Technology has enabled individuals to seek other avenues

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Technology has enabled individuals to seek out other avenues in pursuit of their education. These individuals are searching to find a way to include education into their schedules. Universities and instructors must provide appropriate structure, methodology, and communications to encompass all students to excel in the online environment. The make-up of the student body consists of adult learners who come from all lifestyles, societies, cultural differences, and countries. Adults also have different barriers that make learning difficult. Some potential barriers might include other responsibilities (families, careers), lack of time, money and childcare, scheduling and/or transportation problems, and low confidence.

Educators must be flexible to meet the challenge of reaching out to each of the students but must also understand how the student learns. There are several learning theories and refer to a collection of concepts and theories that explain how adults learn, process information, change in behavior and attitude. Some of these learning concepts and theories such as social learning theory have been developed within the discipline of psychology, others such as transformational learning theory evolved in the field of adult education as an applied discipline.

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Adults learn in order to make or maintain social relationships, to meet external expectations, to learn how to serve others, for professional advancement, and for self-interests.

Mezirow's Transformative Theory focuses on how students process learning and experiences. Mezirow believed adults might learn from an experience, which would invoke the individuals to critically reflect and develop new ways of interpreting experiences. Merriam argued the change involved a level of development and cognitive development (Merriam, 2004). Reflecting on Mezirow's theory, the question of how adults learn and the relation with adult behavioral performance and change is a critical theme for both scholars and practitioners.

When mismatches exist between learning styles of students in a class and the teaching style of the professor, the students may become bored and inattentive in class, do poorly on tests, get discouraged about the courses, the curriculum, and themselves, and in some cases change to other curricula or drop out of school. Professors, confronted by low test grades, unresponsive or hostile classes, poor attendance and dropouts, know something is not working. They may become overly critical of their students (making things even worse) or begin to wonder if they are in the right profession. Most seriously, society loses potentially excellent professionals. To overcome these problems, professors should strive for a balance of instructional methods (as opposed to trying to teach each student exclusively according to his or her preferences.) If the balance is achieved, all students will be taught partly in a manner they prefer, which leads to an increased comfort level and willingness to learn, and partly in a less preferred manner, which provides practice and feedback in ways of thinking and solving problems which they may not initially be comfortable with but which they will have to use to be fully effective professionals.

Transformational Learning

Transformational educators elevate the desires of the students for achievement and self-development. Educators are encourage a new look at old methods/problems. Educators foster creativity, stress a reevaulating, and re-examination of assumptions underlying learning problems. They use intuition as well as more formal logic to solve problems. Intellectually stimulating educators assist in developing students' abilities to tackle problems using their own unique and innovative perspectives. Students become more effective problem solvers with and without the educator's facilitation. The students become more innovative with respect to their analysis of problems and the strategies they use to resolve them. This is the underlying basis of Mezirow's Transformative learning.

Transformative learning was introduced by Mezirow as a comprehensive model consisting of a methodology to adult learning and development. The theory has two basic kinds of learning: instrumental and communicative learning. Mezirow�s theory focused on the learning process by which adults come to recognize, re-frame their relationships with critical reflection, and new interpretations of experience. Basically, Mezirow believed adults may learn from an experience, which would invoke the individuals to critically reflect and develop new ways of interpreting experiences. As Mezirow outlines:

"Transformative learning involves reflectively transforming the beliefs, attitudes, opinions, and emotional reactions that constitute our meaning schemes (Mezirow, 1991)."

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Mezirow�states, �Reflection involves a critique of assumptions to determine whether the belief, often acquired through cultural assimilation in childhood, remains functional for us as adults� (Mezirow, 1991). Reflection is similar to problem solving and�Mezirow�talks about how individuals �reflect�on the content of the problem, the�process�of problem-solving, or the�premise�of the problem� (Mezirow, 1991). The concept of reflection proposed to be able to understand more information and applying the knowledge gained more efficiently.

Mezirow�s�theory has been elaborated upon by others, most notably�Cranton�(1994;1997) and Boyd (1991).�The theory has commonalities with other theories of adult learning such as�andragogy and experiential learning.

Survey of Popular Thought

Some adult students pursuing post-secondary education have difficulties succeeding in the learning environment. Educators need to be able to identify and address challenges and issues, which affect the students. The challenge is developing detailed strategies meant to recognize challenges when they arise and feel prepared to address student issues. The key question is how to evaluate the needs of the students in the online environment. The transformative learning theory expresses educators will spark the desire for students to develop self-directed learning. The argument to the transformative learning theory overlooked, no one style works for every student because each student has unique personality presents challenges and influences the methods on how information is processed whether online or in a traditional setting.

