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The purpose of this chapter is to review the theories on leadership; change; school improvement; leadership effects; leadership for learning choices and any governmental decisions aspects to identify the relationship of these theories. Free education has lead to school growth the core value is identifying the factors that determine school growth, the impact of school growth on students learning and analyzing these criteria's. Fortunately within the domain of leadership and education research there exist substantial bodies of theories that will explain this.
The chosen conceptual model interprets how to obtain further understanding of how the collaborative relationship between leadership and learning as mediated by school-level organizational structures and processes that refers to school improvement capacity. It illustrates that School Growth also referred as dependent variable is affected by the following factor, Initial Leadership, Initial Capacity, Initial Achievement, Change in Collaborative Leadership and Change in School Capacity referred as independent variables. School Growth is conceptualized having direct effect from leadership as a driver for changes in education, school growth is affected by shaping and strengthening the school's capacity for improvement.
The relationship between every variable that School Growth is depending on can be seen in the direction of the arrows, leadership and school improvement capacity are having mutual influence that contributes to School Growth. It has been proven over the past fifty years with the theories and research done offered an increasingly level of support for the assertion that principal leadership do makes a difference in the quality of schooling, school development, school growth and student learning.
Over the past 50 years, these scholars in Europe (Bell, Bolam, and Cubillo 2003; Kruger, Witziers, and Sleegers 2007; Southworth 2002; van de Grift 1990; Witziers, Bosker, and Kruger 2003), North America (Bossert et al. 1982; Gross and Herriott 1965; Hallinger and Heck 1996; Heck and Hallinger 2009; Leithwood et al. in press; Marks and Printy 2003; Pounder, Ogawa, and Adams 1995; Wiley 2001), and the Asia Pacific (Caldwell 1998; Cheng 1994; Mulford and Silins 2009; Robinson, Lloyd, and Rowe 2008) have sought to understand if and how leadership contributes to school improvement and students learning(Heck & Hallinger 2005). A broader view and explanation about this topic will be given on in this research paper.
Human growth can be explained as the environmental conditions, lifestyle and culture that can be seen as a reflection to which any individuals are subject increasing through the years (Schell & Ulijaszek 1999). School growth is the capacity of a student taking part of a school to be successful reflected on the ongoing process while the school has to deal with growth. The school growth process is primary based on the process of examinations, a special way of use for gathering evidence to guide decisions making in the organization and making sure that the right actions will be taken by the leaders, that later on can be seen on the effectiveness of the school, collaboration and respect based on the social and cultural diversity of students at school that has to be taken into consideration, this implies doing a research on this specific area of education by using questionnaires to measure how students are doing at school, and being so able to make changes or adjustments until the obtained and desired specifically improvement for schools to be successful is achieved.
It has been investigated by some researchers that schools and any other kind of business must depend on leadership throughout the whole organization, there are intended to shape productive futures in the organization through a process of self-renewal, to be able to achieve their goal or either a great success for the organization (Senge, 2000). To help enlarge the leadership capacity of schools attempting to improve their performance and achieve specific goals on the educational basis, some principals used to now involve teachers in sustained dialogue and decision making about educational matters. From previous findings has been revealed that while leaders remain central for change some principals are able to recognize teachers as equal partners that contribute in the process, acknowledging their level of professionalism which can effectiveness and capitalizing on their knowledge and skills to help achieve school improvement and school growth (Darling-Hammond, 1988; Rowan, 1990).
Focusing on school leadership, the relations between principals and teachers has also been an important focus point, researches has been conducting studies about the potential of the active collaboration around instructional matters that can have a direct impact on students and growth of the schools. There was a focus to prove on that the relationship between the staff can enhance the quality of teaching at school and students performance. School improvement leadership implies the existence of a related series of events relationship between the strategies of leaders, school improvements activities, teacher classroom practices, and growth in student outcomes (Heck & Hallinger 2009).
