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The acquisition of the four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing plays a major role in the successful learning of the second language (L2) in a child. These four skills are interrelated. That is, the growth of one language process will naturally support the growth of all aspects of language.
Educators have a tendency to view reading and writing as components of the whole communication process (Hennings 1990 in Wiseman 1992). "Effective language instruction will accept reading and writing as two components of one entity: literacy." (Wiseman 1992 p. 15). Therefore there is definitely a positive correlation between reading and writing proficiency as wide reading supports the writing process.
"Reading widely is highly effective means of extending our command language, so it has an important place in classrooms where language learning is the central purpose." (Nuttall, 1982, p.30)
Writing has received a good deal of attention from teachers from almost every part of the world. Learning to write effectively plays an important part in a child's education and the ability to succeed can be a great asset throughout their lives. Writing is generally considered to be the most difficult skill to be learned and mastered by children as it requires several complex cognitive processes. One such process is converting ideas into readable text. It is considered to be the most difficult skill to teach and teachers find the task to be strenuous due to its complex nature.
There are a number of approaches to writing instruction that have arisen over the years. Writing using a sequence of pictures is one of the approaches, commonly found in Brunei Primary schools. In this study, writing is being taught with an approach which is quite popular in other countries but seldom used in the government schools of Brunei Darussalam. The strategy is the connection and influence of children's literature upon their writing efforts.
Later chapters of this study will describe in detail the methodology used in implementing the techniques and the findings of the study.
Background to the study
The English language also plays an important role in the field of education, especially after the implementation of the Bilingual Education Policy in 1985. The Bilingual Education system uses two languages, Bahasa Melayu and English, as the mediums of instructions in all government schools. However, most children in Brunei Darussalam grow up speaking a first language (dialect) which is 'Brunei Malay' at home and only encounter English Language for the first time when they enter school. Consequently, Bruneian children have to learn, not one but two other new languages upon entering school which is Bahasa Melayu and Arabic (Jawi Writing Script), making English Language their third language that has to be learned in school.
In 2009, Brunei Ministry of Education (MoE), in its efforts to improve standards of Brunei primary school children's command of English, introduced a new Education System called 'National Education System for the 21st Century' or 'Sistem Pendidikan Negara Abad ke 21', in short, SPN21.
The new SPN 21curriculum identifies English language as one of the core or important subject for all levels of education (from the beginning of Pre-school until Year 11). SPN 21 aims to lead students towards life-long learning. In general the aim of the new curriculum is seen to enhance pupils' capability to master the Malay and English Language in terms of listening, speaking, reading and writing, accentuating on the importance of these four macro skills.
It is important that learners need to achieve good grades in English in order to apply for higher education in Brunei and overseas. The main problem, however, is that despite years of learning and exposure to English language in schools, learners still do not perform well in English Language. In a recent study conducted by National Study of Student Competencies in Mathematics and English, NSSCME (2008), it was found that efforts in the writing task were frustrated, as learners of Year 4 and Year 6 had limited vocabulary. It also stated that the children had difficulty in writing simple sentences and also in sequencing sentences. There was a need for learners to practice, extensively, in expressing their own ideas in simple sentences.
Thus, there appears a need for strategies to enable children to be able to expand their vocabulary words, practices in expressing their own ideas in simple sentences. To achieve this, learners need models of simple sentences that they can vary and embellish to incorporate their own ideas.
Statement of the Problem
Most schools in Brunei Darussalam practice a similar format in composition writing, which is the typical picture composition. The reason for this is because teachers are afraid to try out new approaches as this may upset their teaching procedures and also perhaps because the exam format uses pictures. Although, even after the implementation of the new curriculum, teachers feel that in Negara Brunei Darussalam, the teaching of English is constrained by traditionally based examination. Consequently, teachers feel that by trying other means of writing could afflict the performance of their pupils in the Primary School Assessment (PSR) examination. Despite the new curriculum, which purports to encourage more modern assessment strategies, PSR still relies on picture based story writing in their national assessment.
The problem of rote learning is noted by Larking (1993) in his research in Primary schools in Brunei Darussalam. Larking stated that '...for primary 6 children, there was also an emphasis on rote learning a set of essay topics in which they learned the format of a model essay, so that the Primary Certificate of Education examination (PCE) children could reproduce one of these set pieces as their examination essay.' (Larking, 1993: p113)
As a result, learners who have the capacity to express themselves in a more creative way are not given encouragement. Thus learners from government schools often rote learn or even memorise their essays in order to achieve good grades, putting aside creativity and the ability to express oneself in a more authentic way. Even as recent as 2007, Azizah found that the problem of rote learning still evident in Brunei Government schools.