Cranton (1994) explains, "Transformative learning theory leads us to view learning as a process of becoming aware of one's assumptions and revising these assumptions" (p. 730). Cranton (1994) states, "If basic assumptions are not challenged, change will not take place" (p. 739), and elaborates that educators are likely to have sets of assumptions guiding teaching practices. Sokol and Cranton (1998) stated, "As transformative learners, they question their perspectives, open up new ways of looking at their practice, revise their views, and act based on new perspectives" (p. 14). Mezirow (1997) warns, "learners need practice in recognizing frames of reference and using their imaginations to redefine problems from a different perspective" (p. 10). Several authors point out the necessity of making the time necessary for critical reflection (Pohland & Bova, 2000).

Sharan B. Merriam wrote an article: �The Role of Cognitive Development in Mezirow's Transformational Learning Theory.� Merriam wrote Mezirow�s theory assumes adult thought process can be changed by involving a "disorientating dilemma" followed by critical reflection and new interpretations of experience. Merriam argued the change involved a level of development and cognitive development (Merriam, 2004).

Merriam presented various studies using models stating many adults do not operate at higher levels of cognitive functioning. For example, Merriam used studies based on Piaget's model reveal that only "perhaps half of adults think at the formal operations level" (Bee, 2000, p. 145). Her conclusions are be validated by the use various sources to support her interpretation of the studies.

Merriam highlights the various viewpoints overlooked, which need to be considered in adult learning and the goals of transformative learning. The theory generalizes concepts of self-directed learning as Merriam had stated as a board concept. The theory eludes variables such as learning contexts, students, and educators. These variables need to be addressed in creating an enhanced learning environment.

1. The role of the educator. The teacher's role in establishing an environment that builds trust and care and facilitates the development of sensitive relationships among learners is a fundamental principle of fostering transformative learning (Taylor 1998). Loughlin (1993) talks about the responsibility of the teacher to create a "community of knowers," individuals who are "united in a shared experience of trying to make meaning of their life experience" (pp. 320-321). As a member of that community, the teacher also sets the stage for transformative learning by serving as a role model and demonstrating a willingness to learn and change by expanding and deepening understanding of and perspectives about both subject matter and teaching (Cranton 1994).

-- The role of the adult student. Taylor (1998) believes that too much emphasis has been placed on the role of the teacher at the expense of the role of the participant. Although it is difficult for transformative learning to occur without the teacher playing a key role, participants also have a responsibility for creating the learning environment. As a part of a community of knowers, learners share the responsibility for constructing and creating the conditions under which transformative learning can occur.

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-- The role of the rational and the affective. Transformative learning has two layers that at times seem to be in conflict: the cognitive, rational, and objective and the intuitive, imaginative, and subjective (Grabov 1997). Both the rational and the affective play a role in transformative learning. Although the emphasis has been on transformative learning as a rational process, teachers need to consider how they can help students connect the rational and the affective by using feelings and emotions both in critical reflection and as a means of reflection (Taylor 1998).

Transformative learning may not always be a goal of adult education, but its importance should not be overlooked and all adult educators should strive to understand it, even if they do not choose to foster it.

There is agreement that there many elements involved in adult students and a proactive learning environment. The one element, which is overlooked in the transformative learning theory, is motivation. Many elements take part in receiving a college education whether in the classroom or in the online learning environment. Motivation plays a key foundational element in new educational opportunities. A successful education is a product of positive techniques and availability matched with motivation. Motivation enhances the learning opportunity, the student�s confidence, and sense of security.

There are various approaches and techniques in creating a positive online learning environment. Laffey, Lin, & Lin (2006) list several foundational elements to successful online learning environment including motivating the students. Motivation refers to the importance of how people communicate online, participate with others, and complete the requirements of the course. A positive online learning environment should be generated through the development of atmosphere online.

Students need to be encouraged to participate in discussion with one another Motivation will assist in developing other foundational elements such as honesty, responsiveness and respect (Laffey, Lin, & Lin, 2006). The success is similar to a chain reaction which each element relies on each in order to establish the foundation for a successful learning environment. The online environment should reflect a positive learning environment for students.

Review of Scholarly Literature

Technology has enabled individuals to seek out other avenues in pursuit of their education. The online learning has become an alternative for individuals attempting to manage family responsibilities, work, and other activities. These individuals are searching to find a way to include education into their schedules. Universities and instructors must provide appropriate structure, methodology, and communications to encompass all students to excel in the online environment.