According to some researchers (Dumay, 2009; Leithwood, Patten, & Jantzi, 2010) that has conducted a research for the last years on school conception revealed that there is a long list of factors that can define school success and growth, one important factor revealed by these researchers is initial achievement, this variable can be defined as the role of self-beliefs stating to what extent do principals and teachers believe in their self to achieve a specific goal in education, this has a significant role contributing to the school performance and growth. This same factor were also stated by Winter (2010) that illustrated it by arguing that many studies done showed that initial achievement a motivation is related to success or growth in an organization. These statements could also be reinforced by McClelland's landmark book, reported early research showing the following: Achievement initial motivation, scored from a country's cultural documents, significantly predicted about that country's growth over subsequent years. Cultures with folktales scoring high in initial achievement motivation showed more successful entrepreneurial activity (The Achieving Society 1961).
Among human being, initial achievement motivation is associated with preference for moderate risks, to what extent individuals would take it as an personal responsibility for obtaining successful results a way of being personally committed with the their job, the use of feedback is a clever key to modify their performance in a systems that performance can be improved and consequently will affects school growth positively, and having a active expressive style guiding human being to be a successful perspective and to be able to pass this perspective on to others.
All these aspects that are illustrated to be appropriate to success in a business can also be compared to be applicable for school growth and success. Researchers have showed that in different countries, people in business used to have higher scores in achievement motivation than do professionals. Winter (2010) stated that many subsequent studies have confirmed there is a relationship between initial achievement motivation and entrepreneurial success. Initial achievement is an criteria that can has many factors to affect it, one important factor influencing initial achievement is self-efficacy, this an concept that was developed at the end of the 1970s by Bandura (1977, 1986, 1995), who defined it as the individual's belief in the ability to perform successfully the actions necessary for achievement of the projected goal. Self-efficacy should be seen as a general aspect representing an individual's belief in abilities to reach any achievements in various areas and to perform well in a variety of tasks (Eden, 1988, 1996; Gardner & Pierce, 1998; Hackett & Betz, 1995) contributing with this belief to an organizational success.
"Capacity is an attribute of people, individual organizations, and groups of organizations, Capacity is shaped by, adapting to and reaching to external factors and actors, but is not something external it is internal to people, organizations and groups or system of organizations" ( European Commission (EC), Toolkit for CD, March 2009). The main purpose of initial capacity is to have the ability of understanding a structure and implement the elements it contained with the required standards.Â This is designed to give a structure a quick view but an real snapshot of its current situation and the capacity to move and implement the required elements for obtaining the result of achieving success.Â
Specific goals in the education system and any other organization often depends on the weight of the capacity challenges facing them, some important tools are designed to identify areas of strength and raise potentially disturbing issues that could interfere in the goal achievement. The initial capacity review gave leaders the opportunity to reflect on what they do well and to identify areas where they needed to improve, obtaining an evaluation to adapt changes in order to deliver success to their goals.Â The timing, the reflective experience, and the findings of the capacity review were instrumental in showing implementation efforts. One could say that capacity is ability or aptitude; it is the capability or skill to carry something out. It can also mean a competency, a qualification. The strength and talent to perform a function or task. This implies understanding, will and motivation which themselves requires resources, conditions and knowledge as well as management rules and relations, control and comprehension of procedures. In short, definitions of capacity give scope to inhere anything from skills to perform a given task or function successfully, to the actual effectiveness, authority, productivity and other resources.
Strengthening capacities is about transformation and change it integrates psychological as much as materials factors. Capacity is then both attitudinal and substantive. According to Braam capacity can be narrowed down to specific tasks, particularly within education system, there are capacities required across the board, from visioning, administration, implementation, management, strategic planning, interpersonal and inter-organizational relations and more to achieve its prospected goals. These were reinforced by (UNDP, UNDP Practice Note: Capacity Development, New York, 2008: p.12) stating that there are many capacities that can stand out some of these might include: the capacity to fix objectives, the capacity to draw up comprehensive strategies and plans and implement them, the capacity to create and sustain a climate of change, the capacity to seal partnerships and alliances, the capacity to raise and handle funds, the capacity to mobilized and motivate people and finally the capacity to monitor and evaluate to be successful. The initial capacity if its strengthened and effective will leads to full functioning institutions, improves education systems and sub-sectors, as well as better coordination and smoother channels for delivering and providing a quality education for each student or learner collaborating with all these aspects to school growth.