'Many primary pupils have found it difficult to respond freely and easily when writing in response to an imposed topic. Thus, some teachers drilled their pupils using rote learning strategy to ensure that their pupils will be able to reproduce a piece of organised and accurate writing with appropriate content.' (Azizah, 2007: p1)
Learners have difficulty in expressing their thoughts about their writings as they have limited vocabulary due to inadequate amount of exposure to reading. It should be noted that reading is not a practiced culture at homes and is scarcely practiced in schools, especially in the upper primary. Based on observations and past teaching experiences, reading aloud to children was observed to be only practiced in some schools and greater emphasizes was on Sustained Silent Reading (SSR). It should be noted that the value of SSR is highly conditional upon effective implementation by the teachers. It also appears that the practice of SSR is diminishing since the advent of the new phonics approach. As a result RELA (Reading and Language Acquisition Approach) reading based programme keyed towards 'whole language' approach, is being completely replaced by the phonics approach implemented in the new SPN 21curriculum. As a result, children in schools are deprived from the opportunity to gain meaningful exposure and experiences of written literature and modelling of the language used in literature.
Therefore it is a trend that children often tend to repeat sentences several times and follow the same pattern of writing throughout the entire prose. Thus this situation puts the learners at a severe disadvantage because reading is one of the primary gateways to development in vocabulary and grammar. Readers (including L2 learners) acquire knowledge about language incidentally through reading (Krashen, 2004 cited in Hedgcock and Feriss, 2009), which means through reading, learners' vocabulary and grammar are developed and these are vital in the writing process.
Therefore the reason for investigating the use of this literature in this study is to see if these pupils are able to learn new vocabulary words and use them in their writing. It is also explore if children are able to imitate the authors' styles of writings and use their own creativity and imagination in producing good quality writings.
Purpose of the Study
This study is a Case Study. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of children's literature on children's writings in a Year 5 class. The specific aims of this study are;
To explore how literature can be taught in the classroom using the Read Aloud Strategy.
To examine how learners write after exposing them to literature.
To investigate learners' perceptions about the use of literature in their writing.
The following research questions are used to develop this study:
How can literature be used in the classroom?
How do the children write by drawing on the literature?
What are the children's perceptions on the influence of literature in their writings?
Significance of the Study
The study is significant for the following reasons:
It can cast some light on the nature of teachers' writing instruction in primary schools and its effect on the development of students' writing.
It can help teachers to reflect on their current teaching practices.
The findings of the study can be the basis for the Ministry of Education, teacher trainers, syllabus designers and policy makers to design appropriate English writing syllabuses and strategies in order to improve the writing performance in particular and writing in general for Upper Primary Levels.
No previous study on the influence of literature on children's writing has been carried out in Brunei Darussalam.
Limitation of the Study
As with other studies of this nature, this study had its own limitations, namely, sampling, time constraints and the elements of intrusion. Firstly, due to its nature, the study was conducted only in one government school, in the Brunei Two Zone, Brunei-Muara District. The samples of the study were taken from a Year Five class, which had to be narrowed down to four participants. The four participants were chosen by the class teacher, which is also another factor that contributes to the limitation to the study. The findings from the study were taken from a very small sample, therefore, this study may not be generalisable to all primary teachers and pupils in Brunei Darussalam.
Secondly, a time constraint occurred due to the amount of time needed to collect the various data and to carry out the analysis and the final write-up of the report. Finally the element of intrusion was another factor contributing to the limitation of this study as teachers and learners were aware that a study was being conducted and thus this could have affected their normal teaching and learning strategies and also other behaviours. But on the other hand, due to its depth of study, the findings from this study might still be relevant to other schools and will provide suggestions on how similar studies can be carried out in other schools.
Definition of Terms
SPN21 - National Education System for the 21st Century' or Sistem Pendidikan Negara Abad ke 21.
NSSCME - National Study of Student Competencies in Mathematics and English.
PSR - Penilaian Sekolah Rendah or Primary School Assessment. It is a public exam held during the final year of a primary school, which is when learners have reached the primary six or year six level.