Critical Thinking

Critical thinking is a response to questions that cannot be answered definitively and for which all the relevant information may not be available. Critical thinking can result in a decision, a speech, a proposal or experiment, or a document like a position paper. It can result in a new way of approaching significant issues in one's life or a deeper understanding of the basis for one's actions (Brookfield 1987).

Teacher Preparations Programs

The study by Bulger and Watson (2006) supplied information that the online environment requires training educators to deal with student issues. Instructors need to be involved with training and focus on changes involved in the online environment, which could create challenges or issues. The consequences of the lack of training may in students falling behind, missing deadlines, or even failure of completing the assignment (Bulger, 2006).

Instructional Methods

Developing trust is critical activity in the instructor and student relationship, which depends on performance and integrity. Instructors need to be involved with training and focus on changes involved in the online environment, which could create challenges or issues. The consequences of the lack of training may in students falling behind, missing deadlines, or even failure of completing the assignment. (Bulger, 2006)

Educators should try various teaching methods to assist the student in success and self-esteem. Some may argue which method is best to utilize but any method has advantages, disadvantages. Some may ask which method is right or correct method but the answer depends on various factors. Some factors associated with the type of method utilized would be the level of the student, existing knowledge, and what is needed to comprehend to be successful in the class. There is no right method for teaching a particular course except for maintaining a positive attitude, open communication, and the open for suggestions.

Training

The research conducted by Alan Roper supported the fact that training plays a vital role in the learning environment and may be crucial in assisting the needs of the students. The ability of the instructor to identify the needs of the students may depend on their ability to adapt quickly to changes of the online learning environment (Roper, 2007).

Roper�s research agreed with Stephanie Bulger and Debraha Watson (2006) that the learning environment requires training educators to deal with student issues. Instructors need to be involved with training and focus on changes involved in the online environment, which could create challenges or issues. This lack of interaction can cause the student can lose interest and motivation in the class.

Interactions

Education is described as one of the key ingredients in creating successful career and lifestyle. Student success relies on the interaction between student and instructor. An on-going line of communication with students can promote understanding and enhancing the online learning environment. These factors can build the students' self-confidence and motivation promoting a positive learning experience.

Lamb and Johnson supported the theory communication is the key to a successful learning environment. The authors' state communication is even more important for the online environment due to the lack of face-to-face (Lamb, 2008). The interaction between the instructor and students to communicate may depend on the perception of the diversity and ability to adapt quickly to changes online.

Accountability

Accountability is a concept that one person is said to be accountable to another person or entity. However, in order for the accountability process to be successful, it must provide some type of quality assurance process supplying educators with the information to create and monitor student performance. The transformational learning focuses around the fact that teachers should concentrate on diagnosing the needs and capabilities of their students. The educators diagnose students' needs and attend to them individually. They also delegate, coach, advise, and provide feedback for use in the personal development of the students. They raise the needs and confidence levels of the students to take on greater levels of responsibility. The student's responsibility does not simply cover their educational goals nor is it geared exclusively to maximising performance. On the contrary, the students are taking greater responsibility for their personal development, which includes such activity as one's job challenges.

Reflective Evaluation

Success or failure depends on the competences of the educator and students. Leading and working in learning environment requires much more than just understanding technology or one particular learning style but an understanding of human behavior. The topic selection focused on adult learning, specifically the transformative learning. The expectations had been intended to assist in understanding the needs of adult learners in the learning environment. The articles of research may have agreed or disagreed on different methodologies, but each provided evolving complexities of the learning environment.

The review of the literature provided support to the research such as the initial thought that transformative learning could achieve student self-learning. Upon further review, most of the research had been implying, as a major foundational element was behavior modification. Using behavior modification, students would be motivated towards goals of the course. The articles suggest educators need to adjust their behavior and approach to the learning environment. The role of the instructor becomes a facilitator of learning, and a catalyst for students to integrate learning with new, theoretical, and conceptual learning (Duarte & Snyder, 2001, p. 75).

The research conducted implies motivation is significant because of its implication as a determinant of performance and its insubstantial nature. Motivating the students can improve students� performance; increase the efforts towards achieving the educational goals. (Wadsworth, 2007) Motivation is the set of forces that reason people to prefer certain behaviors from between the many alternatives unfasten to them. A student's concert typically is prejudiced by motivation, capability, and the learning environment. The most insightful information came from reviewing Alderfer�s theory, which implied motivation impels a person to make creative or productive effects on himself and his environment (Huitt, 2004). Providing assistance will help imprint the appropriate way for students to carry out their assignments and compliance to course expectations.

