The Development Of Global English Education Essay

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Until relatively recently it has been taken as a given that the English language is the exclusive prerogative of its native speakers. By this, it has also been implied that those who do not speak English as their first language would always be considered handicapped in the "competition" with the natives (Medgyes, 1992). However, with the unprecedented spread of the English language across the world, the dividing line between the categories of native and non-native speaker has become less definite (Kachru, 1982; Pennycook, 2007). Nowadays, most scholars reveal a shift from the monolingual to multilingual speaker as the preferred model while the newly-coined term English as an International Language (EIL) is increasingly gaining attention in the literature (Medgyes, 1992; Llurda, 2004). Davies (2003), one of the researches who has thoroughly addressed the issue, argues that native speaker is a concept different from the concept of non-native speaker while at the same time not being "uniquely and permanently different" (p 47). Additionally, researchers such as Medgyes (1992) even question the reliability with which one can claim one's "nativeness", illustrating the point with examples of individuals who were born in English-speaking countries but have always been addressed in the language of their non-English-speaking parents and vice versa.

Given the development of global English, it is surprising that these recent trends in thinking have not significantly affected the domain of TESOL, in which the advantageous position of English native speakers continues to be widespread. In this context, a teacher who speaks English as his/her first language still appears to represent a more desirable option in both hiring policies of schools and general preferences, no matter how outdated such a view might seem in the context of the recent research findings (ibid). The existence of the separate labels for NESTs (Native English Speaker Teachers) and non-NESTs only underscores this point (although, as Medgyes (ibid) elaborates, these terms come across as problematic as regards their political correctness). The proposed study will seek to develop an in-depth approach to this problem by qualitatively analysing the differences in the implementation of corrective feedback by NESTs and non-NESTs and undergraduate students' perceptions of these in a case study.

The essay is structured as follows. First, a literature background briefly summarising the pertinent findings and specifying the gaps in the research is presented at the beginning. The research aims will be discussed next, along with the explicitly formulated research questions. Then, the conceptual framework will be elaborated on, including the theoretical model for framing the study. In the subsequent section it will be dealt with the description of the research paradigm and the general methodology that is to be adopted. The essay will then continue to address the rationale behind the selection of the methodological instruments and sampling. Sections on the procedure and proposed data analysis will follow. These will be succeeded by a chapter on the issues related to validity and reliability. Finally, at the end of the essay, the ethics will be considered and the conclusion will follow.

2. Literature review

What helped NESTs garner their reputation are mainly the views of those following Chomsky (1965), who advocated the authority of native speakers on the language, describing them to be the ideal language models. In the context of EFL, this means that the discrepancy between the levels of NESTs' and non-NESTs' English proficiency establishes NEST as a norm, an ideal model from which students can benefit by emulation. Also, an extensive study of native teachers' self- perceptions (Reves & Medgyes, 1994) showed that even they themselves share this view to some extent concluding (very broadly) that the difficulties they most often experience are the ones concerning vocabulary, idioms and the appropriate use of English, which, logically, in the case of NESTs do not pose any problems. In other words, their English is less "real, every-day language" and they use it with less confidence than their native counterparts (Medgyes, 1992).

However, while it is in one sense reasonable to claim NESTs' linguistic superiority in terms of their competence in English, it is far less safe to make the same claim with regard to a possibly even more important aspect- the effectiveness of their teaching of English. In fact, the accounts of NESTs' and non-NESTs' perceptions of their own work show an equal number of perceived advantages and disadvantages of both groups. On the one hand, some of the features associated with NESTs (also, very broadly) are: "a more flexible and innovative approach, focus on fluency, meaning, oral skills, language use and colloquial language as opposed to non-NESTs' more rigid approach" (Arva & Medgyes, 2000, p. 3). On the other hand, consistent with Cook (2000), non-NESTs are generally better trained in teaching and the fact that they have been EFL students themselves (or still are, many will argue) as opposed to NESTS, who gained their competence by simply being born as native speakers, automatically gives them an advantage. It is therefore concerning that, as reported by Reves and Medgyes (1994) and more recently by Llurda (2005) , non-NESTs still have a much poorer attitude towards their effectiveness and feel inferior to NESTs. The empirical research seems to contradict the popular myth about the native ideal, as observation of the actual practice actually shows a "discrepancy between idealization and reality of lived experience", as Nao (2011, p. 3771) would put it. Arva and Medgyes (2000) analysed both NESTs and non-NESTs at work and found, as expected, a great number of differences in their teaching behaviours, but what is more important, they do not report on one group being more effective than the other.