(L1) - First Language. This refers to the learner's first language.
(L2) - Second Language. This refers to the learner's second language.
SSR - Sustained Silent Reading
This chapter has presented the background to the problems, statement of the problem, the ourpose, the research questions, significance of the study, definition of terms used and a brief view of the strategy employed in this study.
This chapter will discuss and present various issues relating to children's writings in general as well as aspects that relate to using Literature in composition writing. It will cover the following features: Children's Literature, using children's literature in writing and the reading and writing connection.
Why Children's Literature?
Literature is 'authentic' material. Ghosn (2002) defined children's literature as "...fiction written for children to read for pleasure, rather than for didactic purposes." Children's Literature is highly treasured in many countries all around the world. Through literature learners are being exposed to language and given access to culture and languages that they are studying, which in Brunei Darussalam, it is the English Language, a second language for most learners. Lazar (1993) stated that,
"Literature exposes students to complex themes and fresh, unexpected uses of language. A good novel or short story may be particularly gripping in that it involves students in the suspense of unravelling the plot. This involvement may be more absorbing for students than the pseudo-narratives frequently found in course books." (p.15)
Lazar (1993) further stated that if materials were carefully chosen, learners will feel that what has been done in the classroom would be relevant and meaningful. Thus careful selection of children's literature is able to offer an alternative, motivation medium for foreign language acquisition (Ghosn, 2002). Learners not only find literature as interesting but it also facilitates the integration of the language skills. Thus this is able to promote word recognition and opportunities for authentic reading and writing tasks. As learners read literature, they learn the target language in a whole context rather than memorizing words and rules (Chen 2006). This way of getting knowledge about language, as mentioned by Chen (2006) is similar to the 'subconcious process of language acquisition' which Krashen (1976) had proposed. The use of literature has been recognized as conducive to academic, intellectual, cultural and linguistic learning (Sage, 1987). Not like formal learning of vocabulary and language structure in the classroom, literature provides an informal but supportive environment for students to naturally develop their linguistic system.
Literature also acts as an important basis of language input in the second language context. For second language learners, reading perhaps mainly channels the input of the target language. As Nuttall (1982) stated, "The best way to improve your knowledge of a foreign language is to go and live among its speakersâ€¦. the next best way is to read extensively in it" (p.168). Krashen (1982) also states that reading is a convenient way to receive comprehensive input within the four walls of the classroom. This input does not necessarily have to be gained from direct contacts with English native speakers. When it comes to reading materials, Gajdusek (1988) argues that literature is a more satisfying input than other reading sources.
Literature has been used to stimulate imagination, and drama and role play have been introduced to create inspired contexts. Liew (1997), in her paper, had stated that the use of Children's Literature, in one of her courses with her student-teachers was positive. She also stated that 'student-teachers unanimously agreed that they have become more creative through the study children's literature...their writing for children were charged with appropriate emotions.' Even though her study was meant for adult learners, her strategy could certainly be used in teaching primary schools' children to write.
Literature can help learners to be more comfortable and functional in their new environment as it models and teaches. Literature can contribute "to both the process and purpose of learning" (Widdowson, 1982, cited in Sage 1987, p. 9)
Literary Elements in Children's Literature
Quality children's literature can model a wide range of effective writing and illustrating techniques. When exposed to good models of writing, children can be encouraged to reflect on how authors and illustrators have shaped a story, literary elements and story structure. The use of story markers, such as 'Once upon a time', 'The end' and 'They lived happily ever after' are evidence that children are beginning to understand story structure. The ubiquitous 'Once upon a time' not only serves as a formal starting of a story but also tend to imply that a particular set of narrative forms, "with a particular stock of lexical and syntactic forms" ( Stephens in Hunt 1999, p.56), will ensue.
Stories are organised in predictable ways, whereby it includes patterns. Literary elements of story, story structure and design can be consequently identified. Learners in the primary schools, when being exposed to large amount of children's literature are able to identify the plot of a story by enumerating the sequences of events that occur. They are able to recognise the settings and traits of characterization that follows. Thus children's awareness of story elements and structure can be raised by engaging them with good books.
The most important part of a fiction story for children is the plot.
'The plot is the plan of action; it tells what the characters do and what happens to them.... A well-constructed plot is organic and interrelated. It grows logically and naturally from the actions and decisions of the characters in given situations' ( Huck, Hepler & Hickman, 1987).
