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The significance of integrating technology into education is progressively becoming an essential necessity. It is hardly ever we talk about modern learning and teaching without associating it with technology integration. It is said that instruction and technology are associated and go in a parallel manner. In fact, technology exists to stay, researches being reported in this annotated bibliography tackled different types of technology and investigated their usefulness. Since technology seems to be a must in the education arena, educators started dictating technology and technologists what they want them to do in teaching core subjects so the technology specialist in the schools started shifting gears. They found themselves mostly assisting teachers finding ways for applying technology in daily classrooms and having technology at services of daily teaching and learning.
The purpose of this annotated bibliography however is to state the integration of technology in teaching and learning as stated by different papers in the education field. As we are a group of teachers, teaching different subjects we will tackle the topic from four angles, where two of them will be combined under one heading " technology integration in teaching and learning L2", technology integration in preschool, and finally technology application for special education. Regarding language teaching, technology integration in teaching English will be presented. As for the special education, we will talk about the integration of technology in nursing education, and specifically we will tackle the use of simulators in nursing education. A review of the effectiveness of past and current practices in technology application (TA) in language education and ESP will be addressed. All the papers were selected as to investigate to what extent does technology help or hinder the process of teaching and learning.
Technology Integrations in Preschool "kindergartens".
K.Ryokai, C. Vaucelle,J.cassell. (2003). Virtual peers as partners in storytelling. Journal of Copmuter Assisted Learning , 19, 195-208.
The study researches peer-collaboration as a key in for children to learn language skills important in literacy. The study focuses on Sam, who tells stories collaboratively with children. Sam looks like a peer for pre-school children, but tells stories in a developmentally advanced way, modeling narrative skills important for literacy. Results demonstrated that children who played with the virtual peer told stories that more closely resembled the virtual peer's linguistically advanced stories: using more quoted speech and temporal and spatial expressions. In addition, children listened to Sam's stories carefully, assisting her and suggesting improvements.
Although there are obvious potential benefits for such methods, I believe that these should be used in conjunction with traditional storytelling from traditional books.
Druin, A. (2002). The Role of Children in the Design of New Technology. Behaviour and Information Technology (BIT) 21(1), pp. 1-25.
This study suggested a framework for understanding the roles that children can play in the technology design process, particularly with regard to designing technologies that support classroom learning. The study was initiated to support learning in the classroom environment. The researcher suggests that children be part of the process of studying the role of technology in the classroom in a process called "co-operative inquiry" in "design-centered learning". In fact, this inter-generational process has already been successfully utilized to design new technologies. The study was thorough and based on well-researched theories.
Druin, A. (1999, May). Cooperative Inquiry:Developing New Technologies for Children with Children. http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil. Retrieved March 16, 2010, from University of Maryland .
The paper focuses on new technologies developed for children and how today's technologies are becoming a critical part of our children's daily lives. From school learning experiences to after-school play, technology is changing the way children live and learn. The researcher has included several helpful examples of how we can use technologies in the classroom and home. Druin has based this research on a number of valuable research theories and the article is well-cited. The article was very useful in my research into the effectiveness of technologies in the classroom.
S.Haugland. (2000). Computer and Young Children. The National Association for the Education of Yong Children , 54(6), 26-31.
The study focuses on whether we should use technology, especially computers, with children under 3 and in pre-school and early primary school and how to do it effectively. The reason for the study is that many research studies have recommended that children under 3 do not use computers as they should have more physical activities that stimulate development skills. Haugland transfers this question to children, a little older, namely pre-school and early primary school. The study is directed at early years teachers and parents. The article is well-researched and referenced, pointing out the benefits and disadvantages of using computers at various ages. Haugland suggests further that teacher training is important for computers to be effective in the classroom. Her study offers useful practical advice and suggestions for using computers in the classroom.
Yu.Chen, Jin-Ling Lo,etal. (2008). Playful Toothbrush: UbiComp Technology for Teaching Tooth Brushing to Kindergarten Children. Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Graduate Institute of Networking and Multimedia, School of Occupational Therapy, National Taiwan University.
This case study about using technology "Playful Toothbrush" this system assisting parents and teacher to motivate children to learn how to use toothbrush. The system recognizes different tooth brushing strokes. The tooth brushing game to show the children cleans tooth, mirror picture of this dirty tooth by physically brushing in on teeth. This study effectiveness of kindergarten children and measured by number of brushing strokes. This study is helpful in showing kindergarten children how to use a toothbrush.
Technology integration in teaching and learning L2
Andrews, R., Freeman, A. & Hou, D. (2007). The effectiveness of information and communication technology on the learning of written English for 5- to 16-year-olds. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38 , 2, 325-336.
