Professional are the products of schools/colleges. It is a duty of the institution to train and provide the necessary knowledge to students, for them to be competent in the future. However, there are problems that hinder good academic performance of student. The high rate of students having failing marks due to absences has a perennial problem on the college. It is in this light that this present study will identify the cause of absenteeism among the hospitality management student.
The very purpose of the research is to reveal the cause of the absenteeism of the hospitality management student so that in other way to create an intervention program to minimize habitual absenteeism of students. It will uplift the image of the school by having strict disciplinary program.
Review of Related Literature
According to Cooperkline, chronic school absenteeism prevention can be developed on a more detailed and personal manner when the chronically absent are divided by gender. Within the juvenile system males are over-represented by seven times as many females, yet both males and females are reported to be equally chronically absent. By being able to hone in on gender, the chronically absent are assessed more specifically to their needs. Chronically absent males are suspended from school at a higher rate. Of these males, those that become chronically absent have consistently lower grades. Males who do become chronically absent are more likely to be chronically absent linked to gang activity and failure in school. Male who are chronically absent are more often chronically absent to avoid conflict with teachers and peers. Research has shown that chronically absent males do have difficulties within the family causing aggressive behavior (National Center for School Engagement, 2005).Females who do become chronically absent are more likely to be linked to family issues such as pregnancy and a poor home life. Females often feel pressure from their family and friends to meet responsibilities outside the home leading to chronically absent behavior, leading to social and emotional bullying upon chronic school absenteeism. Research has also shown that chronically absent females have more problems within the home with male authorities who are not related to them. Yet chronically absent females remain less likely to be physically aggressive (National Center for School Engagement, 2005).
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Distance to school
In South Africa, children on farms are reportedly much less likely to attend school than children living in urban areas (Wittenberg M. 2005). The CSSR (2005) reported that when compared to the base category of urban formal areas, attendance is about two percentage points lower in urban informal areas, five percentage points lower in the previous homeland areas and fourteen percentage points lower in the commercial farming areas. This discrepancy can in part be explained by the unique pressures experienced by learners who attend rural schools. Rural learners tend to be engaged in time-consuming domestic and agricultural chores and transport to schools is particularly inadequate in rural areas.
According to Brody (1988) study early-enter freshman student who traveled to the university performed a higher academic level than the student the student who reside inside the campus. Mostly the early-entered students are younger that the typical first year student. Thus it is not practical to generalize this finding to a broader first year collegiate population.
Schroeder and Griffin (1976) study found out that the first year students living inside the campus hall performed better academically than the students who lived outside the campus. The resident student sample who enroll in an engineering education program were housed inside the campus residence hall are likely dedicated to their studies. Therefore it would not be practical to generalize this to the broader first year colligate population.
Some studies show that parent/family involvement throughout K-12, an educational career of students has a lasting effect. Although study habits, attitudes behavior patterns may be set by a senior year, adolescent's success is influenced by his or her family even through the last year of high school. (Kellegan,Sloan,Alvarez & Bloom1993; Trusty, Simon 1999)
Studies during the past decade have showed that the relationship between the students outcomes and factors such as family culture, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
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According to Alvarez and Bloom (1993) students outcomes were largely unaffected by these factors.
Shaver and Walls (1998) study found that outcomes in mathematics and reading achievements for students of all socioeconomic levels were significantly affected by parent/family involvement, although students from higher socioeconomic families experienced the greatest improvement.
The effectiveness of parent-involvement practices does not differ according to race, ethnicity and family income.(Desimone 1999) The author recommends that these differences be considered by educators and policy makers if parent involvement is to be used as a resource to help schools respond more effectively to he nation's growing income and educational disparities. The effect of student gender on parent/family involvement indicated no significant difference between boys and girls who participated.(Studies by Keith, Quirk,Sperduto, Killings(1998), Shaver and Walls(1998).
Thomson (2002), stated that it is not frequently easy to identify the students who are at put in a line of academic failure of the school year. And it come up that the Freshmen students are prone to academic failure because of the new environment and may at first find it easy to adjust to a typical academic load. And it can cause absenteeism also by the moodiness, and poor personal hygiene of the freshman students.