A plot is acts like a thread and it holds the story together and as a result of this readers find it appealing and will want to continue reading. A good plot should be unique and fresh and not common, tired and predictable. Further discussion on the elements of the story such as setting, theme, plot and characterization will be discuss below.
It is natural that a story includes both the construction of a plot and its setting. Setting here could be in the past, the present or even the future. It also tells the reader the location of the story that takes place such as in a village, forest and it could also be deliberately vague to hold the suspense of readers. 'Both time and place of the story should affect the action, the character and the theme' ( Huck, Hepler & Hickman, 1987).
The theme is the central idea or belief in a short story. It reveals the writer's purpose of writing the story. Themes provides a dimension to the story that goes beyond the action of the plot.
The people or characters that portrays in children's books should have convincing real life characters. A character is a person or sometimes even an animal who takes part in the action of short stories or other literary work. Many of the animals that are in the children stories have human like personalities. The credibility of the characters will depend on the authors ability to show their true natures, their strengths and weaknesses.
Good children's literature contains wealth of artistry that model and fosters creative writing. Sensing and understanding how story plot, setting, characterization, style , theme and the format which are crafted by the authors can lead to improvements in pupils' writings.
Using Children's Literature in the Classroom
The use of literature has been recognized as being advantageous to academic, intellectual, cultural, and linguistic learning. Using stories or children's literature in the classroom is a good advantage. Children's literature not only is able to capture a learner's attention but it also acts a s a vital tool for provoking conversation and sheer reading enjoyment. Therefore it can be an effective tool to encourage, motivate and engage learners to write. Children literature allows students to visualize how authors use written language to write appealing and entertaining stories and thus multiple extension writing activities can be integrated easily with children's literature (Paquette, 2007). It is a natural avenue for encouraging and motivating student writers (Morrow, 2005). Providing Children's Literature in the classroom would definitely offer children with numerous reading and writing benefits. Skills are being applied by learners in all scope of the language arts, including writing, through meaningful experiences with picture books (Jalongo, 2004), and shared book interactions in small or large group settings can lead to purposeful writing discussions and applications (Morrow, 2005). Therefore when learners' writing is inspired by high-quality picture books and shared with peers, they will benefit from this academically and socially.
Ghosn (2002) had suggested authentic children's literature to be use in the primary school EFL class and offered four reasons for this. They are;
Authentic literature provides a motivating, meaningful context for language learning, as learners are naturally attracted to stories.
Literature can contribute to language learning. It presents natural language that can foster vocabulary development in context. It also is able to stimulate oral language and involves the learner with the text. It is also a excellent example for top-down approach to language teaching.
Literature can promote academic literacy and thinking skills and prepare children for English-medium instruction.
Literature can function as a change agent: good literature deals with some aspects of human condition and can thus contribute to emotional development of he child and foster positive interpersonal and intercultural attitudes.
Using children's literature can be an effective and enjoyable way to teach language. Students who are intrigued by a story forget their worries and anxieties about the learning a new language.
The Use of Literature/Stories in Writing
Stories are told for different purposes. In an article by McTigue (2010) she had stated that
'...storytelling is a useful management strategy for restlessly awaiting students, but had never valued it for teaching....in addition to entertaining my students, it led to teaching discovery for reading comprehension.'
Stories with strong organizational patterns often free children from overwhelming set of problems - how to begin, organize, sustain, or end writing and so by giving children a chance to "write your own versions," teachers may free them to write.' (Huck, Hepler & Hickman 1987.p 705).
In a research finding by Feitelson et al (cited in Dressel, 1990) found that hearing stories read aloud by teachers appears to have an influenced the "active use of language" of the first grade children who had little exposure to literary expression and "indicate that they developed an overall schema". Hearing stories read aloud will provide models for learners in their writing as this has been proved in the first grade learners, there is without doubt that this finding could be applied to primary schools. Being read to is not only beneficial but pleasant.
The notion of using stories in writing is a powerful tool as this will not only provide models for learners to write but it also could bring out the imaginations of learners in composing. '...stories tend to invoke our imagination and desire for creating, composition classes can be conducted more than the drab routines of students-write-and-teacher-correct'(Chen, 2006).