This way it illustrates that initial capacity can be deemed to be something very strong that a human being can posses especially regarding the ability to be efficient and good enough to achieve specific goals. In order to work on initial capacity, there needs to be an understanding of the modifications or divisions of capacity levels: human, material, financial, political, institutional, organizational, and local, as well the incentive structures and incremental nature of progress to achieve an objective and prospected goals by step.
2.6 INITIAL LEADERSHIP
According to Day and Harris (2003), teacher roles define and shape the practice of leadership capacity in schools, today, improving school leadership ranks high on the list of priorities for school reform, and teacher leaders have become essential to improving student achievement (Gabriel 2005). In a detailed survey made in 2010, it has been revealed that school and district administrators, policymakers and others has declared principal leadership the most impressing matters on a list of issues in public school education. Teacher quality is always a primary standard required that is standing with priority above everything else on the list. Although there are some current perspectives on educational leadership that can differ from other, there is a movement away from a lot of perspectives that has the focus point on viewing the principals of schools as managers towards there are more perspectives that view principals as instructional leaders who focus on teaching performance and the educational learning in schools. It has been proven that school leaders have an influence on the performance of the schools and that they play a key role in school improvement.
Furthermore school leadership has benefits for the individual teacher and school. A school leader has the ability to share power, to involve others in decision-making of the schools and to empower others that can be a reflection on their own teaching practice. According to the researchers Pont, Nusche & Moorman (2008), school leadership can make a difference in student outcomes and school performance; all this can be done by creating the right environment for teachers to teach and to improving classroom practice and student learning. As stated, one of the most consistent criteria in descriptions of leaders is their ability to present a vision of the future, and transmit it to others to execute it with great success, to ability to point to a new way and transmit inspiring messages to achieve it (Mumford & Strange, 2002). Managing and nurturing positive attitudes is a leadership skill that education teachers can develop as they navigate the unique responsibilities and stresses of their professional lives.
Studies made on school change indicated that a school successful in sustaining school improvement has builds the capacity for leadership within the organization (Harris & Lambert, 2003). As already mentioned before, leadership in schools is the primary key to success for the entire learning community. Leadership is also defined by Webster's dictionary as, "the position or guidance of a leader and the ability to lead" (Webster's, 2003). Meaning that skillful leaders are people that have the ability to employ all of their resources and create a community of shared leadership while maintaining a guiding hand on the direction of the school. Teacher leadership exists as an entity in its own right. As this idea becomes widespread, the implications for school reform and for the role of the teaching profession in a knowledge-based society must be profound. Teacher leaders begin to recognize that their focus must move from a single innovation or from their own classrooms to a wider, whole school perspective (Lambert 2001, 2002). The change to this type of leadership allows for schools to transform into the type of learning communities that are needed to meet the diverse needs of students today. Investigations suggests that teacher leaders can keep teaching teams organized and collectively working on school wide improvement goals and that through committee work they keep the school moving forward (Hart,1996).
2.7 CHANGES IN COLLABORATIVE LEADERSHIP
According to Linda Lambert and Alma Harris (2003), it was stated that while there is an expansive literature about what school structures, programs, roles and processes are necessary for change, people used to know less about how these changes are undertaken or enacted by school leaders. Effective leaders in Schools Facing Challenging Circumstances (SFCC) are able to combine a moral purpose with a willingness to be collaborative and to promote collaboration amongst colleagues, both through the whole organization working in teamwork and by extending the boundaries of participation in leadership and decision-making (Harris 2002).
Leadership must create changes that are embraced and owned by the teachers who are responsible for implementation of this new change in the classrooms (Fullan, 2006; Hall & Hord, 2001). Moreover, given the intensification of work activities of school administrators, selected approaches to leadership must also be sustainable for those who lead (Barth, 1990; Donaldson, 2001). Thus, scholars assert that sustainable school improvement must be supported by leadership (Barth, 2001; Fullan, 2001; Harris, 2003; Marks & Printy, 2003; Stoll & Fink, 1996).
Once leadership becomes collaborative and devolved, leaders play a key role in maintaining and developing the relationships between people. Collaborative Change Leadership is a change leadership program specifically designed for people in leadership roles in healthcare or education institutions who are leading throughout change in the organization and across the continuum of care and education. This enable participants to develop and implement a strategy within their organization to create a broad culture shift to generate sustainable change in priority areas such as inter professional care and inter professional education.