The authors of this article investigated whether information communication technologies (ICTs) are productive in the teaching and learning of written English for 5- to 16-year-olds. They followed a list of systematic reviews, published between 1998 and 2003 to study the influence of ICTs in teaching and learning situations with regard to written composition. The authors debated the question of the evidence for the efficiency of different ICTs in the teaching and learning of written composition. They found out that ICT was neither beneficial nor harmful regarding to its impact on literacy learning. Therefore, they recommended that wide-range randomized studies to be devoted in the field to work towards a more obvious answer to the question of effectiveness.
Brantmeier, C.(2003) Technology and second language reading at the university level : information instructors' perceptions, The Reading Matrix Vol.3. No.3, November 2003.
The researcher began his paper with the history of using CALL in teaching and learning from different perspectives of learning theories like behaviorism and Krashen's theory of language acquisition. Then he stated the sophistication of the reading skills and how hard it becomes when a third factor interferes. The researcher argued that pedagogy should drive technology and teachers should be highly selective with clear objectives when implementing technology in reading. The researcher also stated two types of reading techniques; bottom-up and top-down and evaluated CALL affect on them which he found positively. He also listed the result of a study conducted on university teachers, findings showed that students who use computer based reading are more motivated than classical reading. The research paper concluded with some suggestions for CALL integration in reading as it makes L2 learning fun and burden ease.
This research is well developed with enough thoroughly background and clear examples stated, however such study can only be of great use if the facilities are available and accessible.
Chan, M. (2009). Technology and the teaching of oral skills. Mission College and Sunburst Media. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from http://www.sunburstmedia.com/present/TechTeachOral.pdf TESOL Convention, Denver, CO, March 2009
This research paper listed a university teacher experiences in teaching oral skills in different institutions. The researcher classified technology applied in this paper into two types; high-tech and low-tech. He mentioned various types of technology starting with very basic ones like using mirrors for observing the lips shape while articulating letters and proceeded into using highly sophisticated technology like language labs and other high tech in the digital realm.
It is worth mentioning that the researcher used all these means of technology for developing and enhancing receptive and productive skills in the aural-oral skills.
The research paper was presented in a astute way giving no breach to comment on. It also gives the reader a wide range of variations other than high-tech where remote area teachers can use from their surroundings and still achieve their objectives to develop the learners' articulation and the acoustic ability .
Cradler. J, Freeman, M. Cradler, R. and McNabb, M.(1999). Research implications for preparing teachers to use technology. Retrieved March 1, 1999, from http:// www.ceoforum.org/reports.cfm?RID=2
This research paper tackled the need for preparing teachers for using technology effectively. The researchers discussed the importance of having a good command of technology by teachers and how it directly affects the learners' ability when dealing with technology in learning. The researchers conducted different surveys and analyzed their results. They concluded with suggestion for an exemplary teacher such as the need for adapting technology in teaching, learning using computer should be at one's base, using computer should serve the needs of the curriculum and school leaders should help teachers by making technology accessible.
I feel that the study raised a very important issue since teachers are the corner stone for any development in education. However, teachers should take the initiative step to update themselves with the latest applications of technology in learning.
Cziko, G.& Park, S. (2003). Internet audio communication for second language Learning: a comparative review of six programs. Language learning and Technology, 7, 1, 15-27.
The authors reviewed a number of free programs for Windows and Macintosh computers that allow simultaneous audio (and some video) communication via the Internet. They found out that students and teachers of the second language can make use of the ability to communicate online with native speakers of different languages who are already interfacing the internet and utilizing video and audio. They stated as it is well-known nowadays that technology and the translating environments are available; therefore, students and teachers must exploit the opportunity to share languages. The authors called for removing the obstacles that may hinder sharing languages in conjunction with cultural awareness via internet for second language teachers and students.
I agree with the authors that using the internet as a means of audio communication for the learners of the second language is effective, interesting and inexpensive.
Gallo-Crail, R. & Zerwekh, R. ((2002). Language learning and the Internet: Student strategies in vocabulary acquisition. New technologies and language learning (Technical Report #25; pp. 55-79). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center.
The authors of this report address the question of the type of learning strategies to be used to acquire new vocabularies in second language learning and what the results will be if the medium of presenting instruction is the internet. They conducted a study in which they found out that the more different strategies used, the better range of vocabulary acquired. They mentioned that the instructional materials for classroom application and Internet use should be consolidated toward building strategy techniques. However, they stated some limitations in learning using the internet as students must be given more time to practice utilizing it in order to be familiar with online materials.