Despite the extensiveness of the pertinent literature, there are certain limitations that will be addressed in this section. First and foremost, it seems that studies have so far failed to take into account how learners perceive the NEST/non-NEST dichotomy. It has been in several case studies reported that students generally prefer their language instructors to be native English speakers (Wu &Ke, 2009; Alseweed, 2012), however an in-depth approach to the metacognitive justification of their preference has not been sufficiently adopted in research. Also, research has shown that learners' feedback can contribute to the enhancement of teaching practice (Cohen, 1980) and the value of the investigation of this view point is also seen in its potential to complement the previous studies of teachers' self-perceptions. Second, the comparative studies of NESTs and non-NESTs performance at work have analysed them in different contexts - NESTs teaching conversational classes versus non-NESTs teaching grammar and other classes have commonly be used as subjects. Conversely, the proposed study will base the comparison on the evidence collected from the same context, this being conversational classes taught by both NESTs and non-NESTs. Finally, the very context of Serbia, has not been sufficiently explored and it is one of the modest contributions of this study to fill this gap as well.

3. Research aims

The goal of the proposed study is not merely to result in a detailed account of the differences between the NESTs and non-NESTs in Serbia but to contribute to the understanding of the different pedagogical cultures of these two categories and how the students relate to them. However, due to the limited scope of the study, it is impossible to analyse each and every aspect of teachers' methodologies in order to obtain a holistic picture. In the proposed study, it is rather opted for an in-depth analysis of one aspect, this being corrective feedback.

As previously mentioned, several case studies have reported that the interaction with NESTs is commonly perceived by undergraduate students as more beneficial for their SLA than the interaction with a non-native teacher. In a class consisting of 20 students or so, where one-on-one interaction rarely occurs, the corrective feedback received by students might represent the form of interaction suitable for exploring. Further on, as it has been noted by scholars (Ellis, 2010; Aljaafreh & Lantolf, 1994), teacher's corrective feedback particularly lends itself to research. It is relatively easy to identify the instances of providing feedback and to analyse them through a framework.

4. Research questions

In open-ended inquiries, such as when the aim is to assess participants' perceptions, it is sensible to first identify what the matter of fact is and then proceed to discover the perceptions Yin (2003). With this in mind, the research questions are designed as follows:

1. What are the differences between the NESTs' and non-NESTs' corrective feedback?

2. How do the students perceive the NEST's and non-NESTs' corrective feedback?

3. What factors influence the students' preferences with regard to the NESTs' and non-NESTs' corrective feedback?

Research question 1. This research question refers to the differences in the focus of the error correction. In other words, it concerns the relative differences between linguistic and/or pragmatic items the teachers are most inclined to correct. As it has been elaborated in the literature review section, NESTs tend to focus on fluency and meaning rather than on form and accuracy, and vice versa. The data analysis is expected to show whether this applies to the participants of the proposed case study, but also to detect other relative differences in providing corrective feedback, such as pronunciation, quantity and the timing of the correction.

Research question 2. This question concerns the metalinguistic thinking of the students, i.e. how the students perceive relative effectiveness of the NESTs' and non-NESTs' feedback and relative linguistic gains they can reap from it.

Research question 3. The third question will try to generalise the students' attitudes towards NESTs and non-NESTs with regard to the feedback they tend to provide. It will seek to explore which of the two categories the students prefer and why.

5. Conceptual framework

I will purse my inquiry by adopting the discipline of sociocultural theory for the theoretical framework. In this section, the two main constructs, native/non-native teacher and corrective feedback, will be presented as seen within this theoretical framework.

NESTs/non-NESTs. Vigotsky's (1978) model of ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development) was defined by the author himself as "the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers" (p. 86). In other words, the engagement in interaction with a more competent person will lead to internalisation of language. This guidance is needed until the learner becomes competent enough to acquire the language independently (Lantolf & Thorne, 2006). Following this theory, in the proposed study, the collaboration between the teacher and his/her students will be addressed as crucial for SLA and therefore worth investigating. In the case of the NESTs, the collaboration with the students is influenced by their different cultural background and pedagogy, thus any deviation from the teaching practice of the NESTs (the one the students are accustomed to) can be accounted for by interpreting socio-cultural factors. Also, the students' perceptions of the NESTs methodology might reflect the attitude towards his/her cultural background and in particular how they construe different pedagogical tradition.

