The constant radical change in technology

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The dazzling and constant radical change in technology, the Internet and increasing software potentials are incredibly affecting the mechanics of teaching and learning .Online learning, web learning or e-learning have occupied a stunning constituent of instructional and pedagogical practices.

The significance of incorporating technology into education is increasingly becoming a vital necessity. Due to the giant strides of progress that the world has achieved on all walks of life by virtue of the state-of-the art technology, education is perceived to be the catapult of comprehensive development. Thus, to keep up with technology in an increasingly changeable world, education has to meet the rapid changes in information technology and the explosion of knowledge. Therefore, the educational establishments are assumed to respond and prepare the young learners to fit into an everlastingly challenging technological age. Moreover, the writers of this bibliography inspired by the teachings of religion and Islamic culture, perceive that it's a Muslim's duty to seek the up-to-date knowledge and innovations and integrating them in work to maximize and ensure the realizations of the utmost of it. The writers chose Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) due to its importance in the field of integrating technology in instructional and educational practices in terms of people's attitudes towards accepting that technology.

Researchers have identified TAM as a theoretical information system which describes people's attitudes towards accepting and using technology easily, effectively and appropriately. TAM proposes that a number of factors encounter users regarding the usage of a new technology such as the decision of time and manner of its use.

The writers of this paper found accordance in almost all researchers and authors attitudes and viewpoints concerning the topic. The topic has been the major concern of a considerable number of researchers.

1- Teo, T. (2009). Modeling technology acceptance in education. Computers & education,52 (2), 302-312.

The writer of this article assumes that supposed convenience, approach towards the use of computer, and mastery of computer have a direct impact on perceived teachers' technology acceptance prior to buying. While apparent easy usage, technological complication, and encouraging circumstances account for around 27.1% of the inconsistency of behavioral purpose, apparent value seemed to be the most influential factor of behavioral intention.

Yuen ,K.,&Ma, K. (2008).Exploring teacher acceptance of e-learning technology.Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education 36 (3) ,229-243 .

The authors of this article perceived that the two major rock stones in TAM are subjective norm and computer self-efficacy. They illustrate that perceived ease of use is the sole controller of the prediction to usage intention and perceived usefulness was not crucial to the prediction of intention to use. In fact all factors including subjective norm, computer self-efficacy and perceived ease of use could account for 68% of the difference detected in users' purpose to use the e-learning system in education.

Martinez,M.,Toral,S.,Marin,F., Oliva, M., & Torres,T. ( 2008) A technological acceptance of e-learning tools used in practical and laboratory teaching, according to the European higher education area .Behaviour & Information Technology 27 (6), 495-505.

In this article the authors try to emphasize the use of internet based e-learning as a tool in academic and scientific settings. The authors point out that the success of using the mentioned web-based tools depend on the user's behaviour in the first place. The findings support the perception that extended TAM help predict learner's intention to adopt e-learning and they also set definitions to external variables related to the actual TAM variables. What was astonishing according to their findings was that perceived ease of use had no significant impact on student's attitude and his intention towards e-learning tool usage.

Magni, M., & Pennarola, F.(2008) Intra-organizational relationships and technology acceptance: International Journal of Information Management, 28(6), 517-523.

The authors of this article point out that users' acceptance of a new technology is connected to the attitudes and beliefs of individuals concerning internal factors such as social relationships with the supervisor, the team members, and the organization . Moreover, assuring prior findings in the acceptance sphere, last results make obvious that apparent efficacy and ease of use concerning technology are influenced by social interaction among members and teams in addition to organizational support. Nonetheless, emotional dedication to the organization demonstrates a positive influence only on perceived usefulness.

Wolk, R. (2007) Using the technology acceptance model for outcomes assessment in higher education. Retrieved on March 16, 2009 from Proc ISECON 24 (Pittsburgh).