The Reading and Writing Connection
Reading and writing are interrelated. Reading and writing are interdependent processes that are essential to each other and mutually beneficial (Holt & Vacca, 1984). This is because what that has been read will provide materials for writing. Written work pertaining to stories read needs to include selected elements on order that proper organization of content is in evidence. Thus a good reading programme is essential to a good writing programme because it is primarily through reading that learners learn to construct written text.
Shanahan(1988) had recommended seven instructional principles based on research on reading and writing to enhance children's literacy learning. These instructional principles are;
Reading and writing both need to be taught
They should be taught from the earliest grade levels
The reading and writing should be emphasized in different ways at different developmental levels
Knowledge and process relations need to be emphasized
The connections between reading and writing should be made explicit to children
The communications aspects of reading and writing should be emphasized; and
Reading and writing should be taught in meaningful contexts.
Natural literacy development is dependent on the experiences the child has through reading and writing activities. Reading-writing activities are essential to the child's learning to read and write. Literacy instruction needs to explicitly present the relationship between reading and writing (Shanahan, 1988). In other words, children need to know the function of reading and writing. Since the skills underlying reading and writing knowledge and processes are similar, then the combination of reading and writing instruction is essential in literacy development. Even though reading and writing involve similar cognitive processes, it has different learning experiences during reading and composing (Shanahan, 1988).
When a child reads, s/he makes predictions about the text, s/he is not simply reading for meaning but is focused on the events based his/her interpretation. In other words, the reader makes predictions, constructs meaning, and struggles to understand the text. When a child writes, s/he develops a new text using prior knowledge, imagination and other resources (Brooks, 1988). Thus, all literate persons are readers and writers, constructing meaning from the text in which they read and meaning from the text in which they write (Nelson, 1998). As a result, teachers need to provide students with rich literacy experiences so that they can read and write in various situations for a variety of reasons.
This chapter discusses the research design of the study, the participants of the research, the instrumentation and the procedure of data collection and recording, and data processing and analysis.
Design of the Study
The study investigated how Year 5 learners, wrote when four different stories were being read. These stories acted as stimuli for children's writing. and thus to examine the effects and influence of literature on them. The study was qualitative in nature. The instruments for this study included four stories taken from four storybooks (refer to table below) used in the teaching. The storybooks chosen were due to its nature which involved animals and trickery. There were repetition of words and elements of a good story were found in these stories. Below table shows the activities that were implemented after each read aloud session.
The Stories and Activities that were used during the Intervention/Lesson.
Name of Book : The Monkey with a Bright Blue Bottom
To describe the features/character of the main character from the story. (New word learned from the story and through discussion)
Name of Book : Stone Soup
To invent a special ingredient for a special dish.
Name of Book : Wombat Stew
To make/build sentences from the words found in the story.
Name of Book : Beware of Boys
Writing to a character from any of the four stories.
Name of Book : Recapping the four stories heard by the learners.
Writing a story
Learners will be given 6 - 8 pictures of animals.
From these pictures, they will have to create and write their own stories.
They may choose all the animals or some of them for their stories.
One mixed ability class of Year 5, consisted of 24 pupils, was involved in the study. The school is located in one suburban area along Jalan Muara. The pupils' ages ranged from 10 to 12 years old. The learners had been learning English for five years, from pre-school to Year 4. Most of the learners are second language learners whose first language is Malay. The number of boys and girls were the almost the same. Most of the learners had studied in the same school government from pre-school onwards while others had come from other government schools or non-government schools. In this school English lesson is taught for 3 hours and 25 minutes a week, each period is 25 minutes. Although 9 periods were allocated for English lesson, only eight were used to teach English as the other one period (25 minutes) was solely for library.
Five sets of instrument were used for this study, namely instrument A, B, C, D, E, F and G, to get the necessary information and data. These instruments were;
Instrument A - Teacher-Interview Schedule
Refer to Appendix B. This instrument was used to elicit more in-depth information about the teacher's feelings on the current writing instruction practices. Teacher's views of children's writings which elicited information regarding teachers' perspectives, beliefs and practices regarding writing in general and particular were also asked. Demographic information, which included age, gender, teaching experience, English teaching experience and qualifications were also included during the interview.
Instrument B - Pupil-Interview Schedule
Refer to Appendix C. This instrument was used to elicit more in-depth information regarding students' responses to their interest in writing particularly writing in the classroom.
Data C - Pupils' Group Drawings
Refer to Appendix D. This was made up of copies of pupils' drawings (first activity) after the telling of the story.