While on the other hand, Geren (2003) says that Absenteeism is only one indicator of potential academic problems and also the personal hygiene of the students. Instructors in freshman and sophomore courses should learn to read their students even if Non-verbal cues, stance, posture, facial expressions, eye contact, vocal intonation, and even if uses of physical space contain of messages are important, and it is important for instructors to set up a "baseline" sense of their students during the first weeks of the term. Motion, stance and posture, facial expressions, eye contact, vocal intonation, and use of physical space contain messages. This is common information that Changes in demeanor and hygiene may indicate stress and can cause absenteeism.
According to Peggy Ruth(2003) During the first weeks of the term, instructors should try to learn students' names. Students may use an index card to give the instructor some mnemonic pegs, such as a rebus made of their names or a significant fact about themselves. This practice focuses the instructor's attention on individual students. Professor has a big role to every student to catch their attention or interest in attending class. It also sends a message that the instructor is interested in individual students. A professor has the motivator to every students specially for the freshmen thus making it easier for a student to make an initial contact with an instructor when trouble is on the horizon.
Gary Wyatt (1992) states that, he affect and fascinated by the behavior of the first year college students and the most changes things about college students life is the aptness of many students to skip their class. Researchers organized that paying tuition fee gave people much more than the opportunity to enroll in and attend courses. That can bestowed the status on the student, a status that allowed them to attend games like basketball and football to attend intramural sports, and to set up social relationship, to fall in the clubs, to use university facilities and to have a good time. A tuition it looks a little more than expensive, it charge to allowed them entrance into an exciting world-a world that was frequently isolated from learning and class attendance.
Horn (2005), stated that college and university students are specify asÂ commuter students,Â and it is, students not living in university-owned housing. The commuter student population is a diverse group, which comprehend full-time students who live with their parents, part-time students who live in off-campus apartments, parents with children at home, and full-time workers. Typically commuter students walk, ride bikes, take public transportation, or drive to campus to go to classes. They often attend classes and then go home or to work, rarely spending additional time outside of the classroom on campus.
Geren (2002) says that commuter students encounter many disputes that residential students do not. First year students, often have a difficult time in fitting in to the campus community. A commuter student often fined the task of meeting other students challenging because their only point of contact with other students is in the classroom. While residential students live, eat, study, and socialize together in residence halls, thus having greater opportunities to make friends and to become socially integrated into the campus community. A college students has a great amount of socializing for other college students and it may occurs in the cafeteria, student center, recreation center, through extracurricular activities even during late-night study sessions. As a result of not living in residence halls or spending a substantial amount of time on campus, commuter students miss out on these opportunities to "connect" to the university and other students and to enhance their learning and development.
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According to, Berktold (2002 that not only is frequent contact with students outside the classroom hard to obtain, but commuters often face limited contact opportunities with faculty and staff members as well. Commuters must make additional trips to campus to meet with faculty members during their denominated office hours. Unlike residential students, commuter students rarely have the opportunity to discover faculty and staff members on campus involved in non-classroom activities, such as playing sports in the recreation center or interacting with students in the student center. These informal student-faculty interactions have been linked to academic performance and to personal and intellectual development for students. The interaction time for commuters with faculty members is often limited to a few minutes between classes or briefly during office hours, leaving commuter students feeling disconnected from the academic system of the university. Commuters often find forming relationships with faculty and administrators difficult because of these limited interactions outside of the classroom.
According to the research conducted by Sanchez (2010) a student's chronic absenteeism and truancy can be precursors to low academic performance and most possibly will result to school drop-out and juvenile delinquency. In his research he briefly examine the truancy and chronic absenteeism of students in high school level in Redwood City, California and come to the conclusion that chronic absence or truancy is associated with lower academic achievement and also it is subsequent chronic absence problem.
Romer (1993) have led to discovery that a student earned an average of C- grade who only attended a quarter of the needed lectures in a sing single semester, while students who have attended all of the needed or required lectures earned an average grade of a B+. The research shows that frequent absence in lectures can cause difficulties on learning the course subject taken. While Grabe, Christopherson and Douglas (2005) argued to the extent that lead to the conclusion that this significant decline in subjects performance on subject/course examinations due to missed lectures in class. This correlation has also been presented within quantitative studies of absenteeism.
Devadoss and Foltz (1996) sought to the study to improve class attendance by rewarding and whether requiring or not attendance in lectures, and if students absenteeism does really result in lower grades. They found out that a student who attends in all of his classes is likely to achieve a good grade, on average of 0.45 higher. However, at some point Marburger (2001) argues the fundamental limitation in each of these studies was the uncertain cause-and-effect between absenteeism and performance and he question "do students who miss a lot of class perform poorly on examinations because they were not present when the material was covered? Or, alternatively, are students having high rate of absences commit less to their academic study in general" addressing this limitation Marburger (2001) conducted a study where he take note of the specific class time period each student missed in the whole semester. In doing so, Marburger results in finding evidence that clearly illustrate that truancy could determine whether or not the student can correctly answer the multiple choice exam.
