a complement to association funds, in addition, it also provides office space and support for other devices, as well as a certain amount of remuneration for music of associations, debate, drama, dance tutor and provides fundraising proposals for existing foundations, friendly group and a new team. In Addition to the school allocated parts, Harvard student organizations themselves can also organize income-generating projects. On campus at Harvard University, it Allows student organizations to organize services for profit, all income is free tax for financing the activities, such as shops, restaurants, book stores, hairdressers, etc, staff members of these services are basically community members recruited from associations, only a few of the project leaders are school-related officials. In addition, student societies can also create income by organizing concerts, lectures, tourism projects, etc

3.4 Financial management

The financial management in Chinese colleges and university associations are confusing, are usually received from students ' associations and controlled by themselves in general, lack of supervision. Funding shortage and improper management of students ' associations will inevitably affect the implementation of community activities, becoming the greatest obstacle to the development of associations.

However, the fund management of Harvard University students ' Association is so standardized. As 《 University students ' association management rules 》of Harvard University formulates, any revenue of the associations cannot be personal income, under exceptional circumstances, necessary charges for services or other forms of remuneration paid to members of society shall be approved by the Office of the President. Societies should be responsible for their own funds, keeping well the society's financial records, Office of the Dean of the Harvard association student cadres in charge of finance provided training and financial guidance. Every year, the Office of the Dean of students ' associations will provide a detailed financial reports and a financial audit for the students responsible for the finance. Every society's guidance teachers should attend financial management training courses hosted by the Office of the Student Activities Office annually. Student organizations seeking sponsorship from the alumni and enterprise out of school had to get the prior consent of the Office of the President.

4. The Existing Problems and Administrative Countermeasures of Our Country's College Student Association Development

Through the comparative research above, it is not difficult for us to find that, compared to the United States College, there is a lack in our associations both in the direction ideology and in practice , it needs further strengthening.

4.1 The existing problems

1. The development goal is not clear. At the beginning of the establishment of college student association in general, it's often with characteristics of spontaneous, loose and widespread members, if there is no sufficient awareness on the importance of associations in colleges and universities, they may also appear some issues. For example, the uneven development of communities, the structure is not reasonable enough. Some communities appear "Pan" and even "having a beginning but no end", after the establishment, regardless of the future development; some communities are only keen on entertainment, with no goals and objectives, so that they would be unable to play the role of communities they should be. [8]

2. Management system is not perfect. At present, most of the student communities are affiliated to Communist Youth League in colleges and universities, the Communist Youth League is responsible for their registration, registration of students' associations, management, instruction, reward and punishment, and so on. This system is conducive to stimulate students' initiative and creativity, and also conducive to realize students' self-service, self-managing, and self-education, but the disadvantages are also obvious, first of all, each College has dozens of even hundreds of student communities, each community has its own characteristics and type of activity, requiring a significant amount of manpower, financial and material resources. Second, the Youth League Committee in the party assumes a heavy task in the school building ,campus culture activities and volunteer work, for association construction, it often appears the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak. Finally, on many upper levels, strong professional large-scale activities, it needs school departments to make concerted efforts, Youth League Committee alone is not enough.

3. Internal operation is not standard. First, it's the lax rules and regulations. Due to the absence of a clear constitution of associations, a clear plan and incentive mechanism, student organizations appear the phenomena of not to act according to the Constitution, disorderly collecting the contributions, private engraved seal, weaknesses in the implementation of the statute, unwarranted prejudice to the interests of the members, etc. Second, community cadre is not strong. Community cadre is usually internally generated, these cadres before in office generally do not have sufficient opportunities to organize major events, without deep knowledge of communities, experience is less and work lacks method. Moreover, training and supervision on cadres of college students ' associations are only some formal meeting, so the overall quality of cadres is not strong, which affects the level of development of communities.

4. Member liquidity is quite large. Currently, students societies in general are access free, interview in a certain significance is surface work, as long as students pay some amount of membership fees, even without paying membership fees they can become natural members, the societies haven't a reasonable and strict standard of membership, causing the unbalance of many student communities; Members can leave communities freely, as long as feeling not willing to, at anytime, anywhere they can unilateral announce exit.

5. Lack of guidance teachers. Teachers guidance forces of each university student association are mainly from League, league committee or association members in schools of better conditions can come forward to invite professional Professors or outside experts as guidance teachers or consultants, but from overall view, no matter whether there is professionals' intervention of societies, or taking a force by League teachers, its guidance forces are weak. There is a mechanism reasons for this: currently, The work in college students ' association is generally an obligation to engage in, tutors served in many schools do not have a fixed remuneration, which is the key to result in insufficient equipped force of guidance teachers.

6. The severe shortage of funds. Currently, the community financing of the fund has three main ways: first, it is allocated from the funds of the Communist Youth League, the second is membership fees, the third is the sponsor of the enterprise. In these three ways, although the latter two are the main source of financing, but they are limited, and very unstable. On the one hand, school's recognition and emphasis on student associations are inadequate, school fund support cannot meet the needs of community's development; on the other hand, the awareness and understanding of social organizations on community are biased, some societies' capability and channels of self-financing are limited, few appropriate sponsorship and support of social enterprises make it struggling in the development of communities.