Data D - Pupils' 2nd Group Drawings
Refer to Appendix E. This was made up of copies of pupils' drawings (second activity) after the telling of the second story.
Data E - Pupils' Sentence Building Activities
Refer to Appendix F. This was made up of copies of pupils' sentence building activity (third activity) after the telling of the third story. This was collected during the third day of the lesson.
Data F - Pupils' Pair Letter Writing
Refer to Appendix G. This was made up of copies of pupils' paired letter writing (fourth activity) which was collected during the fourth day of the fourth lesson.
Data G - Pupils' Individual Writing
Refer to Appendix H. This was made up of copies of pupils' individual narrative writing (fifth activity).
Equipments that were also used for this study were a Sony Recorder with Three Sony EF 90 Cassettes to record lessons and also interview sessions with both teacher and pupils. A JVC video Camera was also used to record the lesson which happened in the classroom itself. Field notes were also used to write down the activities and behaviours of the learners that had happened in the classroom.
A letter of permission to conduct the study in the school concerned was obtained from the Ministry of Education through the Dean of the Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam. A copy of this letter was then given to the headmistress in the target school. The teacher's teaching timetable was requested. Upon receipt of the timetable, arrangements regarding the collecting of data and audio recordings were made with the headmistress and the teacher. Before the lesson was implemented and audio taped, the teacher was met on an individual basis. Arrangements and discussion with the teacher was made in advance in order to ensure that the data collection could be carried out smoothly. The teacher was briefed regarding the lesson, time and date of data collection and the choice of instruments that would be used during the observation, so as the teacher and pupils will not feel alarmed. During the intervention, the class teacher had requested to be present in the classroom for personal reasons. This shed some light to the study as the class teacher was able to comment on the lessons, which could aid to the findings, and that she was willing to help out with the children's writing. Four pupils were chosen by the teacher herself and they were also briefed regarding the interview which they would be pertaining to.
Data Collection and Recording
The data was gathered in February 2011. Lessons were observed and recorded using the tape and video recorder during the interventions. Data obtained from the tape recorder and was transcribed and recorded. Sample of students' drawing and writings from the five lessons were also obtained from students and four individual narrative writings from four pupils who had been interviewed. These were then analysed to identify the nature of their writings after the intervention. Teacher and four learners were interviewed after the lesson. Data that were obtained from the teacher and student interviews were transcribed and recorded. The student interviews were conducted both in English and Malay. The teacher interview was conducted in English.
Data Processing and Analysing
Data obtained from Instrument A - Teacher-Interview Schedule
The data obtained from this instrument were used to supplement the data gathered from the lesson observations to answer Research Question 1, that is, regarding how literature can be used in the classroom.
Data obtained from Instrument B - Pupil-Interview Schedule
The data gathered from instrument B was used to answer Research Question 3, that is, regarding pupils' perceptions on the use of literature in their writings.
Data obtained from Instrument C - Pupils' Group Drawings
This was made of copies of pupils' group drawings from the first lesson (first activity) to be used to answer Research Question 2, which is, how learners composed texts by drawing on literature.
Data obtained from Instrument D - Pupils' 2nd Group Drawings
This was made of copies of pupils' 2nd group drawings taken from the second lesson (second activity) to be used to answer Research Question 2, which is, how learners composed texts by drawing on literature.
Data obtained from Instrument E - Pupils' Sentence Building Activities
This was made of copies of pupils' sentence building activity taken from the third lesson (third activity) to be used to answer Research Question 2, which is, how learners composed texts by drawing on literature.
Data obtained from Instrument F - Pupils' Paired Letter Writing
These were copies of pupils' letters written to their favourite character from the four stories that they had heard. They were taken from the fourth lesson (fourth activity) and again was used to answer Research Question 2.
Data obtained from Instrument G - Pupils' Individual Writing
Copies of pupils' individual writing were collected and they were analysed and again used to answer Research Question 2. These writings were taken from the final lesson (fifth activity) of the intervention.
All lessons were recorded, transcribed and used to answer Research Question 1, that is, regarding regarding how literature can be used in the classroom.
This chapter has presented the design, the sample and sampling, instrumentation, the teaching methodology, the lessons procedure, data collection and data analysis. The following chapter will present the findings of the study.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter will present the summary of the findings, discussion, implications, recommendations and future directions of this study.