Conclusion

Educators need to create a professional and academic atmosphere in the learning environment.�Educators must articulate their goals and methods to encourage students to take more responsibility for their learning, stimulating discussions about the content, and helping the students to arrive at their own conclusions. Reviewing all aspects of the learning experience will assist in developing skills needed for adult students. Instructors need to flexible, and modify the teaching methods to fit the students in the class. There is an endless supply of thoughts, opinions, concepts, and theories, which discusses adult learning. Educators must create a professional and academic atmosphere in the classroom encouraging and motivating adult students.�Educators need to articulate their goals and methods to encourage students to take more responsibility for their learning, stimulating discussions about the content, and helping the students to arrive at their own conclusions. The educator should prepare and manage the course by establishing the agenda for the classes and discussions.

No one style works for every student because each student has unique personality presenting challenges and influences the methods on how information is processed. Many misinterpret an education must occur within the confines of a classroom; however education is a process of learning which results in all walks of life. Education is a lifelong experience whether as a student or educator. Educators must be flexible to meet the challenge of reaching out to each of the students (Gutek, 2004). Teaching strictly from textbooks prevents an enhanced optimum learning experience for a student (Kuhn, 1999).

Learning is a process of acquiring knowledge in a particular way. Many students have developed hostility towards formal and informal educational settings and a lack of confidence in their abilities to learn and succeed because of past failures. While the adult student is aware of his or her own need to know, some adult students may be unable to distinguish between what they would like to learn and what they need to learn. This assumption also calls into question the role of the adult educator in creating an environment that is non-threatening and supportive of individuals who very well may reject the very premises of self-directed learning. The information provided in this classroom will provide further insight to the educator to create an enhanced learning environment.

Education and learning theories have evolved in an attempt to explain the evolution. We can agree there are various theories and philosophies of education explaining how a student assimilates information. The characteristics of learners in today�s schools differ from those students a decade or two ago. One of the changes which has influenced schools and society in general has been an increase in diversity because students come from varied cultural and language backgrounds (Loden, 1996). Educators need to be able to identify and address challenges and issues, which affect the students. The educator's aim should ensure every student has the support needed to achieve in the learning environment (Huitt, 2004). Good practice at this point will benefit the classroom, student expectations, and build upon the student foundation of knowledge.

The risk factor of an ineffective practice can result in student low achievement and lack of commitment to the school. An effective learning practice generates positive expectations that require the application of concepts, content, and skills from the academic disciplines and involves students experience in school. If an educator does not revisit teaching methodologies, this inaction will fail to maintain student interest and success.

Goal

This learning contract focuses around the needs of the educator to provide a successful learning environment to the students. Education is the building block to the student's foundation of knowledge expanding the students' interests and needs.

Objectives

1. Goals defined in the early stage of creating a positive learning experience for the students. The information gain will assist in the following:

a. Elevate the desires of the students for achievement and self-development.

b. Foster creativity, stress a re-evaluating, and re-examination of assumptions underlying learning problems.

c. Assisting in developing students' abilities to tackle problems using their own unique and innovative perspectives

2. The information provided in the course will assist the educator to identify and address challenges and issues, which affect the students such as:

a. Identification of the learning activity

b. Educators need to remain flexible, and modify the teaching methods to fit the students in the class.

c. Hold students accountable for their efforts in obtaining their education.

d. Provide constructive feedback to the students

Learning Objective

A. What is your learning objective? That is, what do you want to learn to do?

Identify, prepare, and execute needs required to provide a successful learning environment to my at-risk adult students. The goal is to build on the student's foundation of knowledge resulting in the expansion of the students' interests and needs while obtaining a higher education.

B. How will you learn this? That is, what activities and experiences will you have that will assist you in learning what you want to learn?

a. I will: Elevate the desires of the students for achievement and self-development.

b. I will: Foster creativity, stress a re-evaluating, and re-examination of assumptions underlying learning problems.

c. I will: Assist in developing students' abilities to tackle problems using their own unique and innovative perspectives.