Kulik, A. (2003). Computer use helps students to develop better writing skills technology assessment in education and training, pp. 9-33. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
This paper is a collection of about 27 different research papers tackling writing and technology. The researcher focused his review on one program called writing to read (WTR) which stimulates writing through reading. The studies fall into three categories; word processing group, computer writing prompts and computer enrichment group. Out of the three groups the researcher found that word processing studies learners showed superior writing skill in later follow up than the other groups. Other subjects than English writing were also stated in the review like mathematics and science which I will not tackle. The research paper was concluded with an ambiguity of the effectiveness of using computer-based programmes in teaching writing skill.
The review was compact with a reasonable number of studies tackling different subjects however, I think that the findings could be applicable to lower grades as they need one-to-one writing instructions in contrast to higher level learners where they do use computer for daily assignment.
Kumar, D. & Bristor, V. (1999). Integrating science and language arts through technology- based macrocontexts. Educational Review, 51, 1, 41-53.
The authors of this article describe technology as a tool for creating meaningful experiences for integrating science and language arts using technology-based macrocontexts; which can be created by using several resources like videotapes, videodisks, CDS, and the Internet. They pointed that teachers must be careful when choosing the type of technology-based resources to be used taking into their account the setting of using in the curriculum. The authors outlined a framework of resources and asked teachers to choose what meets their personal styles and instruction. They mentioned that teachers must accommodate to apply a variety of assessment tools to include hands on activities, follow-up activities and so on. They argued about the importance of each assessment tool, however, pointed that student assessment should not be based on the mastery of technology, yet, teachers mustn't expect that all students are familiar to administer technology.
As an English teacher, I think by integrating language arts using technology based macro-contexts, student's knowledge can be enhanced as the teacher will be the facilitator of the meaningful learning.
Walsh, M.; Asha, J. & Sprainger, N. (2007). Reading digital texts. Australian Journal of Language & Literacy, 30, 1, 40-53.
The authors of this article investigated the ways students read and navigate digital texts. They examined if the explicit teaching of visual grammar contributes to the reading process with digital texts and enables students and teachers to discuss and understand them. The researchers conducted a case study research in which they worked with teachers who chose some students to read digital texts. The study manifested that students in the study were extremely motivated to work with digital texts and they were capable to use basic ICT skills to navigate sites. However, their reading responses and understanding looked to be superficial with little evidence of concluding, evaluating or critical reading. The researches arose several questions and called for the need of more researches to understand whether the reading of digital texts demands new theories of reading.
Personally, I consider digital texts as one of possibilities for making the access of the curriculum materials easier for all kinds of learners including students with disabilities.
Warschauer, M. and Meskill, C. (2000) Technology and second language teaching and learning. in J. Rosenthal (ed) Handbook of undergraduate second language education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
The author of this research started his paper with a brief history of language learning and technology application. He focused on the sociological approach in learning a second language collaboratively. Technologies, like computer-mediated communication in classroom, computer-mediated communication for long distance learning and accessing resources and publishing on the World Wide Web were used. The researcher emphasized the importance of technology in teaching and learning L2 as it saves time and efforts in our cross-culture and digital world. But, he said that using computer to substitute human being totally and acting as a social changeover is of a great mistake as there is no guaranty of effective interaction. He also argued that technology is still far away from replacing human being and interacting effectively with the learner.
I totally agree with the researcher, believing that technology needs human being to adapt and supervise particularly for young learners who needs a lot of moral guidance and regular instructions until they form a clear-cut between right and wrong social activities.
Technology integration ESP" in Nursing Education: Simulators Use"
Broussard, L. (2008-2009). Simulation-Based Learning: How Simulation Help Nurses Improve Clinical Skills and Preserve Patient Safety. Nursing for Women's Health , 12 (6), 521-524.
In this article, the author introduced by reassuring the idea of the importance of simulation in nursing eduction and its importance in maintaining the safety of patients. It was mentioned in the study that simulation-based training is a priority for updated safe practice that do not compromise patient safety. It was also found that simulation is an effective method for teaching maternity and newborn nursing care. The author also agreed giving the learners rare clinical experiences by being exposed to simulations, as scenrios can be tailroed to serve specific goals that are not always available in the real settings. Also, simulation was found to be a useful tool remediation of students who need more practice. Finally the author also, stressed on the importance of simulation in continuing education for nurses in areas that require more complexity, like newborn intensive care units. After that, the author presented the levels of simulation technology; Low-Fidelity, moderate-fidelity and high fidelity simulators and to what extent each of them could help nursing students to get training that mimics the real life situations. High-Fidelity simulators were found to serve more objectives that the other types. In simulation advantages, in addition to what has been mentioned in the literature, this article added that, simulation gave the learners more chances to repeat skills to enhance their learning, as repetition would not be possible in real-life situations which limits students' experiences. It also agreed on the positive effects of simulation on increasing knowledge retention and build on previous knowledge building on what they learnt on simulators with what they experience in real life. Although in Lasater, K. (2007) study studnets perceived practicing with simulators was sressful, results in this study came opposite, where learners reported decreased levels of performance anxiety and improved skills. When challenges of simulation were researched, the author of this article shared other studies the agreement on, expence, space, computer literacy and technical support as challenges of simulation integration in nursing education.
