The Choice Of Research Philosophy Education Essay

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This section gives an account of methodological approach for accomplishing the objectives of this research. The researcher used a descriptive and is primarily qualitative study for this research. Qualitative research design was the best preference in this scenario since all participants were give a chance of sharing is their ideas concerning the research topic. The starting point of the research was an in-depth examination of the research aims as well as objectives, which was an important basis for the problem phenomenon. Success of the research is therefore was a condition of how best the relevant information was given in consideration of the objectives fundamental to the research problem. As a recapitulate, the research intended to investigate what the approaches the school leaders and managers initiated to improve performance. Therefore, the objective of the research was tailored to ascertain the validity of this statement.

The first consideration in the methodology section of this research was the applicability of dialogic method although the research gave a consideration to other research techniques including questionnaires, interviews and case studies. The importance of this research prompted the research to make use of dialogic method that promoted an environment for the participants representing the stakeholders to think faster, creatively and productively, as a result, the researcher was able to fully utilize the entire existing knowledge, experience, diversity and also wisdom to full potential and in a dynamic manner. Through dialogic system, the researcher gained a high profile understanding by means of examining the research process through appropriate disclosure stages including questions formulation, defining methodological strategies, data analysis and disseminating of results. Every subsequent phase was instigated and subsequently extended through a succession of intersecting dialogic processes, which formed the foundation of the research event. The starting point of the researcher involved an imagination followed by an examination of important qualities and experiences that were desirable in potential participants. The researcher therefore started with shaping up the questions, followed by an anticipation of either problematic or positive circumstances anticipated to diminish or add value to the success of the complete undertaking. Above and beyond the dialogic method, literature review was prioritized as a potential means of gaining a significant insight in to this topic. Books, journals as well as online publications concerning leadership in schools were utilized in the literature review thus addressing all features of the topics in form of secondary data.

The researcher conducted the study with use two school principals of schools in the County Armagh of Northern Ireland which could be conveniently accessed. The venues involved conference halls of schools that were visited by the researcher. The researcher attended the meetings in schools in the County Armagh throughout the course of the. During the meetings, the main focus of the researcher was the interaction between teachers and students in the classrooms, the teacher-students relationship, as well as communication between teachers and the students, how the students are following up the teaching process as well as learning. This was followed by writing down field notes that were used in the data analysis.

The study was illustrative in nature and involved structured questionnaire equipped with 5 spot linker scale where 5 is equal to the highest and 1 is equal to lowest and this was applied in collection of data.

A quantitative inquiry analysis using SPSS 13.5 version was performed to test the measurement quality in the study or testing of the repeatability and consistency of the measures. This involved a computer program that is applicable in statistically testing of reliability of the results.

After data collection, all the structured items in questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 13.5 computer program. Pearson correlation coefficient was used in analyzing the core part of the questionnaire in order to determine the relationship between the quality of leadership and the performance standards in schools in the County Armagh of Northern Ireland

The information gathering process also involved the use of interviews in schools in the County Armagh of Northern Ireland. Adequate time for question preparation was considered during the interviews to warrant that clear as well as brief communication was achieved in each interview. This also facilitated for precise documentation of time and dates. The interviews were documented with as many notes as achievable to guarantee that all important data was captured. Though time consuming, the use of interviews in information gathering process was constructive because precise questions and follow-up questions were asked to facilitate achieving more details on a fastidious area of interest.

The researcher also opted for intergroup dialogical approach because it was more appropriate for this particular research since the research concerned what leaders and managers can instigate to promote performance of schools in the County Armagh of Northern Ireland. According to Paulo (1987), cited by (Dessel and Rogge, 2008) ''dialogue is a means to transform social relations in the academics, and to raise awareness about relations in the society at large'' (pp.2011).