In this article the author demonstrates the positive association between the use of Internet, and TAM components such as perceived ease of use, apparent usefulness, behavioral intention to use and users' attitude towards the use of learning technology .Besides, there was a passive association between negative attitude and TAM. Yet, external elements like sex, specialization, labor environment, and intellectuality level and technology mastery have prominent effect on technology and e-learning usage. Significantly, males and females showed different responses to these constructs although they were equal at usage. Part time students were more positive than their full time peers regarding TAM t constructs. Moreover, students with less intellectual level such as not having a college graduate in the family tended to evaluate their practice of the Internet higher than students of a higher intellectuality level.

Lee,Y., Kozar, K.,&Larsen ,k.(2007). The technology acceptance model: Past, present, and future. Communications of the Association for Information Systems,12(50),752-780 .

This study discusses the historical development of the Technology Acceptance Model .It explores its outcomes and foresees its upcoming trajectory. TAM model is considered an influential theory for describing one's perception of information systems. This study indicates that TAM has undergone continuous progress since it was first introduced in 1986 to explain computer usage behavior. The purpose of TAM theory is to explain the determinants of computer acceptance to clarify user behavior across a broad range of end-user computing technologies and user populations. This theory has been analyzed by lots of researchers to explore its limitations and apply it to a lot of tasks. Moreover, this study discusses the future expectations regarding TAM and its possible implementations, Although there are contradictory views concerning TAM researches, a lot of exciting directions are available for future inventions.

It is obvious that TAM is an adequate model towards technology acceptance. It is associated with improving technology appreciation and implementation. It adds for proper perception and use of new technological systems and devices.

Malhotra,Y. (2007 ).Extending the technology acceptance model to account for social influence: Theoretical Bases and Empirical Validation . Retrieved March 12th 2009 [email protected]

TAM is a crucial theoretical contribution to facilitate information systems understanding and usage. This study discusses the effects of the social influence on adopting and utilizing new information systems. It is necessary to take the social influence into consideration to be able to distinguish if the usage of information systems is caused by the influence of referents or by one's own desire and free choice. The outcomes of this study suggest that the social influence can generate a feeling of internalization and identification to accept and use new technologies. However, the social influence can generate a feeling of compliance which causes negative attitudes against technology acceptance and use.

The social influence is very important in the perception and implementation of new technology systems. People need to feel free in using these new technological devices as soon as they are convinced with their usefulness. One needs to appreciate technology upon his/her free will.

Jenkins ,A.( 2008 ). Technology acceptance model ,exploring the digital age study period, University of South Australia.

This study is mainly concerned with the reasons for the success and popularity of certain technologies more than others. According to TAM, the acceptance and usage of new technologies depend upon the perceived usefulness of the system which means the degree to which a person thinks that the new technological device will improve him/her professionally. It also depends upon the perceived ease of use of the technological system which means the degree to which a person believes that the usage of the technological system or device can be conducted without efforts. The two factors combined together form intention of use " which determines the users attitudes towards using the technological system and whether to accept it or not. This study also tackles the efforts of peer pressure on accepting or ignoring new technologies. Future technology acceptance research needs to focus on the variables that affect the usefulness, ease of use and user acceptance of the technological system.

Accepting and using a technological system is related to its usefulness and ease of use. However, we sometimes tend to use some complex technological systems that provoke our motivation to explore and use them. Getting acquainted with the same technological system for a long time is a boring process that leads us to look for new challenging technological systems to accept and use them.

9- Masrom, M. (2007).Technology Acceptance Model and E-learning , 12th International Conference on Education Review , Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education University Brunei Darussalam ,

This paper examines using TAM to determine university student's evaluation of e-learning as a learning tool. The study uses TAM to assess learners' acceptance of e-learning. It also examines the relation between attitudinal belief, ease of use and perceived usefulness on one hand and the adoption of e-learning on the other. Using data collected 122 students studying at College of Science and Technology, the study results shows fostering individual intention to use a technology, positive perception of the technology's usefulness is crucial. The study reaches the conclusion that Technology Acceptance Model can not be used as a tool of describing the effectiveness of a certain application nor can it determine its weaknesses. It can only assess user's acceptance and appreciation. Finally, the study calls for a need of replication through examining the effects of additional variables such as experience of user and their different qualities.