7. The material base of community is insecurity. This mainly indicates fewer venues and incomplete equipment. General colleges and universities have special venues for student activities, such as student activity center, gymnasium, multi-purpose Lecture Hall, outdoor Plaza, and so on, but there is no venues dedicated to students ' associations, and venues booked in advance may change location or time once confronted with conflict. Societies' office space is also limited, or some completely unrelated professional associations stay together, or mixed in the League in the Student Union, actual communities affiliated with units will have a fixed office space, the good ones are equipped with tables and chairs, computers, printers and other office facilities, but the vast majority of communities appear with nomadic face.

4.2 Administrative countermeasures

1. To increase the student community support strength. First of all, give policy support. Universities can formulate construction policy on strengthening the student associations, such as the association registration system, the member entrance system, strict community registration, regulating programs for members to exit; establishing reward and punishment system and appraisal system of societies, evaluating and comparing associations' construction and performance, and separating the good and bad. Universities can set the "outstanding community teachers" award to encourage teachers to participate in community-building and guidance. For communities' tutors, schools can formulate related policies to make teacher obtain labor recognition and respect, and to stimulate the enthusiasm of the teachers, at the same time, explore the "Student Association tutorial system" to promote the practice of student communities in setting up the party or the Communist Youth League branch. Second, give support to full-time teachers. Establishing a serious and responsible, high academic standards of professional instructors' team is the key for students ' associations to keep sustained and healthy development. Schools should employ those with a higher level, deep academic credentials, or an expertise, and caring for the growth of young students, good at doing ideological and political work and equipped with rich organizational management skills as teachers of students ' associations. Third, give financial support. Multi-channel financing is the main method for student communities to solve the problem of insufficient funds. Schools should allocate a certain amount of special funding for the communities, and also encourage them to take community-sponsored financing activities through various channels, including funding, because of the limited funding of schools for student associations, school should allow students ' associations in accordance with the relevant provisions and procedures to take paid services such as training courses, accept donations, to solve the problem of underfunding. Fourth, give material support. Schools should according to the situation increase the intensity of inputs, take efforts to improve conditions of office and activity of students ' associations, purchase necessary equipment and materials, through the power of the organization to help solve some practical difficulties of students ' associations. Rationalize school student activity center, gymnasium, student activities Plaza venue, venues and event facilities for community activities to provide the necessary protection. Meanwhile, purchase certain equipment, such as instruments, chess, mirrors for practicing dancing and other devices to make a foundation for community activities.

2. Establish a standardized management system and mode. College students must regard the construction and development of associations as the important component for strengthening students' innovation ability and promoting quality education, as practice of construction projects of the school teaching quality and career development planning, establish specific management collaboration mechanism with the combination of macro-leadership of school's League Committee, faculty's support, professional teaching departments, and teaching, or research group. Start from the member composition and internal environment of the community, the school can gradually establish and perfect the operation mechanism of independent management and development of students ' associations to form second-level management system of schools and institution (Department). It's necessary that a student association have a school 's and related unit as affiliated unit, a school teacher for guidance teacher.

3. Strengthen the instruction of internal management and construction of students ' associations. Firstly, deepen the "community guidance teachers" system, such as strengthening the internal management and construction of student associations. Cultivate and educate cadres of communities, grasp their development direction, so that communities can keep sustained and healthy development under the specific guidance of teachers and leadership of major cadre. Second, establish appropriate incentive system. Commend and give financial, equipment support to those large scale and good development associations; Give commend and affirmation for those association cadres who are enthusiastic to communities' work and make efforts to make a contribution to the development of communities; those guidance teachers who take full participation in the work should get a certain amount of remuneration and appropriate preferential treatment policies. Third, strengthen the management and system of the community internal files. The importance of archives management can't be ignored, which is an inheritance of community culture. As current head of a community, he should be responsible for cultivating the next head person, making talents reserves for the future development of associations. Fourth, improve the comprehensive quality of community backbone. Because the level of association development mainly depends on personal ability of organizers. Training a good team of student backbone is the personnel basis for benign development of associations.

Fifth, improve the grade of student activities. Student group activities must reflect the modernity and creativity, activities need innovation, by organizing some substantial, diverse, and elegant boutique activities to continue to increase the level and quality of community activity, it can also enhance the attractiveness and cohesiveness of associations, and expand the influence of society.

5. Conclusion

Student association is a kind of mass organization for college students to meet their different needs in accordance with certain purposes and statutes, with its unique characteristics of organization and activities, playing an irreplaceable role of other educational forms. Therefore, profoundly studying characteristics and situation of students ' associations and putting forward appropriate measures against existing problems is significant to the effective guidance of healthy growth of students ' associations.

United States is one of the most developed countries of the world in higher education, higher student associations are the most mature, no matter the theoretical basis, service function, management model, organizing form, or architecture is more perfect and worthy of our reference. After the comparative analysis of several aspects of the Sino-US college student community culture, we can easily find there are many aspects that need improving and increasing in cultural construction of university associations at the present stage in China, such as the management system is not perfect, the internal operation is irregular, lack of guidance teachers, serious lack of funding, etc. The summing-up is that reasonable countermeasures are to obtain the support of universities, establish a standardized management system, strengthen the guidance of internal construction and management of associations, so as to contribute to strengthening and improving the management work of college students ' association in China.

It has become a new issue of mission work in colleges and universities to actively explore the new model of community construction and management, find and cultivate new positions of the Youth League work. Every university education workers should provide wisdom and strength for the construction, management and development of students ' associations. If so, College Student Association will be on the road to sustainable and healthy development, and will be able to make the student associations play a more important role in the construction of colleges and universities, must also be able to make the college students ' associations blossom, dominate their excellence and develop more vigorously.