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The concept of teaching the students, assessment and feedback has an influential impact on their classroom practices. Their actions towards the students learning significantly impacts the students learning. Student assessment and feedback are important and discrete element of the class teaching and learning cycle (Harris, Irving and Peterson, 2008). Feedback is among the most influential element on learning environment on which it provides either positive or negative impact on the student's learning and achievement. In essence feedback is possibly the best tested psychological principle and is most effective when perceived as relevant, timely, encouraging and meaning. It offers suggestions for the student's improvements to fill the grasp within the student learning. Feedback is basically any response development in relation to the student's education such as the performance and assessment tasks. The main purpose of student feedback is to acknowledge the students progress towards the learning outcome achievement. Constructive and effective feedbacks direct students to ways of learning and more achievement improvements. Teachers and other instructors require self reliance in ability to enhance the students competent which is highly dependent on the received feedback.
Feedback in learning promotion
Feedback is useful method within the leaning culture and the student's development. It provides awareness to student on what they do and how to do it. Generally they offer student the direction to the expectations in the learning environment context and in most cases they are executed by the teachers. Thus implementation of proper feedback requires supportive and concerned ways which includes the positive and the negative student's observation (Harris, Irving, & Peterson, 2008). This includes the observation of the behavioral response of students and a thorough judgments rather than the description.
Many students conceptualize feedback as a valuable mean of promoting learning as many methods enhances the understanding and the performance aspects of individuals. A teacher provides corrective information on certain clarification and alternative strategy thus encouraging the student on more achievement. Provisions of instructions and the feedback have been widely used in informing the student entirely about correctness. Feedback provides the information explicitly in relation to the assignment or learning process that provides the satisfaction on what the student understood and what is aimed to be understood. This provides an instructional purpose which is executed in a several different ways. Many students' views the feedback as information with which they can corroborate, substantiate, overwrite, adjust, or streamline information in the student's memory. This includes information from diverse sources such as the domain knowledge, self beliefs about the tasks, Meta cognitive knowledge, cognitive methodologies and strategies.
Teachers should highlights the students progress and not the deficiency in giving out the feedback as this provides a higher personal efficacy, increasing proficient analytic thinking, increasing aspirations for more achievement, greater personal satisfaction and a higher consequent performance. The effective feedback processes which includes motivation, engagement and the increased effort of the students learning is a great motivator of the students learning. It involves cognitive and comprehensive processes which includes streamlining student's understandings and students confirmation whether they are correct or incorrect on particular activity. This further assist the students in analyzing their learning capabilities as there is a clear indication whether more information is available or needed and gives the directions on which students could pursue (Cheng, 2010).
In promoting learning the schools should take less managerial perception of successful feedback creation and instead engage in development of diverse views and practices. This involves the creation of effective dialogue on which the feedback nature is usefully exploited by both parties. The students freely express and manages their expectations thus better understanding of the parties practices and perception is gained.
Forms of feedback
Feedback is usually conceptualized as assessment cycle component and it is more powerful in learning context on which several feedback methods is addressed. It basically forms part of the teaching process as this follows after the student response to initial instruction when the information on the subject of the student's task performance aspects is provided. Feedback in learning environment is mostly powerful and influential when it addresses defective interpretations rather than an entire lack of understanding. This is because use of feedback in addressing the lack of understanding circumstance in threatening to a student. Feedback provision is aligned to the material studied which should be familiar for a positive effect on the criterion performance. It provides a relation of what is already known to the new information (Harris, Irving and Peterson, 2008).Briefly outlined and meaningful feedback is fundamental to learning and to students sound assessment practice. According to Race (2005, pg 47), feedback that provides the learning promotion takes many forms such as outlined below.
Timely Feedbacks: The sooner the feedback the better. Basically students should receive the feedback in a day or two days time. Due to increase in technology there has been a straightaway feedback system in computer aided and other online learning environments. This is much convenient to students who use these feedbacks in assessing and evaluating their learning capabilities. Some tasks and simulations provide the feedback immediately and in real time as the task are being carried on.
Personalized feedback: This form of feedback fits and satisfies individual's student's personality, personal nature and the achievement. The student receives much attention from the teacher in realization of the learning abilities and achievements.
Empowering Feedback: This form of feedback is intended specifically strengthening and consolidating students learning preventing the opposite effect. Positive nature of the feedback is well maintained and the critical feedback is equally made empowering for all students. Feedback is often given and received in a method where the influence is vested towards the feedback provider rather than the feedback recipient.
Opportunistic feedback: This feedback form is designed to open doors for the student learning and not closing them. Carefully chosen words are used by the teachers in giving and effective feedback. Poorly constructed language can cause irreparable breakdowns in the teacher to student communication.