2.8 CHANGE IN SCHOOL CAPACITY
According to Stoll of the National College for school Leadership at the University of Bath, leaders are placed with the main purpose of helping their schools adapt to changes and instruct them how to deal with the needs and demands that can arise as a consequence of change, leaders will be best placed as the ones that focus on sustaining continuously learning of their teachers, themselves, their communities, and the school itself as an organization to be completely upgraded and consistent to any change. Furthermore this is a way for schools to evaluate and realize that they are having the potential required to achieve their mission: students leaning of the highest quality and growth.
Change in school capacity can be defined as the continuous process of understanding and strategically planning for change. Organizational and educational change in schools has the goal to improve student results as a matter effect of growth and the strengthening of the change in school capacity (Güthe, 1997). Most of the literatures obtained on change and organizational development primarily used to focus on the balance between change and stability of schools during the implementation of change to understand the concept of change in school capacity. Taking this criteria's into consideration, change in capacity isn't only described as the ability to change successfully, but also to the capability to maintain daily operations and implement subsequent or simultaneous change processes that can present unexpected (Meyer & Stensaker, 2006).
The concept of change in school capacity was illustrated by researcher as follows, referring to it as changes in conditions of the school that is designed to support the concept of effective teaching and learning this enables the professional learning of the staff according to (Darling Hammond, 2006; Hallinger & Heck, 1998; Hill & Rowe, 1996; Robinson et al., 2008; Stoll & Fink, 1996). The variables school growth and change in school capacity are mutually reinforcing if each leads to change in the other (Marsh & Craven, 2006). It is stated that changes in school capacity is a factor that will positively affect school growth and students learning.
In models in which school effects can be illustrated, the socio-curricular organization of the school can be seen as a factor to mediate between the components social composition and structural conditions explained as the type of school are and impact on student outcomes (Lee & Burkam, 2003). Lee and Burkam define curricular organization as students with access to quality curricular experiences within the school. Social organization can be defined as the pattern of social relationships among administrators, teachers, and students taking an example on the presence of supportive relationships, student integration and well being. Furthermore this was reinforced with the following stating that changes in school capacity should be reflected in student perceptions of the school's classroom curriculum and social relationships between students and teachers, the school level, patterns of teacher-student interactions tap into the quality of socio-curricular organization (Lee & Burkam, 2003; Oakes, 2005). Each individual student will be able to benefit from the positive relationship with the teacher within classrooms (Fullan, 2001; McCaffrey et al., 2004).
From previous researchers that explored different approaches for estimating schools' performance and school growth over time, can be outlined that school growth is being continually affected and changed by these five components initial achievement, initial capacity, initial leadership, change in collaborative leadership, and change in school capacity over the past years. Priority has been set on the focus on education, but it should be stressed on the quality of education also. Education illustrates the meanings of development.
Researchers noted the expansion of education since the late 1980s had an impact on the status of the school. Research lends further support to the view that different approaches, based on different statistical models, can produce different assessments of a school's performance and school growth. In particular a conclusion about the effectiveness has been found. Traditional data on educational achievement trends provide one set of views about the relative achievement of various schools. By analyzing the factors that have the most impact regarding school growth, Heck & Hallinger (2005); Reynolds (2000) explained in their research that their approach to understanding the means by which leadership contributes to school growth can be outlined by two assumptions. First they assume that studies of improvement of school must assess change in the school's academic processes and learning outcomes over a period of time. Secondly, they assume that school improvement leadership is directed towards growth in student learning. Actions to desegregate schooling would contribute to children's development. This action would develop schools as institutions, giving them the capacity to educate a wide range of children. Adults involved in the effort would develop the ability to manage differences such as those associated with race. The activities required for these arraignments would develop individual and institutional capacities for forming networks and collaborating across geopolitical, social, and economic boundaries.
Studies about education indicate that school leaders and teachers must commit, participate and have leadership capacity for a school to sustain meaningful change. Based on the findings, it is possible to conclude that there is an effort on the part of school leaders to involve school personnel in sustaining school improvement on the factors. School leader believes that collaboration is essential for leadership to a have positive impact on student learning. Leadership is what you do as a team to put things in place and achieve goals at work.