The researcher in this article briefly presented and the findings could pinpoint the significant importance of simulators in preserving patient safety by exploring the active method of learning using simulators. It also, stressed the importance of simulators in nursing education in participating to build on prior knowledge, and relate the simulation experiences to what is experienced in real situations which eventually develop their critical thinking abilities. This article also presented learners awareness about their own mistakes when learning using simulators and also, they reported decreased stress levels during training practicing psychomotor skills.
Broussard, L., Mayers, R., & Lemoin, J. (2009). Preparing pediatric nurses: The role of simulation-basd learning. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing , 32, 4-15.
This Article tackled the integration of technology in pediatric nursing education, as one of the nursing branches in which simulation has found its way. The objective of this integration was directed towards serving the nursing students as well as the newly graduated nurses, who are expected to master certain specialized pediatric nursing skills. The author has also mentioned the role of the simulation in providing more control over the different levels of education. Also, the focus in this article was on the importance of keeping nurses updated. Shortage in nurses as a problem in the nursing profession resulted in positions that needed to be filled, and vacancies were filled with novice nurses. Technology integration prepared those novice nurses to be ready to work in real clinical settings by introducing them to situation that mimic real clinical settings. The history of simulation was mentioned in this article as it started in professions other than nursing, then it started in nursing in the beginning of the 1990s. The author, discussed the reasons why simulation is needed in nursing, he summarized that in the increasing need for clinical areas with the increasing need for more nurses, the need for more nursing educators, patient safety, the transform of the health care facilities into a more complex environment and the students accustomed to technology. Types of simulators, were also mentioned, ranging from simple to complex and their effects on nursing education. A clarification of simulation based education was mentioned in addition to the challenges to the use of simulation either for educators or institution. Exploration of the possible procedures in pediatric nursing was also covered. Nursing students had their say in the article about simulation based nursing. Finally the author discussed the effects of simulation on continuing education.
I agree on what was presented in this article, as the researcher focused on the importance of keeping nurses updated in terms of knowledge and practice. The researcher also explained the reasons why simulators are needed in nursing education in addition to his identification of the types of simulators furthermore, to what extent High-Fidelity Simulators are convincing. The advantages and challenges were also identified. Finally, the researcher presented some nursing students' experiences with simulation-based learning.
Lasater, K. (2007). High-fidelity simulation and the development of clinical judgment: Students' experience. Journal of Nursing Education , 46 (6), 269-276.
In this study, the focus was on the experiences of nursing students' who used high-fidelity human patient simulators HPS in their clinical training. In the light of those experiences the author presented information about the students' confidence in clinical judgment skills, aptitude for critical thinking, qualitative observations of students' decision making and students' experience with HPS through a focus group. In the data analysis of this article the author could identify 13 themes; of those themes, one was that students perceived simulation as stressful, although there was no real human being at risk, also, students expressed that some scenarios were found more real than others, but most of the findings were found to support the use of high-fidelity human simulation in nursing education. The author listed the strengths and limitations of High-Fidelity Simulation. The sample agreed on HPS as a tool to bridge the gap between theory and practice, by improving the psychomotor skills, direct feedback from the HPS. Limitations were expressed by the sample as HPS always had a female voice, lacked nonverbal communication, difficult to assess for certain neurological examinations and finally the impossibility to simulate an incision, swelling or skin color changes.
The researcher in this article shed the light on one of the most important issues in nursing profession, which is "Clinical Judgment", where in this study he emphasized the role of simulation in fostering this skill. So I can say that this study added to the literature that supports the use of simulation in nursing education regarding clinical judgment which is most of the time crucial for making decision.
Pacsi, A. L. (2008-2009). Human simulators in nursing education. Journal of the New York State Nurses Association , 8-11.