To complement dialogic method in this investigation, the researcher relied on secondary approach to research with definite reference to the use of existing data. This involved the use of information that was yielded from experiments conducted and published by other researchers. The main benefit that was associated with the use secondary approach to this research was its economy on time as compared to the primary research. However, the researcher was keen on this use of secondary research because in most cases the information obtained through secondary sources was not usually accurate to allow accurate address to the objectives of the research study. The researcher made use of the information obtained from secondary sources in the development of the literature part of the study. This reinforced the critical understanding of research problem as well as cores the features of the study phenomenon in reference to the possible policies and strategies to be adopted that will improve academic performance of schools in the County Armagh of Northern Ireland. Regarding the current research study, the main sources of secondary data are;

Previous researches papers on the subjects of leadership and management in schools

Relevant journals and books especially those touching on leadership and management in schools

Relevant internet sources covering information about leadership and management in schools

Other related leadership and management in schools materials as the researcher finds appropriate to use.

Scope

The researcher made use of the participant-observation technique for data collection in a period of observation weekdays, which spanned over a few hours after each meeting. The researcher was also keen to keep field notes as well as the interview which were helpful in writing up my findings. The meetings were scheduled for morning hours so as to allow sufficient time for analysis. The indirect but active manner of data gathering that participant observation allows was considered as suitable for this research and its context. Thus, structured interviews were not planned. In cases where a point was to be clarified to provide insight into a particular conversation topic, the researcher informally interviewed the team members in a natural way. The researcher also opted not to use the multifactor questionnaire due to the exploratory purpose of the study in schools in the County Armagh of Northern Ireland context.

Research Strategy

Research strategy involved an extensive plan of how the researcher intended to answer the research questions. It involved unambiguous objectives, derived from the research questions and identified specific sources from which researcher gathered data. The research strategy also accounted for the limitations that the researcher inescapably experienced such as limited access to data, time constrains, finances as well as ethical issues

Table 1: Research strategies

Strategy

Form of research

question

Requires control over behavioural event?

Focuses on

Contemporary events?

Experiment

How, Why

Yes

Yes

Survey

Who, What,

Where, How many,

How much

No

Yes

Archival analyses

Who, What,

Where, How many,

How much

No

Yes/No

History

Why, How

No

No

Case Study

Why, How

No

Yes

Most essential condition for the selection of the research strategy involved the identification of the type of research question asked. "How", "What", "Why", "Who" and, "Where", were the foremost classification techniques for the research questions. Any of the above five research strategies was utilized in exploratory case study, exploratory experiment and exploratory survey.

Choice of research philosophy

Choice of the research philosophy was yet another important research aspect of consideration by the research. Choice of the research philosophy underscored the overall subjectivity of the research problem in addition to the various research approaches that were applicable in responding to the corresponding research questions. The choice of a suitable research strategy indicated which techniques the researcher adopted in responding to the objectives and questions in this research. In the context of the current research, a positivism philosophy was the preference of the researcher in defining and describing the nature of the study. Fundamentally, this approach was utilized to shed light on leadership and management in schools in the County Armagh of Northern Ireland context. This research philosophy provided indispensable constraints upon which the research characteristics were built.

The researcher's choice a positivist research philosophy was based on it's to facilitate collection and utilization of a large amount of data from multiple sources. The researcher argued that, positivist research philosophy contributed in enhancing reliability as well as validity of research findings thus enabling adequate understanding of the research problem. The researcher also opted for the use of grounded theory represents as an appropriate strategy where data was collected through observation. The researcher compared the data to a number of theoretical frameworks in order to determine which research approach was the most suitable. This allowed the researcher to make considerable predictions about the phenomenon under study and also to put the research findings into test to see whether they support prior beliefs and assumptions regarding the study problem. Grounded theory served to make studied data records well organized and understood so as to establish relationships between variables.

Research sampling methodology

The appropriate sample population considered by the researcher involved various officials within the education sector schools in the County Armagh of Northern Ireland. The officials who expressed interest in participation in the study were supposed to remain in contact from an initial discussion through final distribution, with the quantities and preferences of willing individuals recorded. Prior to actual research, corresponding study facilities was searched online and the participants were contacted via email or telephone. A questionnaire was developed, containing both open as well as closed questions, and distributed to officials employed in schools in the County Armagh of Northern Ireland. The questionnaires were distributed online and via fax depending on preference of the participants.

