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When we want to define literacy, we say that it refers to the ability to read for knowledge, write, and think critically about the written word.,. Evolving definitions of literacy often include all the symbol systems relevant to a particular community. Literacy represents a complex set of abilities to understand and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture for personal and community development. In a technological society, the concept of literacy is expanding to include the media and electronic text, in addition to alphabetic and number systems. These abilities vary in different social and cultural contexts according to need and demand. Literacy represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from print and the main way to all literacy is reading development, which includes a development of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text. In the past, the word literacy used to express changes in the broad array of concepts it has denotes . some changes such as the generalization of the knowledge ability of a specific subject , have been unfortunate and continue to make consistent usage difficult . there were another changes , like a multidimensional conceptualization of literacy and the necessity that it embrace both situational demands and cultural considerations have reflected a growing appreciation for the complexity of literacy processes .
The beginning of literacy process:
the process of becoming literate begins at birth. In literate communities children come into contact with written language from infancy. This happened when adults consciously bring children into contact with print (e.g., when they read to children or provide toys with print). Further, children may see print on television or in the environment in general. This exposure to print is the beginning of the process of learning to read and write that continues to emerge throughout the early childhood years. Children's growing ability to construct meaning from print is viewed by educators as emergent literacy. This subject takes an emergent literacy perspective in discussing literacy development in preschoolers. It looks at how early childhood programs and families can support children's language and literacy development and considerations for assessing literacy learning. The terms reading and writing are used throughout these pages to refer to all stages of the literacy development process. While the general ability to read and write obviously bears on one's success in this process prior knowledge of the specific topics involves is a vital variable of content literacy. Thus, an individual is a vital variable of content literacy. Thus, an individual who is highly literate in math may have a far lower level of literacy in history or economics. This circumstance is largely the result of differences in prior knowledge and is true even though the individual brings the same general literacy skills to all reading and writing tasks .
The Development of literacy :
Learning to read and write begins very early in life, that is for almost all children in a literate society so When we talk about how children develop as literacy learners that is needed in order to provide appropriate support to enhance this development. Contemporary research on how children learn to read and write examines literacy development from the child's perspective.
Children begin to learn about reading and writing in infancy where they come into contact with print in their environments. Because we live in a print-rich society, young children are able to read environmental signs, such as labels on cereal boxes, names of restaurants and logos on clothing. In addition, young children who have been read to, who have had opportunities to "read" their own stories, who regularly see others reading and writing and who tend to experiment with writing, begin to understand that print has meaning. Many children, therefore, enter preschool programs with extensive exposure to reading and writing as a functional process.
Children grow in their ability to read and write when they understand that reading and writing are purposeful activities that are used to accomplish goals. This awareness that literacy is functional evolves when children observe adults using reading in functional ways (e.g., writing notes, referring to shopping lists, reading for pleasure, stopping a vehicle at a stop sign and using coupons to select food items). Skills associated with learning to read and write are acquired by young children, with the support of adults, as children engage in purposeful activities.
How to over come of literacy :
There are many ways to over com literacy from children and this began with the environment that is rich in opportunities to engage children in language and literacy experiences where children feel comfortable and confident in their growing abilities as readers and writers .from these ways :
Create suitable Climate that Supports Children as Literacy Learners this way occurs outside of schools, must create a climate where children's efforts at learning to read and write are positively supported and expanded. A positive literacy learning program provides opportunities that enhance children's desires to communicate, their curiosity about the world around them and their sense of competence as readers and writers. Further, it respects and supports the use of the primary language of all children and provides opportunities for children to communicate in their primary language while acquiring English. An important consideration in facilitating the process of learning to read and write is that preschoolers are more likely to want to read and write and be less inhibited about taking risks in trying to read and write when the mechanics of reading and writing are not the primary focus. Through a supportive literacy learning climate, young readers will experience the joy of communicating through speaking, reading and writing
Provide opportunities for reading and writing.
We can offer children a variety of writing tools and materials, including paper of various colors, markers, paint brushes and crayons. Include pencils, crayons and paper in the block and housekeeping areas for children to use to make signs, develop shopping lists and write captions and notes. Books can be placed in the housekeeping area and newspapers, magazines and reading games also can be used. Display a variety of written materials that have been created by children, teachers and parents that reflect the interests of children a class book that has been created based on an experience that children have had and Provide tape recorders for children to listen to themselves as readers or record themselves as they retell a familiar story that was read to them, record nursery rhymes or record for other purposes.