Thomas (2013) stated that the reason behind student truancy has been placed in many areas, this could be the following reason why a student commit truancy: Poor parenting, emotional state of the student, deviant peer influence, problematic school environments, school adjustment, disciplinary techniques, instructor and administrator attitude towards to students, work patterns, financial resources, lack of motivation in going to school and family promblems/conflicts.
Statement of the Problem
Generally the main purpose of this study is to determine the reasons for absenteeism among Hospitality and Tourism student of La Salle University specifically it seeks answers to the following questions:
What is the profile of the Hospitality and Tourism students who are into absenteeism?
Distance of the student from the school
Number of subject loads
What are the reasons of absenteeism Hospitality and Tourism students?
What intervention program can be done by the college that will minimize the absenteeism?
Significance of the Study
The result of this study would be beneficial to the following:
Students - Whenever a person knows the effect of his doings, he or she will look for ways to lessen the damage done. It will lead the students into realization on of the effects of his/her chronic absenteeism and at least create a resolution for him/her to halt his/her habitual absences
Teachers - Teachers served as the second parent of the child in the school will be guided and able to formulate means to minimize the habitual absences of her or his student. The teachers will be the key to inspire and motivate their students to come to class regularly.
Academic Heads - Knowing the effects of chronic absenteeism, it is the concern of the Academic Heads to seek solution regarding absenteeism. The findings of this study will guide academic heads in formulating intervention programs to halt habitual absenteeism.
Guidance Office - The Guidance office is responsible in monitoring and help students in need of social, academic, and emotional assistance. The study will help provide information to the guidance office to closely monitor the academic performance of students and improve their counseling services.
Parents - The parents are known to be the baseline of communication and have direct relation to their child's regular absences. Knowing the impact of chronic absenteeism to their child's academic performance, parent will be encouraged to monitor closely their child and convince them to attend school regularly. It will also guide parents to protect their child from the cause of truancy.
Scope and Limitation
The study focuses mainly on gathering data to identify the reasons for absenteeism of students and be able to formulate solution or an intervention program that will halt/minimize the truancy of students. The respondents of the study are students from La Salle University Ozamis City, specifically the students from the school of Tourism and Hospitality Management who commit at least 2-3 absences in a week or have committed 7-9 absences in this semester.
The needed personal information will be the age, gender, students status or year level and the number of subject load. The study limit only on collecting data to determine the common reason for truancy to students who are into habitual absenteeism and later formulate intervention program to administer this problem and motivate students to attend classes.
Distance of the student from the school
Number of Subject Load
Figure 1. Schematic Diagram
The research study "Reason for Absenteeism of School of Tourism and Hospitality Management students (Bases for Intervention Program)" attempts to accumulate existing data and information concerning to absenteeism of student and its effects to the academic performance of student.
The use of a survey approach and the utilization of the descriptive methods were observed in the research.
To utilize certain approach that coincides to the objective of the study which is to determine the reasons for absenteeism of Hospitality Management and Tourism students. The use of a survey questionnaire was been handed out to be answered by the students who committed absenteeism. The researchers have used a qualitative approach to verify the reasons of absenteeism of student and its effects to determine the applicable Intervention Program.
The respondents of this study are the students of La Salle University, specifically the students who are taking the program of Tourism and Hospitality Management in various year levels. The research is focused on determining the reason behind absenteeism of students from School of Tourism and Hospitality Management because of the need of a better and more effective intervention program to halt the student's absenteeism.
La Salle University formerly Immaculate Conception College is situated at LaSalle Street, Ozamis City, Misamis occidental. ICC-La Salle was officially granted with a University status on July 10, 2006 after more than 10 years of initial application. Later, after consultation with various stakeholders ICC-La Salle was given a new name which is LA SALLE UNIVERSITY.
The following instrument is used in the study
Questionnaire Checklist Form
The researchers have used a questionnaire checklist form to organize the profile of the respondents. Indicated are the gender, number of subject loads, student year status, residency and weekly allowance. Reasons for absenteeism were listed to determine the most common reason behind student's absenteeism.