The chosen participants were identified to be sufficient to achieve statistical significance, although more participants were considered in the final compilation and analysis (depending on their availability based the time constraints of the research). Each question addressed a specific aspect of leadership approaches and strategies and attempted to investigate the present or potential effectiveness. Potential questions may include "do you feel current leadership strategies are sufficient for organisational objectives," "please rate on a scale of 1-5 the level of efficiency in leadership," and other items designed to collect a combination of opinion and facts regarding current leadership practices.

Questionnaires and Interviews

The researcher appreciated the need for using questionnaires as an appropriate tool for collecting data from multiple sources. The researcher confirmed that, the use of questionnaires presented a valid method for collecting mass responses and as such it served as a good criterion for carrying out comparative analysis of data. The researcher faced significant challenges in designing a good questionnaire to make sure that it addressed all research objectives and this required significant skills and experience from the researcher. It required the researcher to embark on the research study by setting up survey questionnaires and addressing all issues relevant to the study problem. The researcher therefore took the initiatives to pilot test the questionnaire so as to establish whether it was competent in addressing all issues that were relevant to the study and the subsequent interviews conducted. Pilot testing a questionnaire before distributing it to the respondents enabled the researcher to make all necessary adjustments.

The researcher also considered the use of interviews as one of the best means of complementing the questionnaires. In order to achieve all research questions, the key focus involved finding out the right techniques which were viable alongside the chosen data collection methods. Use of interviews presented the best method of understanding respondent characteristics and entailed the researcher guiding the respondents through a specific set of questions.

Leaders and managers in schools have played an important role in improving performance in County Armagh

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

Learning styles should be given more emphasis by leaders and managers in schools in County Armagh to improve the performance of the students.

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

Learning styles should be the centre of focus for leaders and managers in schools in County Armagh to determine the performance of students and their academic achievements.

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

Students who are taught in ways that are relevant to their learning styles tend to be successful in their academic success in schools in County Armagh

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

Students who are taught in ways that are relevant to their learning styles and in a positive environment promoted by leaders and managers have positive attitudes towards learning unlike their counterparts in schools in County Armagh

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

Good qualities of leadership and management in schools in County Armagh causes lasting transformation in behaviour including both the internal processes in schools in County Armagh

a) Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

The role of leaders and managers in ensuring application of compatible learning styles in schools in County Armagh is influential in improving the academic performance for students

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

The role of leaders and managers in schools in County Armagh in improving the school environment is critical in enabling them develop their skills of studying that are in harmony with their preferred styles of learning

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

Do you feel current leadership strategies are sufficient for organisational objectives

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

Please rate on a scale of 1-5 the level of efficiency in leadership

1 Highly efficient 

2 moderately efficient 

3 Efficient 

4 Slightly efficient 

5 not efficient at all 

Academic successes of students are more influenced by aspects such as presentation of the learning materials and the tactic by which students' process information.

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

The use of social networking and Information and communication technology is effective in improving academic performance in schools

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

ICT integration in the school curriculum is likely to improve the level of performance

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

Leaders and managers in schools in County Armagh should create an environment of awareness of the prevailing learning style

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

Learning styles that are implemented by leaders and managers in schools in County Armagh are both intricate and alienated in improving performance

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

There has been a rigorous reformation in the learning institution as a result of the efforts of leaders and managers in schools in County Armagh

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

What challenges do the leaders and managers in schools in County Armagh face in improving performance?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

To what extent can the work of leaders and managers in schools in County Armagh be used to determine or predict the performance of students?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Adaptation of Successful management brings out the understanding on how to rebuild and incognito from all complexities and old legacies of culture to design new realities.

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

The importance of strategic planning by the leaders and managers will play an important role in improving performance in schools

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

Reforms in schools can improve on the students' performance

a)   Possibly 

b)   No 

c)   Yes 

d)   Rarely 

e) Not sure 

Dissemination of the Research Findings

The researcher made it clear that, all research findings clearly pointed out to what the study identified, addressing the main message and its importance and also made proposal for actions that ought to have been taken. Major that the researcher encountered from this research study was discussed at the beginning of the research findings section. This indicated the essence of the study giving generalized results about the findings thus representing a much wider population. This study explored the issues surrounding the work of leaders in schools in the County Armagh of Northern Ireland. In this respect, this research contributed immensely to additional researches that already exist in this field of study.