Analytical feedback: Analytical feedback is a form that disentangles the performance dimensions and explains the reason behind their praiseworthy. The teachers comment is analytical and honest on which sequential assessments feedback is analyzed in comparing the feedbacks.
Constructive feedback: This form of feedback provides the guidance to students on learning areas that need improvements. The future tasks can considerably improve the value that students place on the particular feedback. Feedback is often restricted to the task specifics. Effective and constructive feedback uses the definite issues in highlighting the major and useful points for the future preservation.
Manageable feedback: This form of feedback is widely used by many students on which there is an effective management of the feedback in ensuring that there are not too many feedbacks. Too much feedback leads to the students inability to sort out the most appropriate and beneficial feedback.
This is basically the most common form of feedback. The feedback provides information awareness to students about their answers or statements correctness. The feedback forms a structuring reaction which provides a comparatively positive correlation with student learning achievement. Academic feedback is offered in different ways but the most convenient to many students is the written feedback on which many viewed it exceptionally effective and purposeful. A definite feedback on the student's errors draws the student's attentions to the inadequately learned materials which allow the student to concentrate on the studies. The feedback involves constructive comments from teachers and praises where efforts are revealed which greatly motivates the students. Socially related comments motivate the lowly graded students as students performance varies from student to another. This increases the student confidence, self esteem, interpersonal skills as well as the learning satisfaction.
Academic feedback also incorporates the formative and summative in evaluating the students in individual as well as the class level. Formative assessments are an assessment that doesn't count on the final grade. Many students regard the formative assessment as an effective method of receiving feedback. This form of assessment is well understood by many students and they find it effective especially in assessing their individual learning capabilities (UK Centre for Legal Education, 2010). Summative assessment involves a series of assessments and assignments which always counts in the final grade and the student actively participates in the feedback provision as to avoid the repetition of mistakes. The student uses the first assignment as a feedback on which he/she thoroughly analyzes the comments made in the assignments which helps the student in improving their consequent coursework (Irving and Peterson, 2010).
Teacher/student conferences feedback
This form of feedback aims at development of the student's academic self direction and is a great tool used by teachers in ensuring that each student's individual are met. Conferences feedback involves contracts arrangements between the teacher and the student on which there is some work reinforcement to the student for the completed work, then receives the feedback and finally new goals are set. Teachers determines exactly the student type of learner which enables the setting of special program for that particular student and get the most beneficial and appropriate type of feedback for that particular student. This is highly encouraging type of feedback especially to the student with learning difficulties and disabilities.
The feedback method promotes personally guided motivation on which student freely and fully expresses their learning abilities. There is an increased interaction between the student and the teacher on which the parties works together in setting the goals. Positive relationship between the teacher and the student is generated from this feedback which becomes a great motivator of the achievement rerated behavior in the students. Establishment of goals and the presence of teacher reinforcement on those goals enhance the learning willingness of the student. Conference feedback is much convenient to form of feedback as it also incorporates the non verbal and facial feedback where facial expressions are well analyzed.
Small group's feedback
Small groups in class are highly considered by students as the feedback is freely given trough active group participation. There involves a lot of positive reinforcement in the group which includes the acknowledgement of the student ideas, students appreciation, and reference of the students idea. These reinforcements highly modify the individual student's responsive rates. The student existence of small groups find easier to understand and comprehend to the group instruction and directives on which positive feedback is highly anticipated.
This is a feedback method given by the teacher to students on their performances in the learning environment. The progress feedback received by the student allows the teachers to build high levels of self-efficacy in their students which motivates the students to more achievements. As a student's self-efficacy increases, so does motivation to achieve and actual (Educational Psychology, 2011).
Corrective and comprehensive feedback
This is another type of feedback that instills the student's creativity and motivation. This feedback is developed by the teacher's appreciation for a correct response from the student which further teaches them how to change and monitor their responses when they were wrong. This type of feedback equips the student learning with the study strategies such as the knowledge of paraphrasing main ides, information classification, questions predictions on certain segments of the reading materials and the problems solving skills. The feedback helps the students in the transfer of their work in regular classroom and critically showed performance improvement. After the execution of the corrective feedback, there is an increase of the correct responses to the questions comprehended. Moreover Meta cognitive learning strategies further increases the rate of correct responses.
Non judgmental feedback
This feedback enhances the creativity and willingness of students to learn. Effective feedback should be non judgmental in nature on which the teacher influences the students fear of making mistakes. This fear inhibits the student's creative thinking which in turn affects the creativity in the feedback responses (GEES, 2010).