C. What or who will help you learn what you want to learn? That is, what resources will you consult in your learning process?

a) Instructors � Seek answers, methodologies, and questions from their experiences.

b) Peers � There is a wealth of information at my disposal within my class with unlimited potential. This information provided by my peers can be applied to the classroom material in determining how to apply to the classroom environment.

c) Library � The library can provide further information to expand on the goals established within the learning contract and classroom.

D. How will you know you have learned what you set out to learn? That is, what will be the evidence that you learned what you set out to learn?

a. (Work product?) Higher student retention

b. (Demonstration?) Student performance on assignments, exams, and questions

c. (Individualized project?) Research conducted on at-risk adult learners.

d. (Paper?) Grade reports to determine if applied skills acquired from the course has any impact in the classroom and/or the students by reviewing the overall completion of the course.

E. What questions do you have about your learning contract?

1. Are my goals realistic?

2. How will I seek answers and advice when questions arise within the classroom or with the student?

3. How to determine which approach will meet the needs of the student.

Review of Scholarly Literature

Some students pursuing post-secondary education have experienced difficulties succeeding online; the course will illustrate to the educator the elements of critical thinking and applying the methodology to adult learning. I want to build on my knowledge with the intention of promoting students' interest and assist in meeting their needs. The information gained from the course and the research for the final project will assist in promoting a successful learning environment for my students and myself.

Realizing education is a lifelong experience whether as a student or educator, my desire is to remain flexible to meet the challenge of reaching out to each of the students. Technology has enabled individuals to seek out other avenues in pursuit of their education. The online learning has become an alternative for individuals attempting to manage family responsibilities, work, and other activities. These individuals are searching to find a way to include education into their schedules. The entire reason I am attending this class and pursuing my PhD is to assist my students' panic selling in a learning environment.

Communication

Research conducted by Duarte and Snyder (2001) compared traditional classroom setting success similar to success or failure of the competences of the virtual online learning environment. Both environments require more than just understanding technology or training. The findings stated success requires communication, collaboration, and understanding the differences and advantages of the online environment. Duarte and Snyder�s research complimented and supported the research conducted by Lamb and Johnson that communication is vital in a flourishing learning environment (Lamb, 2008). Both research studies supported the fact that interaction between the instructor and students is needed. Communication depends on the sensitivity to diversity and ability to respond to the needs of the students.

Virtual & Traditional Learning

According to Tucker (2001), research is required for a student to determine if an online education is as valuable as a traditional classroom environment. The research discussed that the education acquired is the similar throughout all the different variables and programs offered. Tucker�s article did not indicate which approach online education or traditional setting provided a better education. The study indicated what challenges the online environment presents to instructors or students. The author referred to other studies which concluded while online environment may not be better than its traditional counterpart, it is not worse than it either. The online environment is an option because it is just as fitting as a traditional setting, provided it fits within the lifestyle of the individual.

Tucker never defined who would be considered a prospective student or the needs of the students. Prospective students and students with special needs should determine if the advantages and disadvantages of distance education when determining their pursuit of a higher education. Wadsworth,�Husman,�Duggan,�Pennington�(2007) study discussed the differences between traditional and virtual studies. This study listed advantages and disadvantages of evaluating the needs of the students, however, there are times it is hard to distinguish the differences between the two settings (Wadsworth, 2007).

Training

The research conducted by Alan Roper supported the fact that training plays a vital role in the online learning environment and may be crucial in assisting the needs of the students. Roper�s research agreed with Stephanie Bulger and Debraha Watson (2006) that the online environment requires training educators to deal with student issues. Instructors need to be involved with training and focus on changes involved in the online environment, which could create challenges or issues.

The studies did agree that the main difference between the traditional classroom and the online learning environment is that the online environment provides freedom and the capability to contribute to the online class at convenience of the student. This lack of interaction can cause the student can lose interest and motivation in the class. These students are at risk and instructors need to develop motivation and communication techniques to keep the students in school.

Online instructors need to use an assortment of methods directed at motivating the online student. Motivation is struggle for instructors and a challenge for students studying independently. Methods for motivating students will be different and may not be obvious but the instructor should help the student understand the importance of successfully passing the online class. There will always be students at risk and it is important for the instructor to consider all considerations when facilitating an online course.