10 -Vin-CentChang,P.(2004.).The Validity of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) for Predicting Intranet/Portal Usage, A Master's paper for the M.S. in I.S. degree, Advisor: Barbara Wildemuth.

This paper investigates the validity of (TAM) based upon additional constructs of social factors taken from another model called Triandis model of choice. The study reaches the conclusion that perceived ease and perceived usefulness are important constructs when determining a user's attitudes towards intranets, attitudes, in turn, strongly predict intention to use and intentions strongly predict actual usage. Two additional constructs from the Triandis model of choice, social factors and facilitating conditions, were found to enhance the validity of the TAM. While age and experience, two external variables, may have proven to be useful predictors of general Internet, they do not greatly affect the usage of intranets.

11- Su-Houn, L. (2005) .Applying the technology acceptance model and flow theory to online e-learning users' acceptance behavior Issues in Information Systems, 2, 175.

This article handles theories like Human behavior theory explaining learners' acceptance concerning e-learning exploiting Technology Acceptance Model. The study considers the e-Learning systems user as both a system user and a learner. Constructs from information systems (TAM) and Human Behavior and Psychology (Flow Theory) are tested. Data results confirm the dual identity of the online e-learning user as a system user and a learner, since both the flow and the perceived usefulness of the e-learning system strongly predict intention to continue using e-learning. This study emphasizes the close relation between e-learning presentation types and users' intention to continue use of the tested technology.

The study concludes that the acceptance rate of text-audio-video based presentations is high not only because of its perceived usefulness but also because it generates the highest user concentration. The results also demonstrate that in addition to users' perceived usefulness, the design philosophy of media rich e-learning programs should emphasize presentations that build up users' concentration as learners

12- Allan H. K., & Yuen,W.(2008). Exploring teacher acceptance of e-learning technology. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education,36(3), 229 - 243.

The paper attempts to explore a model to understand teacher acceptance of e-learning technology. A questionnaire is designed to investigate teacher acceptance and attitude towards an online learning platform. Data were collected from 152 in-service in Hong Kong. Technology Acceptance model in this study can be considered the essential tool for analysis. Moreover the study make use of other models to evaluate teacher's assessment of e-learning. The study reaches the conclusion that personal attitudes and ability to deal with e-learning are the main components reinforcing TAM. However, the study disagrees with previous studies regarding highlighting user's attitudes concerning the ability of using e-learning on the account of users' perception of its advantages and benefits.

13 -Santosa , P. ( 2008 ). Applying flow theory and technology acceptance model to improve student performance in a web-based course. Department of Information Systems, National University of Singapore ,5(2)456-459.

This article provides a plan for enhancing students` achievement and teachers` performance relying on TAM. In addition, the researcher tackled a significant challenge to convince learners to concentrate on the subject module and to let them engage seriously in e-learning and online learning process.

This article indicated the user's comfort with and positive attitude towards the use of the system motivates him\her to use the net more. It also revealed the strong relationship between the satisfaction of users regarding the easy and practical usage of online system and its appropriateness. These aspects foster the continuous use of e-learning devises and encourage the users to visit the website and advise others to use it.

Furthermore, satisfaction and positive attitudes towards the Web-based course technology enhance students` achievement and increase their productivity.

14-Scott,J.(2008).Technology acceptance and ERP documentation usability ,Communications of the ACM . Retrieved on March 16, 2009 from [email protected]

This study suggests a unified model to clarify the relationship between usability and technology acceptance. The researcher conducted a survey of (ERP) users and showed that perceived usefulness of the documentation had a strong relationship with its perceived usability. Also users rated the documentation poorly for helping them understand business processes. and finds that the perceived usefulness of ERP documentation strongly affects its perceived usability.

This study indicates that the easy process of using online learning and its validity and practicability are associated with fast acceptance of technology. In addition, Computer self-efficacy also correlates positively with TAM .Individuals with high self-efficacy are highly motivated to be persistent in their achievement of a goal, and not easily discouraged by failure.

TAM depends mainly on the easy use of technology and to what extent it is applicable and doable to enhance one's performance.