Within SCT, it is further believed that collaboration in social activities itself is not sufficient for SLA if it is not situated in an institutional environment, such as school. Given that the connection between social life and SLA is one of the main constructs of the theory, it is reasonable to apply it to the context of the proposed study, in which a classroom discourse will be analysed.

Corrective feedback. Through the lenses of SCT, corrective feedback is viewed as a particularly beneficial form of negotiation. Contrary to other theories, a researcher using this framework does not accept that one type of CF enhances the chances for SLA more than the other (Lantolf and Thorne, 2006; Ellis, 2010); therefore, the types of the CF employed by the participating teachers will not be compared. What the teacher should be concerned with is the quality and timing of his/her strategy, as well as the ability to match the error correction with the learners' cognitive level (Lantolf and Thorne, 2006). The activity of receiving corrective feedback has intrinsic value as the learner is prompted to self-correct and internalise, while the decision on how to correct a student depends on the nature of the interaction.

In the proposed study, the strategy of correction is conceptualised as highly influenced by the teacher's pedagogical background, i.e. whether s/he is a NEST or a non-NEST. Consistent with Long (as cited in Mackey et al, 2000) the way native interlocutors accommodate the conversational interaction with non-native interlocutors enhances SLA, therefore there are qualitative differences between the interactions with native and non-native speakers. Based on this, in the proposed study it is assumed that the native teachers give qualitatively different feedback and that students' perceptions of it can help us understand the levels on which these are distinguished. In addition, differences of quantitative nature may emerge in the interaction, such as the quantity and timing of the feedback, which are the factors to be taken into consideration as well. Further on, drawing on the SCT, the NESTs are to be regarded as the more competent interlocutors in the conversations with non-native students of English. The students' gain therefore depends on their noticing the feedback and its usefulness (Lantolf & Thorne, 2006), which makes the investigation into their perceptions worthwhile.

6. Research paradigm

By all means, our understanding of the social reality determines the relation to the pertinent phenomena, which implies that the way one construes the social world influences its investigation. In the context of Educational Research, it means that the relative validity of any conclusions made in school-based inquiries depends on the specific philosophical thinking that underpinned them (Hitchcock & Hughes, 1989).

This study will be informed by an interpretivist paradigm. In accordance with the tenets of this paradigm, it is believed that reality does not simply exist "out there" (Bassey, 2003, p. 43; Robinson, 2002) but rather constitutes a complex concept comprising multiple individual constructs. Reality is, therefore, ontologically relative rather than universal or fixed and it never holds absolute truth (Denzin &Lincoln, 1994). What follows from this is that reality originates from the individual mind and is therefore subjective (Hitchcock & Hughes, 1989; Cohen et al, 2011). The knowledge resulting from an inquiry in fact emerges through the interaction of a researcher and participants as a particular construction of the researcher on the grounds of participants' constructions (Denzin &Lincoln, 1994). These constructions consist of "multifaceted images of the behaviour" and are not holistic, one-sided representation of reality. Methodology-wise, within interpretivism, a researcher rejects the positivistic views on world's measurability and universal applicability of quantitative methods. Social sciences are regarded distinctively from natural sciences as they lend themselves to a qualitative exploration (Cohen et al, 2011). In interpretivism, studies are rarely ascribed external validity, because of their unbreakable connection with specific circumstances. However, this paradigm is deemed suitable for the proposed research because its employment can lead to internal validity, crucial for interpretivist studies.

Case study, as a type of study that "recognizes the complexity and 'embeddedness' of social truth" (Bassey 2003, p. 23) fits into these criteria. As a small-scale classroom-based research aiming at describing students' perceptions of a specific phenomenon, this study fits in this paradigm for two reasons: 1) its goal is not to confirm what has been taken for granted, i.e. the superiority of NESTs, but rather to investigate it from the point of view of the students. The outcome of the study will not be general conclusions about NESTs and non-NESTs, but it offers an in-depth analysis of the learners' subjective perceptions of their feedback and 2) the specific context of Serbia and its university students necessitates such a paradigm that would indicate that these personal constructs are conditioned by this context. According to Hitchcock and Hughes (1989), interprevists do not hypothesize about the context; they bring no prior expectations in it. However, this does not mean that everything that had previously been written on the topic is to be ignored in this study. Drawing on previous studies, this one will be premised on the assumption that there are differences between the two constructs in question. As this study will not be aimed at collecting statistical data but its focus will be contextual analysis, qualitative methods will be used.