Communication

Lamb and Johnson endorsed communication between educators and students are the key to a successful learning environment (Lamb, 2008). The interaction provides a common ground between the student and facilitator.� The student becomes more productive, begins to analyze the topic, and expresses his/her point of view. Prompts to initiate classroom interaction:

1. Ask questions to obtain student ideas and experiences.

2. Provide personal experiences

3. Participate in discussions

4. Describe the reading and explain any insights

5. Explain how course concepts applied to personal or professional life, and ask students to share any similar experiences

Training

Educators need to focus on the effective use of credible approaches, which have proven ability to discover answers that have great power and generality to judge both the cause and effect of organizational behavior and the cause of factors available. The principle method for acquiring knowledge and uncovering causes of behavior is through research. Each behavioral science discipline involve provides insight and knowledge to the researcher. Summarized below are the five disciplines:

1. Psychology provides a comprehensive understanding as to why people behave

2. Sociology researches the relationships among things, and seeks evidence to support or disconfirm those presumptions

3. Social psychology involves the ways in which both social and mental processes determine action or what influences of the people on one another

4. Anthropology seeks to uncover principles of behavior that apply to all human communities

5. Political science studies the understanding of behavior in organizations

Conducting effective practice, the learning experience can be evaluated, revised, and modified to reduce the likelihood of student dropout. Some students develop their own methodology in approaching assignments. Some students have difficulties succeeding and if the instructor has a negative attitude to assisting the students will further the difficulties experienced by the students. Addressing and assisting with the issues affecting the student will increase motivation leading to self-direction.

The risk factor of an ineffective practice can result in student low achievement and lack of commitment to the school. An effective learning practice generates positive expectations that require the application of concepts, content, and skills from the academic disciplines and involves students experience in school. If an educator does not revisit teaching methodologies, this inaction will fail to maintain student interest and success.

Curriculum

Deliberation of the curriculum is essential in determining the success or failure of the efforts of both educator and student. Bishop (2006) provided a review of research studies to investigate the trends in the severity of problems experienced by college students reducing student accountability. If the faculty manages the contents of the curriculum by imposing curricular components rather than incorporation in planning, the faculty jeopardizes any academic planning process and student retention (Bishop, 2006). However, a structured planning process allows for the planning to determine the assorted essentials to resolve and accomplish goals.

The articles agree instructors need to understand the goals of the students and to be familiar with the goals. Defining the goals need should occur in the early stage of creating a positive learning experience for the students. Instructors should seek out training to assist in promoting a successful learning environment. Various universities and colleges provide training workshops to provide the instructors the tools to assist in the classroom. Each article seemed to be endorsing Transformative Theory although never stated. Mezirow's Transformative Theory is a comprehensive model consisting of a methodology to adult learning and development. Mezirow�s theory focused on the learning process by which adults come to recognize, re-frame their relationships with critical reflection, and new interpretations of experience.

Diversity

Managing a diverse student body can be a challenge for any organization; students are different and unique with different circumstances and experiences. Organizations and educators must understand these differences using the four layers of diversity tool.

The four layer of diversity include:

1. Personality: Individuality

2. Internal dimension: Age, gender, race

3. External dimension: Location, income, religion, education, work, marital status

4. Organizational dimension: Department, location, social association

Each dimension has characteristics that assist in identifying with individuals in various ways (Johnson, 2003).

Summary

One of the most important roles for a online instructor is to model effective teaching, accept the responsibility of keeping discussions on track, contribute experience, knowledge, and insights, weave together various discussion threads and course components, and maintaining harmony. As an instructor, creating a balance of independent, interactive and interdependent course activities, takes time. The result of collaboration between instructor and students will be a supportive dialogue and cooperation among students.

Assessment of Contract Goals and Objectives

The Learning Contract illustrated the educator, the elements of critical thinking, and applying the methodology are a necessity to adult learning. The information provided direction a successful learning environment for educators and students. The Learning Contract provided a collection of concepts and theories that explain how adults learn, process information, change in behavior and attitude. An effective learning practice generates positive expectations that require the application of concepts, content, and skills from the academic disciplines and involves students experience in school.

The students need assistance by exhibiting the qualities of an effective instructor and addressing common areas of concern for entry-level students. This approach can be instrumental in helping students off to a good start in their learning experience.�Some students have difficulties succeeding and if the instructor has a negative attitude to assisting the students will further the difficulties experienced by the students. Addressing and assisting with the issues affecting the student will increase motivation leading to self-direction.

Conclusion

The Learning Contract has placed the focus on the students with the understanding, individuality, and not to presume comprehension. Every educator has pursued a higher education and has taken the same path of those who have just begun their pursuit. Educators must demonstrate an understanding related to their own individual journey�in obtaining their goals in education. Educators sharing challenges and experiences assist students to respect cultures, ideologies, and viewpoints that are different from their own to provide a successful learning environment.