The researcher made a choice of verbal presentations to serve the purpose of dissemination of the findings in this research. The researcher made emphasis on the written work through providing personalized face to face reporting on the research findings. Oral presentations were directed to anyone who was interested in this research including policy makers. The researcher identified the following platforms as giving clear guidelines for presenting research findings;

Web or Internet pages

Advertisements through television, radio or paid newspapers.

Use of theatres and drama.

Media releases sent to media houses.

Workshops, seminars and lectures for other practitioners, policy makers and researchers.

Presentations by use of video tapes and multimedia slides for you or others.

Articles in newsletters of organizations and associations.

Letters directed as mail to local communities, authorities, and policy makers.

The researcher intends to explore all the above avenues in the dissemination of the findings of his research.

Ethics of the Research

The researcher was keen in addressing all the relevant ethical considerations that related to the participants in the process of data collection, analysis as well as distribution. In particular, all research participants were informed, before their consent to take part in the research about the research purpose, relevance, benefits as well as potential consequences that were associated with their participation. The researcher was extremely keen in observing and protecting the rights, privileges as well as freedoms of every participant in the course of the study. The issue of bias coupled with discrimination was strictly condemned by the researcher was keen thus guaranteeing an ethical approach throughout the entire research process. All data obtained from the respondents was treated with the greatest echelon of dignity in addition to integrity. All information gathered from this research was used entirely for the purpose of the research and none shall was disclosed to unintended parties

During the process of research, the researcher was keen strictly adhered to the ethical standards of participants' jobs, so as not to stifle the process. Contract agreements were signed by both the researcher and the supervisor(s) and appendixes were attached as appropriate. All participants in the exercise were notified in advance and informed accordingly the basis of research and the needed prerequisites for the research. The researcher was keen also made it clear how participants should conduct themselves when handling the data sources and places would also be addressed exhaustively and elaborately.

The participants were supplied with different questionnaires based on specific areas of interests. The approval or the disapproval of participation was based on its merits and demerits as determined after conducting the research. All the participants were given their respectively informed consent for the purpose of participation in the research. They were informed prior to the research, the purposes, the potential benefits as well as the risks that might be associated with their participation. Ethical standards shall be considered in the process of the procedures of the research.

If the participants chose not to answer any part of the question/s, their right to not answer were acknowledged and it was ensured that the privacy of any person was not compromised upon. Two attempts were made and no further again to respect the privacy of any individual. Besides, the proposals for a general announcement of the ruling for agreeing to contribute to no other involvement incentive were offered. Whilst conducting interviews with the sources, researcher stayed cognitive of the selected interview time and made no efforts to intentionally lengthen the interview. Moreover, as an important part of the ethical considerations, all the sources of secondary data were given complete recognition for their input to this study. The composed data was characterized truthfully and the investigation was to the finest of the researcher's knowledge and capability

Ethics Form for Research Projects

The form should be completed in as much detail as possible. Please submit this form to the module co-ordinator.

Project title:

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Student's name:

Email address:

Supervisor:

Module title/code:

Leadership and management in schools

Project Summary: Please be as explicit as possible about methods to be used, including details about participant tasks, especially if these tasks could invoke ethical issues. Attach copies of all measures, tests, inventories, questionnaires and interview questions you intend to use in the course of your research.

Will ethical approval for this project be required from another source? (Organisations such as hospitals, charities and schools may also have Ethics Committees that will also need to approve your work. The responsibility lies with you to check this.).

Yes  No 

If yes, what is this source?

Please remember to obtain approval from the other Ethics Committee first and include a copy of this approval in with this form.

INFORMED CONSENT AND DEBRIEFING

Are you aware that participants must give their informed consent to any investigation procedure?

Yes  No 

Attach a copy of your participant information sheet, consent form and debriefing and confirm, below, that these provide participants with the following information.

Does this describe the main procedures so that participants know in advance what to expect, including the length of time that their participation will take?

Yes  No 

Does this tell participants that their participation is voluntary?