7. Methodology

The methods adopted in this study have been chosen having in mind both practical issues and the nature of the study. With regard to the former, it is important to emphasise that as a school-based research, factors such as time and resource limits are to be taken into consideration (Wilson, 2013). Since a small-scale research best matches the duration of the course, the according instruments will be used. Further on, both categories of respondents - the teachers and the students in this context cannot be infinitely accessible for this research, thus certain degree of adaptability is required from the inquirer.

As far as the latter is concerned, the dual focus of the study, one being detecting the specific differences between the NESTs and non-NESTs and the other being the assessment of the students' perceptions of this variable, necessitates methods that fit its qualitative nature. In this case study, the researcher is also an interpreter with a task not only to collect the empirical data but also to scrutinize the social context and construe the gathered information through it. Therefore, the type of the data this research is aiming at cannot be collected using quantitative means. On the contrary, to answer the research questions in depth, the researcher must be engaged into the process of data collection and be able to "read" the signs of individual differences and subjectivity. The instruments themselves should be of the same character, i.e. less "external" and more "sensitive, refined" (Lincoln and Guba, 1985, p. 224) and suitable to track nuances. In other words, the utilised instruments have to allow for the interaction between the researcher and the participants to occur. In this study, the methods will be resonant with these criteria, with certain limitations due to the previously elaborated problem of time.

Although Lincoln and Guba (1985) argue for a highly unstructured methodology that is not given a priori to be used in a non-positivist research, for the above constraints, the instruments employed in this study will be of a semi-structured nature. These will include: a semi-structured observation, stimulated recall interviews, and a set of open-ended questions. In addition, a quantitative questionnaire will be distributed to the teachers before the field work in order to collect data on their and class profiles.

7.1. Observation

In the research method literature, the observation method is described as typically fitting the interpretivist qualitative inquiries, where the meanings of the observed actions are constructed by noticing the patterns and connections with other phenomena strictly related to that very context and not generalized (Cohen et al, 2011; Denzin & Lincoln, 1994). In the same manner, it might be said that in observation the researcher becomes the instrument itself, which means that s/he uses no mediating device to collect data but directly record and interpret phenomena. In the following paragraphs, the rationale behind employing this very method in the proposed study is presented.

The compatibility of direct observation with case studies is evident if it is known that this instrument grants a researcher the "access" to the excerpts of the real-life and natural (as mush as it is possible, of course) flow of events. While observing a classroom, the researcher actually witnesses the instances of the behaviour s/he is interested in investigating as they occur in normal and not artificial circumstances (Nunan, 2005). In the context of the proposed study, the observation of classes will provide opportunities to directly elicit the teaching behaviour of the subjects as it normally occurs at work. The naturalness of the setting will be accomplished by visiting regular classes instead of setting up artificial ones only for the purpose of the study. However, while the significance of this factor is not to be questioned, it is impossible to maximize it since the teachers will be given two tasks to teach that are otherwise not parts of their curricula. Thus, the naturalness is jeopardized, but only to a certain extent as the tasks have been carefully chosen to fit the type of the tasks commonly implemented by the teachers (information about this will also be collected prior to the main data collection).

Another reason why the preference is given to observation in the proposed study is the fact that although it is not the only instrument suitable for obtaining an insight of what goes on in the classroom, it is by far more reliable than any other introspective method, such as interviewing the teachers about their own practice, for instance (Robson, 2002). Therefore, the possibility of the discrepancy between participants' beliefs about their practice and their actual practice is diminished.

Similarly, Arva and Medgyes (2000) observed the NESTs and non-NESTs endeavouring to detect the differences between their methodologies in a case study of a Hungarian school. They utilised unstructured observation as they were interested in any differences that would emerge. However, in the proposed study, the nature of the observation will be semi-structured as dictated by the specific target, this being the corrective feedback.