15- Koohang,A. (2007).Viability of the "Technology Acceptance Model" in Multimedia Learning Environments: Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects, 3.

This article discusses integrating internet based technologies in classroom as part of learning environment. The study used a larger sample size compared to previous studies. Results suggest that TAM is a solid theoretical model where its validity can extend to the multimedia and e-learning context. This study aims to deepen understanding of TAM. It helps us to understand the user behaviors on TAM on system and multimedia acceptance model.

The success of TAM is due to its potential to integrate various types of media.

The results showed that perceived usefulness has a significant impact on student attitude toward using MMIS. This attitude is confirmed to play an effective role in influencing the behavioral intention to use MMIS. This study is practical and its findings can be used at school to interpret and understand learners` satisfaction with TAM for learning and improving instructional methods. In addition, this study reached to the same results and clarifies the strong and high correlation between perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use from one side and the positive attitude from another side.

16- Slovenia, B. (2001). An Evaluation of a major validity threat to the technology acceptance model, Global Co-Operation in the New Millennium, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 5(4), 123-129.

This research investigates the validity threat to the Technology Acceptance Model on account of the manner in which "use" has been operational zed in the empirical literature. A meta-analysis of the cumulative empirical evidence finds that the average correlation between "perceived usefulness" and "use" is 0.26 in studies employing behavioral measures of use and 0.56 in studies employing perceptual measures of use.

17-Schepersa,J.,&Wetzelsb,M.(2007 ). A meta-analysis of the technology acceptance model: Investigating subjective norm and moderation effects, Information & Management, 44, 90-103.

The writers of this qualitative study carried out a meta-analysis of prior research on (TAM) Technology Accepted Model to establish evidence on subjective norm. Besides, they compared TAM results considering the personal responses of individuals to factors related to technology and culture. Significantly, the results perceived a decisive effect of subjective norm on supposed convenience and the easiness of using technology. In fact, the three factors have reasonable effects on the role of the subjective norm and the findings indicate administrative implication for internal as well as external settings.

18 -Yousafzai,S.(2007). Meta Analysis of Technology Acceptance Model, Cardiff University. Retrieved on March 12, 2009 [email protected]

Davis' model "The Technology Acceptance Model [TAM] " basically constructed to test technology acceptance have gained a good reputation and proved to be an influential factor in expecting users' attitudes towards technology . However, little research was conducted to investigate and authenticate the full TAM model with its original constructs. Besides, different procedural and assessment factors featured TAM studies. This generated contradicting findings that weaken the accuracy of TAM and make it difficult for IT people, whether practitioners or academicians, to have more insight and a better understanding of the of technology users behavior. According to meta-analysis' findings, the great emphasis was laid on the effects on personal reports of usage rather than on the attitudinal construct.

Conclusion &Reflection:

The constant and fast developments in the field in the e-learning have become phenomena that are highly acquainted by people all over the world. This trend has inspired researchers to investigate people's attitude towards newly invented technological innovations and how people perceive them. After reviewing a lot of studies tackling the issues of Technology Acceptance Model and measuring learners` attitudes towards TAM, the writers came up with a variety of outcomes. Firstly, people tend to accept new technological devices and systems when they are satisfied at their usefulness to enhance their learning practices and improve their learning outcomes. Secondly, the ease of technology use will encourage people to develop positive attitude towards accepting technology with instructional practices. Thirdly, computer self-efficacy also correlates positively with TAM .Individuals with high self-efficacy are highly motivated to be persistent in their achievement of a goal .In addition, users' acceptance of a newly introduced technology is related to the beliefs that individuals have about their social relationships. Furthermore, there are other factors that influence the acceptance of technology like behavioral intention to use, and subject's attitude towards use. A variety of variables related to gender, major, labor environment, family's level of intellectuality. On the contrary, negative attitudes are associated unconstructively regarding the acceptance of integrating technology with education.

To sum up, attitudes towards technology acceptance are positively correlated with the effectiveness of integrating newly adopted technologies and ways people can handle them easily and properly.