Yes  No 

Will you obtain written consent for participation?

Yes  No 

Will you tell participants that they may withdraw from the research at any time and for any reason?

Yes  No 

Will you tell participants that they have the option of omitting any question that they do not wish to answer?

Yes  No 

Will you tell participants that their data will be treated with full confidentiality and that, if published, it will not be identifiable as theirs?

Yes  No 

Will you make it clear to participants of the categories of people who will have access to their data (e.g. your supervisor) and those who will be reading the final report in an official capacity (e.g., supervisors, examiners, etc.)?

Yes  No 

Will you debrief participants at the end of their participation (i.e. give them a brief explanation of the study?

Yes  No 

DECEPTION/WITHOLDING INFORMATION

Does your study involve deception or with-holding information? Yes  No 

If YES, give a brief explanation and identify how you have confirmed that this is a necessary element of the research.

PROTECTION OF PARTICIPANTS AND RESEARCHER

Are you aware that your study should not expose participants to risks greater than those encountered in ordinary life? Yes  No 

Is there any realistic risk of any participants experiencing either physical or psychological distress or discomfort? Yes  No 

If YES, then give details and state how you will deal with any problems that arise. Please ensure that this has been thought through carefully and that you are fully prepared for any realistically foreseeable eventuality.

If your study involves answers to personal questions how will you assure participants that they are not obligated to respond?

Verbally  (this is not sufficient in itself)

Information on participant Information sheet 

In cover information on questionnaire front page 

Reiterated on informed consent sheet 

Other (please specify)

Are researchers exposed to conditions which may be distressing or present any conceivable personal risk? Yes  No 

If YES, what steps have been taken to minimise these? Please note:

If you will be meeting with participants in an informal setting, such as their home or workplace, please discuss issues of your own safety carefully with colleagues or your supervisor. Good practice is to organise officially to inform a responsible person of your whereabouts and anticipated time of return and to contact that person on your safe return from meeting with each participant.

Confirmation of Ethical Safeguards

Project Title

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Student

Supervisor

As the student who is conducting this research, I have read the Code of Research Conduct and Ethics and completed this form and affirm that appropriate ethical safeguards are in place:

Signature ________________________________ Date ________________________(Student)

Block capitals _________________________________________________________ (Student)

As the project supervisor, I have read the form and affirm that appropriate ethical safeguards are in place:

Signature ________________________ Date _____________________________(Project supervisor)

Block capitals _______________________________________________________(Project supervisor)

Methods of the Research

Writing a literature review on how leaders and managers of education sector can initiate and adopt policies that can readdress the academic performance of schools in the County Armagh of Northern Ireland and research on how other countries have improved educational standards.

Observing as a participant in a group of leaders in an educational management for a number of weeks specified, followed by analysis hours and possible informal interviews, focusing mainly on the on-going conversations at team meetings, especially dialogues in which the group members propose and discuss changes to their work processes as well as topics of relationships and identity in a team.

Using the opportunities to informally interview the team members in order to clarify and provide insight into the conversations. The researcher made effort to conduct these interviews shortly after conversations. A guide for the questions to be asked began from the general questions and continued on the basis of the responses and reactions of interviewees. At any rate, the meanings they tried to make were focused on without trying to impose any presupposed meanings on the interviewees. The questions included:

What were you thinking about while you were having the conversation?

What do you think they were trying to say or achieve in the conversation?

What did you mean when you said….

What were you considering when you said that?

What did you mean when you said…..''

Writing a research report that synthesises the understanding of the researcher to the relevant theoretical frameworks discussed and previous research with the results gained from my empirical research.

Data collection methods

The first information gathering process that was used in this research was observation. In order to address the leadership qualities that can be utilized by the leaders of schools so that they can easily implement change, two school principals were examined. This involved visiting the schools in the County Armagh of Northern Ireland to monitor the daily operations and evaluate documents and reports. Direct observation of work presentation was identified as an outstanding means of data collection for this research because of its suitability in any data collection method that helps in filling of gaps and answer questions. In using this method also it was necessary for the researcher to ensure that the observations were well arranged in advance and always get permission from the management of schools in the County Armagh of Northern Ireland. Moreover, the workers in the schools knew the reasons for observing them, and in cases where videotaping was permitted, it worked well with the method of data collection.