The researcher in this study will assume the role of an observer-as-participant (Robinson, 2002; Cohen et al, 2011). That means that the students and teachers will be aware of the researcher's physical presence. In the ideal circumstances, as this is a small group, the researcher would go as a complete participant thus having a chance to get to know the students better and therefore interpret the actions through these variables as well. However, due to the time restraints, such a level of integration into the class is impossible.

7.2. Stimulated recall

The observation will be video recorded, which will manifest its usefulness in the stimulated recall interviews. Stimulated recall (RS) is a popular technique amongst language acquisition researchers, especially those interested in cognitive processes of the learners (Gass & Mackey, 2000). In essence, it can be categorised as a type of introspective method in which participants are shown video sequences of the activity they have recently been involved in and asked to reconstruct their concurrently experienced cognitive processes. An exemplary study for the SR use is also Arva and Medgyes' (2000) exploration of the Hungarian NEST/non-NEST dichotomy.

Naturally, as it is impossible to directly observe the processes that underlie certain activities, one must resort to the "second best" option, which is self-report. In the optimal circumstances, the subjects would be able to pronounce their thought or feelings simultaneously with the action, thus revealing the cognitive processes as directly as possible, the design that is feasible in written tasks, for instance (Gass, 2001). Doubtless, a method such as verbal protocol could tell us more than stimulated recall, however in a task in which students are engaged orally, it is unreasonable and above all artificial to expect the learners to be able to utter their thoughts at the same time while doing the oral task. Hence, stimulated recall is seen as best fitting the aim of the proposed study to assess the learners' perceptions of the received corrective feedback. It is expected that this method result in valuable insights into how the students perceived the corrective feedback given by their native and non-native teachers by directly referring to these specific moments in the videos. Special attention will be paid not to allow for much time to go by between the class in question and the interview, bearing in mind the empirically established dependence of the reliability of the data on the amount of chronological distance from the actual event (as cited in Gass & Mackey, 2000). However, in the proposed study it is perceived as particularly problematic to employ a consecutive recall (Gass, 2001) owing to the structured nature of the interview. Namely, the learners are expected to underpin what was going through their minds only to the occurrences of feedback giving, which necessitates a systematic approach to the recall interview. The reasoning behind opting for delayed stimulated recall over a potentially more reliable one is purely technical; the researcher needs prior preparation in order to be able to conduct such a structured interview and time for it. In addition, it is highly likely that the students will have another class after the observed one, thus less or no time to dedicate to the interview. For the obvious reasons, the students will not be encouraged to stop the video at any time to reflect on their feelings or thoughts as that could lead to unrelated excessive material and unproductive use of the already limited time.

The SR interviews will also be conducted with the teachers asking them to identify and briefly reflect on their feedback.

7.3. Set of open-ended questions

This instrument will contain questions that will 1) explicitly ask the students to describe an episode when they were given feedback from both teachers, 2) elicit the students' general perceptions of the NESTs/non-NESTs' feedbackand 3) elicit their pertinent preferences and factors that influence them.

8. Sampling

The population of the proposed study comprises the teachers (the NESTs and non-NESTs) and their students.

The teachers. Overall, there are four teachers participating, two of which are native speakers on English. All four of them teach conversational classes, although there is a difference in terms of the level they teach. Namely, one native/non-native pair of instructors teach the first-year students, whereas the other pair teach the third year. There is a discrepancy with regard to the workload as well, as the NESTs teach one class a weak unlike the non-NESTs, who have greater workload, ranging from two to four classes a week. As previously elaborated, before undertaking the research, the detailed profile of the teachers will be created with the help of a questionnaire.

The students. These are first and third-year students majoring in English at the Faculty of Philology, University of Belgrade. Two groups will be observed and later interviewed, one from each level (overall, approximately 40 students). Ideally, the sample for the stimulated recall will include eight students, four from each class. Similarly to the teachers, a detailed profile of the students will be created by using the information obtained from a questionnaire. It should be emphasised that the first-year group is taught by the first pair of teachers and the third-year students group by the second pair. Although their official names are different from each other, in essence the purpose of both subjects is to enhance the students' conversational skills.