In this study the author discussed the historical perspectives, use, and effectiveness of computerized human patient simulators (HPS), as well; he also reviewed the literature that supported the use of HPS in nursing education. (Herrmann, 1981) cited in this article that the first HPS was developed in 1950s by Mrs. Chase, although Broussard, L. (2008-2009) has mentioned that the first nursing simulators were introduced in the 1990s, but what Broussard meant was the full mannequin while Herrmann talked about a torso. Then, it was followed by a model created by Harvey, which contained more sophesticated equipment to simulate the heart and lungs. HPS moved from being a torso that was designed to teach a specific nursing skill, to be now fully computerized and able to with almost all the internal organs of a real human body, they also can blink and communicate verbally. Now, HPS can simulate different diseases, receive medications, nursing care and respond to them accordingly. In this article the author tackled the capabilities and uses of human patient simulators; where it was cited by Tilghman (2006) in this article that heightening of student learning is a result of incorporating technology in nursing education. The writer also agreed on the positve effects of simulation in nursing education on patient safety. Objectivety of evaluation was an issue of concern in this article, as it was mentioned that HPS provided an objective way to assess nursing students in specific aspects before being exposed to real life situations. All the previous issues helped in moving nursing students smoothly to the real life bridging theory to practice reducing students stress to minimum of harming real patients. In the literature review of the author shed the light on seventy five percent of the studies he reviewed and supported the use of HPS in nursing education as well; he spoted the inconsistencies in patient outcomes and cost of some HPS. Regarding the effectiveness of HPS in clinical settings, the author agreed with most of the literature on the positive effects of HPS on improving the students' abilities in physical assessment and decision making without dealing with real patients. The author finally stressed the necessity of the faculty being aquanted to and comfortable with using HPS. Abut future use of HPS, the author believed that more opportunities will be there to have the nursing students practice more complicated cases that would develop their skill without harming the patients. The author finally concluded by an agreement on that HPS could be a tool for both students and faculty, but he recommended for more studies on using HPS especially with undergraduate nursing students.
The researcher in this study which is, in my openion, not as thorough as the others, but still the idea he presented about the history, and importance of simulators use in nursing education could not be ignored.
Wilford, A., & Doyle, T. J. (2006). Integrating simulation training into the nursing curriculum. British Journal of Nursing , 15 (17), 926-930.
The author in this article researched the use of simulation in pre-registration nursing, as clinical areas nowadays are not able to cope with the increasing numbers of health care students who need to practice their theoretical knowledge in real settings. A historical brief about simulators was presented, mentioning that momentum of simulators technology is increasing over time. The author then mentioned the effects of simulation on nursing competence, assuring the idea that suggested HPS as a means to provide for a diversity of learning objectives to be taught in an environment that put no human being at risk. It also focused on the importance of the students' reflection on their performance after dealing with a HPS, which added more control over their ability to improve their competence and confidence. In discussing why simulation is needed, the author agreed with the other studies in this bibliography on the importance of HPS in putting the learners in an environment that is very close to the real life. Retaining and reproduction of knowledge was found to be more when learners were exposed to more realistic learning environment and those were only could be possible when using simulators. (Schumith and van der Vleuten, 2003; Gordon et al, 2004) cited about the importance of simulators that mimic realistic environment on retaining and reproduction of knowledge. The author listed the objectives necessary to integrate simulators in the educational program.
The researcher in this article discussed the importance of simulation for pre-registration nursing, which makes it worthwhile, as newly graduate nurses, still in need for more practice to master certain skill before being registered, and this could be achieved by the use of simulators as per the researcher. So, here the writer added to the literature another thing regarding the importance of simulators, as they are not only necessary for educating undergraduate nursing students, but also simulators are important to increase the skills and confidence for graduate who need to practice in real life to become registered nurses, giving them the opportunity to mimic this by the use of simulators.
After reviewing the previous bibliography, one can clearly notice the importance of technology as an integral part of the teaching andlearning processes. No one can deny the importance of integrating technology into classroom while second language learning. It can be a means of facilitating the teacher's job in teaching meaningful materials and enhancing student's acquisition of the basic skills of language arts. However, teachers must be equipped with all the professional skills including methodologies and technical skills in order to successfully make use of technology.Where technology was found to be a possible means for improving education different domains; like in nursing education where cognitive skills were required to be mastered side by side with the psychomotor skills, the use of simulators helped nursing students and novice nurses to practice in environment that mimics realistic situatinos. Also, simulations were found to give the learners the opportunity to reflect on their own learning experiences, and mistakes then to transform them into learning experiences. Human patient simulators and simulation technology in nursing education will be always an essential method to develop nursing students' competencies in a risk free environment which is one of the major concerns in any health care profession. Also in teaching Enlglish which requires more cognitive skills, technology could have a significant space.