Through the information gathering process, interviews were conducted in schools in the County Armagh of Northern Ireland. This involved interviewing two school principals on the ability to receive and share data. It also involved interviews to staff officials in these schools on the kind of software they use in disseminating data. Adequate question preparation time was used in interviews, to ensure that clear and brief communication is used in each interview, this also facilitated that time and dates were documented precisely. The interviews were documented with as many notes as possible to ensure that all the information was captured. Interviews were used throughout the data collection process, but they were most useful at some point in the performance study point, when one is trying to establish the leadership qualities that can be utilized by the leaders of schools so that they can easily implement change. Though time consuming, this process was useful because specific questions were asked and one could ask follow-up questions to get more details on a particular area of interest. For a successful interviewing process in this project, relevant people were contacted and ensure that on questions pertaining the leadership qualities that can be utilized by the leaders of schools so that they can easily implement change were asked i.e. there was need to stick to the main area of study to ensure relevant data is collected throughout the process.

The researcher also considered the use of review of performance as a method of information gathering. When using this method of analysis, the researcher was keen to get data that was updated and current because outdated data was considered to be as harmful as no data at all. Compliance to restrictions by the original author was equally significant because illegal use of confidential data is illegitimate and detrimental to the users. The use of panel method in data collection was also a preferred option by the researcher which involved gathering information from the same sample respondent at intervals by either mail or through personal interview.

Research validity and reliability

This research was vey phenomenological in nature and all research questions were related to the core characteristics of the research phenomenon as discussed in the literature review. The process of data collection and subsequent analysis was thus accurate to ensure that highest levels of validity were realized. It was however important to consider that there are several aspects of research validity which influence reliability of research findings.

A debate about the findings of the study on the leadership qualities that can be utilized by the leaders of schools so that they can easily implement change includes the discussion of the 'research', more often than not referring to the manner in which the information was gathered". This research being a phenomenological, all questions are related to theoretical characteristics discussed in literature. The process was therefore accurate in collecting, analyzing as well as sampling data; hence the validity of result was quite high. Considering that there are many different aspects of validity, which influence the validity of the research in general.

Appropriateness of triangulation to research

The researcher found it appropriate to incorporate triangulation in the analysis of information in this research because several methods were used in the course of data collection. Triangulation therefore becomes important in a situation that several methods (excess of two) have been used in the course of the study in consideration of checking double or even triples results checking otherwise known as cross examination. The idea behind the concept is for the researcher to express a high degree of confidence in consideration of the results of diverse methods that give similar results. In case a single method was applied by the researcher, there is a higher tendency of believing that the results are valid. Application of more than one method may result in a clash of the results. The application of about three methods attempting to derive an answer may lead to a similarity of answers from two out of the three methods used. In case of an occurrence of a crash there is then a need of reframing the question.

Limitations of the research

Limitations are ever associated with any research and they are most likely capable of tarnishing the results in the research. A number of limitations were allied to this particular research. One of the most pronounced limitations in as far as this research was concerned involved time and budget constraint. Lesser time to the respondents led to a high probability that they never took the research properly and ultimately the final results of the research was affected in this scenario. In addition to this, some of the respondents expressed a negative and non-serious attitude which also affected the results and findings in the research. Some respondents were not willing to cooperate in the process of carrying out of the interview. Another important limitation involved the interviews as well as the questionnaires in which case, they could not be fully utilized in this scenario because the respondents were not serious in their attitude when they are filling out the questionnaires or when they were giving the responses to the researcher. Some questionnaires were not properly answered while others remained blank forcing the possibility of assumptions to be included here. Secondary sources of information were also associated with some challenges since some of these sources were not valid or they were not updated therefore the data that was attained from these sources affected the entire results of the research. Therefore, in this scenario, the researcher was keen to take utmost care about all these constraints and try to minimize them. Some of the school officials were adamant in taking part in the study and appropriate incentives had to be devised to entice them to give the information that they had.

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