The rationale behind the sampling derives from the aim of the study. Since, the research questions concern the perceptions of the learners, it is assumed that the most beneficial insights will be given by the adult students, all professionally interested in EFL and its acquisition, among other interests. These students have to date experienced the tutoring on the part of both NESTs and non-NESTs and it is safe to assume that these experiences have shaped their views of both. However, the fact that the participating students are varied, i.e. the groups of first and third-year students are included, might be seen as problematic in terms of data reliability. It is a matter of fact that the senior students must have attained a higher level of competence being on their third year of studies, but this discrepancy is negligible as the advanced level is a prerequisite for the enrolment on the course for all students. Therefore, all the students have advanced command of English, with nuances separating their levels. As regards the teachers themselves, the peculiar design by which all of them teach conversational classes lends itself to valid comparison.

9. Procedure

The successfulness of data collection owes a great deal to the professionalism of the researcher. The emphasis that scholars (Yin, 2003) place on the data collection training is therefore not surprising. However, in a situation where the researcher is relatively inexperienced, such as the proposed study, extremely careful attention must be made to predict all the potential problems and act pre-emptily if they arise, especially, as Nuan (2005) asserts, while studying oral interaction where little can be anticipated. An inexperienced researcher should thus rely on the two sources at hand: research method literature and meticulous preparation, both of which will be drawn on while conducting the proposed study.

I will first observe and record the implementation of the tasks in the classes. During this process, the sample of the participants in the stimulated recall will be drawn. The criteria for this will include whether the student received corrective feedback in the class and whether s/he actively participated in the class. A convenient time will be chosen to distribute the set of questions to all the students to complete. Where it is possible, the stimulated recalls with both students and teachers will be executed within not more than two days since the observation. Overall, the estimation is that the data collection will not take more than 15 days. The graphic representation of the procedure follows:

Set of questions

40 students

Stimulated Recalls

4 teachers x 30 minutes

8 students x 30 minutes

Observation

4 x 90 minutes

Figure 1.

Piloting. For the reasons pertaining to time-management, I will pilot the set of questions prior to coming to Serbia, using e-mail. A small sample of students will be asked to answer the questions and return them to me by e-mail together with their feedback on the time spend on answering and the comprehensibility of the questions. One stimulated recall will be piloted with a random student within the first two days of my stay. The technical equipment for video recording will be checked for any irregularities before every observation.

10. Data analysis

The existence of clear foci in this study necessitates a 'deductive' approach to the data analysis (Evans, 2013, p.163). This implies that it will be guided by the criteria established even prior to the data collection. Given that the already-known aims of the study are comparing the NESTs' and non-NESTs corrective feedback and exploring the students' perceptions relating to the dichotomy, the analysis will unfold to group the obtained information into according thematic entities, appreciating, however the possibility that new categories may emerge. In the proposed study, while the detection of the differences in corrective feedback is not seen as particularly problematic, ascribing them to their causes and pedagogical background is anticipated as challenging. The analysis process will involve the analyst's reflections and the interpretation of the relations with an end to provide a more in-depth approach to the results.

Immediately after the collection, the data will be transcribed and translated where necessary. Special attention will be paid not to leave out anything from the transcriptions. Subsequently, coding schemes will be devised, drawing on the studies carried out in similar contexts. The coding will be supported by a computer programme.

Validity and reliability

The majority of scholars agree that triangualation of data is one of the most effective ways to eliminate the issues with validity and reliability (Evans,2013; Yin,2003). In the proposed study, however, it is impossible to triangulate all the data. Still, the validity and reliability can be guaranteed to a certain extent by: 1) relying on the video recording of the class along with the notes from the direct observation, 2) using a transcript in SR to strengthen the stimulus, since it is a delayed stimulated recall, 3) training the students how to participate in a SR interview (by giving them a direct example, for instance) and not providing cues, 4) triangulating students answers obtained in the interview by the answers obtained in the set of questions, 5) triangulating observed teachers feedback by the data obtained from them in the stimulated recall, 6) piloting.

11. Ethics

There are a few ethical issues arising from the study. First of all, as it is stipulated in BERA (2011), all participants will voluntarily sign the informed consent. Secondly, the time devoted by the participants will be maximally appreciated and therefore the interference with their daily routine minimised. Thirdly, the participants will not suffer from any setbacks in the language learning nor will physical harm be inflicted on them. Finally, the confidentiality and privacy will be secured by using pseudonyms. This last point deserves to be addressed more carefully though as the number of NESTs working at the English Department, Belgrade University is considerably small, which poses a threat to their anonymity.

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