Learning environments are experiencing changes day by day thus student's behavioral changes are developed. The changes are experienced in the frequently redesigned curriculum, teaching and learning experiences which affects the learning perception and capabilities of the students (Chung & Chow, 2011) .Essential learning environmental changes consist of positive reinforcement of the students participation and behaviors but sometimes this is only achievable with the presence of mild punishment and the ignorance of the frequent students responsive verbal output. Different cultural learning environments have different perspectives on the student's punishment but many institutions are against the punishment as they think it has more negative effects than the benefits. Many schools have their own culture of punishment practices on which the level of punishment is highly the main concern.
Today's learning environment consists of diverse and various culturally brought up students who exhibit different behavioral characteristics. Therefore there is a need of student's protection from any danger which includes protection from other dangerous students. Learning institutions requires a way of reassuring a protected and safe learning environment conducive for learning activities. Punishment has the psychological effects on the student and thus is ineffective as a means of student motivation. According to Craft (2010), punishment is generally used because it acts quickly and easily in consequences application on certain mistake thus it is secondary to behavioral modification of the students. It acts as a sort of vengeance and an instance payback on which teachers dispenses quick justice retribution in satisfying their ego. Student's behavior is characteristically self-correcting and experimental thus punishments simply don't initiate some major behavioral change on the student. In most cases it motivates the student in returning to behavior already learned. Use of punishment with a well accustomed and motivated behavior doesn't necessary motivate the students in learning but further creates frustrations and counterproductive stress in students making learning difficult. After all many students views the whole punishment process as no big deal thus cares less in their behaviors.
Students misbehavior could be as a result of many causes especially lack of positive family values in students. These students lack the attention and punishing them worsens their problems and become helpless due to uncaring world further intensifying the hospitality and resentment. Institutions should adopt a system that embraces the students with problems especially socially problems in efforts of identifying the troublesome students in the learning institution. Class behavioral intervention system should be entirely aligned on incremental plans that provide warnings before the initiation and execution of the disciplinary actions. Any disciplinary actions taken on the student should be calmly and consistent enforced. Punishment is widely used in schools although it does not achieve the most desirable results in the long term. Punishment is most effective in the temporary context. It is most effective with students who learn values in a successfully functioning family. Such students are intrinsically motivated to disappoint parents. Students who chronically misbehave do not respond to punishment as might be expected, and may even get worse. Schools should be practical in the process of offering programs aimed at changing the behavior of their student. The idea of punishing students may not be a good way of instilling discipline. Punishment is mainly effective in the temporary containment of some student behaviors on which it becomes sufficient in some cases. In the long term punishment don't achieve most anticipated and desirable results (Craft, 2010).
Development of the code of discipline is a better solution and an option in punishment. This basically provides reasonable penalties for the unacceptable behaviors of students in learning environments which should be based on the severity of the code violation. The code ranges from the sexual contravention, weapons, drugs, dress codes among other relevant punishable behaviors of course which is heavily reliant on the institutional culture. In most punishable case, the student engages in bad behavior due to lack of attention, lack of love and lack of internal strife. Many undisciplined students lack confidence and self esteem many tries to gain attention from their peers as well as teachers who severely punish them in efforts of installing discipline (Sprenger, 2011).
Teachers are responsible in molding the student's behavior, characters as well as the career. If the student's mistake goes unpunished there is a big likelihood of the same mistake occurrence. Many students lack the awareness of the literacy value and the character formation. Punishment to students is highly preferred in development of discipline and formation of characters thus prevalence of respect in the society. However there should be a limit in the punishments as some extent is unnecessary and destructive to students. Mild and corporal punishments are more preferable with the student behavioral correction motives. Physical punishment is illegal and is termed as crime as this violates the student's body. According to Gulcan (2010), Application of communication methods by the secondary school teachers is an essential in understanding the student's behaviors. Teachers and other instructors should care and emphasis on the students understanding instead of a strictly controlled system. This helps in creation of opportunities for the student to individually criticize themselves in behavior correction with constructive and beneficial criticisms that therefore eliminates the reasons of the behavior (Educational Psychology, 2011). Secondary students cannot adapt themselves based on the experiences of their teacher due to their grown age and instead thorough listening to their problems and clear understanding of these problems results to effective outcome.
The key aspect of feedback is balancing the student learning payoff and the effectiveness. Most use form feedback forms are those effectively assist the students in learning more efficiently as well as enhancing the teacher's coordination. Balancing positive and critical feedbacks is essentially important as it provides guideline to improvement in student's performance against their class assessment criterion. Many learning institutions are developing a set of principles and guidelines for effective feedback which is aligned towards the student's academic success. This involves the judgment development through the provision of effective and timely feedback which is actively evaluated on the students. Timely and focused feedbacks are very convenient to students as they provide adequate opportunity to the student in improving their subsequent performance (UK Centre for Legal Education, 2008). They enable the students to focus on the areas of mistakes as soon as the feedback is provides motivating them to learning.