The Appearance Of Higher Education Education Essay

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The appearance of higher education is different from the emergency of education, which is the product of a certain stage of the development of human society. The Chinese higher education was germinated in the Xia Dynasty, and formed in Han Dynasty. However, in that time, the government is the sponsor and the teaching context is major about history which is less related to the production and social activities. In 1862, the Chinese higher education entered into his starting times. Prince Gong in Qing Dynasty proposed to build an imperial college in order to train foreign language translators. Later, many other subjects were introduced in the college and it developed to a comprehensive university. The violent revolution in 1912 overthrew the governance of Qing Dynasty, and it provided a relatively relaxed environment for the development of higher education¼ˆGi Guiqi¼Œ2009¼‰. During this period, the higher education in China experienced a series of reforms. The philosophy of western higher education was introduced into the colleges. Especially in Peking University, the philosophy of academic freedom was first implemented in China. In a certain sense, the endeavor in the Peking University transferred the traditional educational philosophy fundamentally. At the same time, the Southeast University recruited some students studying abroad, set basic research and applied research as one, learned American higher education from the management to the teaching content. The establishment of the New China in 1949 made the higher education a comprehensive transformation. The new government took over the old colleges, changed the private colleges into the public ones, issued the new education system, and promoted ideological transformation of teachers. Then in 1952, in accordance to the Soviet model, the government readjusted the arrangement of department in universities. After the reform, a trend of academic freedom appeared in the field of education, and the education from primary school to university got a good development. But it did not last long. Because of the deterioration of relations between China and Soviet Union and the changes in the international situation, the higher education had also been in the turbulence. The Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976 almost pushed the system education to the edge of collapse¼ˆLiu Yao,2009¼‰. That was the darkest history for the Chinese higher education. In that period, the reform of ideology turned into the major in almost everywhere, and there was little attention paid to academic research. Fortunately, the Reform and Opening up in 1978 led China out of the dark and also brought light to the Chinese education. The government replied the college entrance examination system; make the realization of modernization to be the main target of education. After the initiatives, the Chinese education went back on the right track and into the period of steady development. From 1978 to now, the universities gradually expand the scale, pay more attention to the teaching quality, make reform of university funds investment system, and strengthen the international exchange. Review the history of Chinese higher education, after a long tortuous development; it gradually develops to the internationalization and standardization.

2. Current situation

After continuous reform and development, Chinese higher education has made great achievement. According to the China National Statistical Yearbook 2009, up to 2008, there were 2263 Regular Institutions of Higher Education; 796 Institutions Providing Postgraduate Programs; 371 Research Institutions. As to the numbers of all types of students, the number of the new enrollment of postgraduates is 446422; the number of the new enrollment of regular undergraduates and college students is 6076612. And the numbers of the total enrollment of postgraduates and regular undergraduates and college students are 1283046 and 20210249. When it comes to the international exchange, the number of students studying abroad in 2008 was 179800, and the number of returned students was 69300. From the Reform and Opening up in 1978 to 2008, in the 30 years, the number of Regular Institutions of Higher Education increased 278.43% and the number of new enrollment of Regular Institutions of Higher Education increase 1568.41%.(, 2009) The overall situation had undergone enormous changes. All the numbers tell us how rapidly the Chinese higher education develops. Beside of the enlargement of scale of the higher education, China makes great achievement in reform of management system. In one hand, with the institutional reform of the Chinese state council, the government cancels the title of running a school for some ministries and commissions. More than 300 colleges and universities which were governed by the ministries and commissions are taken over by the local provinces and cities. A new management system that takes the provincial government as the main manager is built. In another hand, because of the problem left in the past reform, many colleges and universities focused on one field. In order to build the real comprehensive university, more than 790 colleges and universities were integrated into 300 colleges and universities (Zhang Jinfeng, 2007). In this way, a group of comprehensive universities were built, and the efficiency of running had improved a lot. Now, in China, it is difficult to find a college focus on unique subject. The Chinese government attaches great importance to the education. The government implements the strategy of revitalizing China through science and education, and takes the strategy as one of the basic national policies. Therefore, the government increases the investment to the universities to support the research and development. At the same, both the government and the society provide goods and money to help the students from the poverty-stricken region. Almost every university has his own policy for the students in trouble. A program called "green channel" is provided for the student who is difficult to afford his or her tuition fees. If one applies for the program, he or she would receive a loan which is as much as his or her tuition fees during the four years with very low interest. The universities also offer some woke for their students who would like to do part time job. All this helps the students to enjoy their beautiful university life in a less stressful environment.

3. Program for international students

The international exchange program is one of the most important programs for the modern Chinese higher education. Back in the feudal society, the government sent many scholars to learn foreign languages, architectural design and so on. With the development of the internet and information technology, more and more students have the chance to go abroad to open their view, and increasing numbers of friends come to China. In 1978, the number of students studying abroad is 860. But in 2008, the number jumped to 179800(, 2009). At the same time, Chinese government put forward many program to attract foreign students. Many universities in China have built cooperative education with other countries' universities. The exchanged students enjoy the same campus culture and share the same academic resource. The New York Time says that the Chinese has become the fifth foreign study countries for the America. (New York Times, 2008) Especially after the Olympic Games in 2008, the number of foreign students who would like to study in China surges sharply. The Chinese, the traditional Chinese medicine and the Chinese culture and history are all the interesting subjects. The fever of studying in China is not only in America, but also in many Asian countries. In 2008, there were 63000 Korean students in China, as well as 73000 in America.(, 2010) It is said that the number of students who study in China will larger than the number in America in ten years. In Japan, because of the economic situation, many students say that speaking Chinese would rich their résumés, and provide more opportunities to work. So, they would like to study in China. Besides of the support of Chinese government, many educational institutions and foreign studying agency pegs the market. They communicate with the local universities and provide advices to the students who need the service and some of them offer Chinese training in order to help the students to adapt the life in China.

4. Strength and weakness

The higher education in China has a long and turbulent history, so, there are many problems left in the gradual reforms. First, the system of higher education does not meet the requirements of market economy. The system has many compositions of unit and plan. From the university entrance examination to enrollment, they answer the same questions and they are certified by the same standard. When they are enrolled, except the professional courses, they take almost the same basic public courses. They are almost the products of university in the size (Gao Jing and Zhang Shiying, 2007). Second, what they have learnt in the class pays more attention to the theory itself, and pays less attention to the social activities. Whether a student is good or not good is decided by his or her GPA. Although they have learnt a lot about the theory, when they step into the society, it is difficult to make what they have learnt in use. They have few chances to contact with the world outside their campus. Third, there are so many universities in a province or even in a city. It is really to compare them one by one, and the variety sorts of titles of them are dazzling. However, there are also some advantages. In one hand, it seems that the Chinese students have a right track. They study hard since they were little kid, take kinds of exams step by step, try their best to get a good score in the university entrance examination and find a good job. It goes without saying. In another, the Chinese students are good at examinations and they are industrious. Maybe that is because all the undergraduate students take hundreds or even thousands of exams so that they mask the skills. And the population of China is so numerous that there are large numbers of graduates every year to find jobs. The fierce competition and orderly education system enable them competitive.