. Reading with Aloud voice to Children on a suitable Basis
Children need to live the joy of being read to by an adult and also by other children. This interaction between the reader and the listener enhances children's interest in books and their ability to read. It allows children to empathize with characters in the story and relate their own personal experiences to the story. Children are also able to acquire and extend many skills that they use as independent readers. They learn the left to right and top to bottom sequence in reading, learn that pictures provide context clues and build a sight vocabulary, among other things. Children also learn to predict the sequence of a story. Acquiring such skills, however, are secondary to the experience of being read to, a satisfaction that enhances children's interest in books.
Using multimedia in overcoming literacy
Use computers that are equipped with age-appropriate software to offer satisfying, child-friendly writing tools
And provide tape recorders for children to listen to themselves as readers or record themselves as they retell a familiar story that was read to them
The role of Parents in Literacy Activities
This is done with Discussing with parents books that children enjoy. Providing feedback to parents on how children are using reading and writing by showing and discussing writing and reading in the context of art, housekeeping and so on and Connecting parents with programs to help them improve their own literacy.
APOS: A Constructivist Theory of Learning in Undergraduate Mathematics Education Research 
APOS Theory, is being used in an organized way by members of RUMEC and others to conduct research and develop curriculum. We have shown how observing students' success in making or not making mental constructions proposed by the theory and using such observations to analyze data can organize our thinking about learning mathematical concepts, provide explanations of student difficulties and predict success or failure in understanding a mathematical concept. There is a wide range of mathematical concepts to which APOS Theory can and has been applied and this theory is used as a language for communication of ideas about learning. We have also seen how the theory is grounded in data, and has been used as a vehicle for building a community of researchers. Yet its use is not restricted to members of that community. Finally, we point to an annotated bibliography (McDonald, 2000), which presents further details about this theory and its use in research in undergraduate mathematics education.
(Jean Piaget ) stated that learning is the modification of a student's schemata's. Schemata's are the structures in the brain that are used to organize things; like filing cabinets. Schemata organize information by attaching it to prior knowledge.
It was believed that students learn to read through a series of discrete, sequenced skills. Students were grouped into groups based upon their development, then given vocabulary words and flash cards. Once the children mastered those they would read simplistic stories that used the new vocabulary words, as well as phonetic principles and other skills. Reading out loud would be done in order around a circle. Teachers corrected words, and drilled students on their skills.
a new method to develop constructivist grounded theory
A recent advance to the 'classic' grounded theory approach of Glaser and Strauss' seminal work has been the development of constructivist grounded theory. While constructivist grounded theory has significant utility, centre stage diagrams were developed by the authors to help integrate 'storied meaning' and diagramming into a method of data collection, analysis and theory development/presentation. Centre stage diagrams are co-constructed by the researcher and participant and use the participant's own life course, language and conceptual visualization of their subjective experience and are created over prolonged engagement. Centre stage diagrams are reached by the researcher and participant mutually engaged and interacting with two inter-related questions: i) what is the centre stage storyline in the lived representation of the phenomenon under study? and ii) who is centre stage in that lived experience? Our work in late-stage Parkinson's disease is used to illustrate this approach to theory building and generating constructivist grounded theory. Centre stage diagrams have potential for development as a practice tool and/or as an independent research method
Metacognitive Theory 
A Framework for Teaching Literacy, Writing, and Math Skills
It provided us with innovative, wide-ranging perspectives on how teachers can enhance academic performance. the goal is to draw the three articles into a more coherent and unified perspective, based in large part on recent advances in metacognitive theory. I will develop three themes:
(1) self-regulation as the centerpiece of strategy-based instruction;
(2) the reciprocal relationship between self-regulated learning and beliefs about the "self" as a learner; and
(3) "working models" and their role in classroom teaching. Hopefully, having stated my case as succinctly as possible, connections will emerge between my preferred metacognitive framework and the major themes in the accompanying articles.
The importance of children's early literacy development cannot be overstated. Children's success in school and later in life is to a great extent dependent upon their ability to read and write The physical environment must beckon children to speak, read and write and support their natural disposition to progress as readers and writers so we should provide opportunities for reading and writing and oral communication throughout the day and in various activities. The challenge is to understand how children develop as literacy learners, to provide a curriculum that actively involves them in literacy and where the focus is on children's learning, rather than teacher-centered methods of instruction. Early childhood preschool programs must engage parents and use community resources to support children in their literacy development
Early Literacy: A Constructivist Foundation for Whole Language. NEA Early Childhood Education Series. Kamii, Constance, Ed.; And Others
Humanities, Social Sciences and Law The Teaching and Learning of Mathematics at University Level New ICMI Study Series, 2002, Volume 7, Section 3, 275-282, DOI: 10.1007/0-306-47231-7_25
Metalinguistic Contributions to Reading and Spelling in Second and Third Grade Students . Apel, Kenn; Wilson-Fowler, Elizabeth B.; Brimo, Danielle; Perrin, Nancy A.