1- Andrews, R., Freeman, A. & Hou, D. (2007). The effectiveness of information and communication technology on the learning of written English for 5- to 16-year-olds. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38 , 2, 325-336.
The authors of this article shed the light on whether information communication technologies (ICTs) are productive in the teaching and learning of written English for 5- to 16-year-olds. They followed a list of systematic reviews, published between 1998 and 2003 to study the influence of ICTs in teaching and learning situations with regard to written composition. The authors debated the question of the evidence for the effectiveness of different ICTs in the teaching and learning of English (written composition). They found out that there were a heterogeneous number of studies with no possibility of meta-analysis. Thus, they found out that ICT was neither beneficial nor harmful regarding to its impact on literacy learning. Therefore, they recommend that wide-range randomized studies to be devoted in the field to work towards a more obvious answer to the question of effectiveness.
2- Walsh, M.; Asha, J. ; Sprainger, N. ( 2007). Reading digital texts. Australian Journal of Language & Literacy, 30, 1, 40-53.
The authors of this article investigated the ways students read and navigate digital texts. They examined if the explicit teaching of visual grammar contributes to the reading process with digital texts and enables students and teachers to discuss and understand them. The researchers conducted a case study research in which they worked with teachers who selected some students to read digital texts. The study revealed that students in the study were highly motivated to work with digital texts and they were able to use basic ICT skills to navigate sites. However, their reading responses and understanding looked to be superficial with little evidence of inferring, evaluating or critical reading. The researches arose several questions and called for the need of more researches to understand whether the reading of digital texts requires new theories of reading.
3- Kumar, D. & Bristor, V. (1999). Integrating science and language arts through technology- based macrocontexts. Educational Review, 51, 1, 41-53.
The authors of this article describe technology as a tool for creating meaningful experiences for integrating science and language arts using technology-based macrocontexts; which can be created by using several resources like videotapes, videodisks, CDS, and the Internet. They pointed that teachers must be careful when choosing the type of technology-based resources to be used taking into their account the setting of using in the curriculum. The authors outlined a framework of resources and asked teachers to choose what meets their individual styles and instruction. They mentioned that teachers must accommodate to apply a variety of assessment tools to include hands on activities, anecdotal records, portfolio and follow-up activities. They argued about the importance of each assessment tool, however, pointed that student assessment should not be based on the mastery of technology, yet, teachers mustn't expect that all students are familiar to administer technology.
4- Cziko, G.& Park, S. (2003). Internet audio communication for second language Learning: a comparative review of six programs. Language learning and Technology, 7, 1, 15-27.
The authors reviewed a number of free programs for Windows and Macintosh computers that allow simultaneous audio (and some video) communication via the Internet. They found out that students and teachers of the second language can make use of the ability to communicate online with native speakers of different languages who are already interfacing the internet and utilizing video and audio. They stated as it is well-known nowadays that technology and the translating environments are available; therefore, students and teachers must exploit the opportunity to share languages. The authors called for removing the obstacles that may hinder sharing languages in conjunction with cultural awareness via internet for second language teachers and students.
5. Gallo-Crail, R. & Zerwekh, R. ((2002). Language learning and the Internet: Student strategies in vocabulary acquisition. New technologies and language learning (Technical Report #25; pp. 55-79). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai'i, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center.
The authors of this report address the question of the type of learning strategies to be used to acquire new vocabularies in second language learning and what the results will be if the medium of presenting instruction is the internet. They conducted a study in which they found out that the more different strategies used, the better range of vocabulary acquired. They mentioned that the instructional materials for classroom application and Internet use should be consolidated toward building strategy techniques. However, they stated some limitations in learning using the internet as students must be given more time to practice utilizing it in order to be familiar with online materials.