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Common to all elementary education system is the teaching of fundamental and universal moral values that serves to nurture in young children good character. The school is a place where children learn, and eventually practice, essential living values such as working together, sharing, and being honest. The Indonesian education system is no exception; it offers as mandatory courses that endeavour to teach young children civic values and also moral/cultural values which called character education. Then, on 20 May 2011 during the celebration of National Educataion Day the Indonesian President and Minister of National Education launched a program which called the national movement of character education.
Character education is a most common term in United States for what educators called moral education, values education or citizenship education (Howard et al, 2004). In different country the terminology for teaching norm, value and morality is still morality or moral education for most country in Asia and values education for Great Britain country (Berkowitz, 1999). According to Thomas Lickona (1991), character education can be defined as " the intentional, proactive effort to develop good character" (Lickona 1991, ppxx). In line with Lickona, The Indonesian Ministry of education (2011) states that character education is an effort to teach Indonesian students to be a good human being based on Pancasila values (Pancasila is Indonesian philosophical foundation).
International publication which covers practical activities and field research on character education is largely available, however there are gaps in knowledge and understanding within Indonesian scholars on character education . The empirical research on this topic In Indonesia is very limited and most publication is theory based. For that, to give a contribution on the development of character education program in Indonesia, the researcher conducted this study.
This study aims to examine primary preservice teachers attitude towards character education. To achieve the research purposed, the researcher addressed the following questions :
What are primary preservice teachers general attitude towards character education?
What are primary preservice teachers believes on teacher preparation for implementing character education?
What are primary preservice teachers feel about the obstacles they may have when implementing character education?
For this study, the researcher employed a mixed descriptive survey and document analysis approach. The researcher decided to use descriptive approach since it is suitable and appropriate for this study in term of the nature and characteristic of the study conducted. The study examined the existing conditions which are not modifiable and the result from the study was analysed using descriptive statistic and reported in the form of diagram. Accroding to Best (1970) as cited in Cohen et al (2007), descriptive study is "concerned with conditions or relationship that exist; practices that prevail; beliefs, points of views, or attitudes that are held; process that are going on; effects that are being felt; or trends that are developing" (Cohen et al, pp 205). This is supported by Robson (2011) and Johnson and Christensen (2004) that the descriptive approach is suitable for study in situation are not manipulable by researcher. Anderson (1990) states that researchers use descriptive statistic to group the data and presents it in table when reporting the finding of descriptive study.
The study conducted is a small scale project for course assignment. As suggested by the course tutor, the researcher selected fifteen participants for this study. The participants are primary preservice teacher at the school of education in public university in Jakarta Indonesia. All participants had taken character education related courses and already done their school internship program. The participants selected by employing volunteer sampling technique. The researcher intended to use volunteer sampling technique since the researcher had difficult access to the population of sample due to the distance between the researcher and participants. The researcher location is in Manchester while the participants populated is in Jakarta. According to Cohen et al (2007) volunteer sampling technique is suitable for a study where the researchers limited access to the participants, and the participants decided to be a volunteer to help their colleagues and its applied in this project.
Cohen et al (2007) and Robson (2011) suggest that sampling technique for human participant can be used for cotent analysis. For this study, the researcher used mixed convenience and simple random sampling. I decided to use convenience sample as suggested by Kierr (2012) that convenience sample is acceptable when the researcher difficult to reach population and the research carried out within short period of time. Among the population of the books on the character education published in Indonesia, the only book can be accessed by the researcher is The Guide Book of Character education published by Indonesian Ministry of Education since it is available online. The researcher, then, selected this book as the sample for document analysis. After decided the sample book, the researcher select the sample of the pages using simple random sampling as suggested by Chiappeta (1991).
One important issue relates to methods in conducting research is what expert called triangulation. Burton (2000) as cited in White and Warfa (2011) defined triangulation as the use of more than one methods in studying of human behaviour aspects. In line with Burton, Robson (2011) propose that data triangulation is valuable to enrich the rigour of the In order to facilitate triangulation process and to answer the research questions addressed, the researched used two methods which are questionnaire and content analysis. These two methods designed to work together as describe in figure 1 below.
Figure 1. The way in which the two methods work together
The researcher used the questionnaire for this study for several consideration. Firstly, questionnaire is one of comon methods for survey study. Secondly, questionaire is simple and easy method to obtain information, Then, Questionniare is applicable for any group of age participants. Finally, questionnaire is suitable this study which collecting data on participants attitude. Robson (2011) stated that questionnaire is "a relatively simple and straighforward approach to studies attitudes" (Robsonn, 2011 pp 241).
Due to the limitation of time, the researcher did not construct his own questioannaire. The researcher adapted questionnaire used by Mathison (1999). The Mathison questionnaire consist of 27 questions with summated rating scale or Likert scale. The score of five will be given for high acceptance answer and one for low acceptance answer. For this study, the resercher modified and translated 20 questions to Indonesian Language. The Likert scale frequently used for attitude measurement ( Sax, 1979) and "produce more validity which helps the researcher to make finer distinction among the repondents" (Johnson and Christensen, 2004 pp 175).
Eventhough the researcher used an adapted questionnaire, the researcher conducted two stage pre test or protocol analysis as suggested by Robson (2011) to make sure the questionnaire in Indonesian language is clear, precise and using natural and familiar language. The researcher conducted first stage pre test to seek thoughts from two friends on the language on the content. After revised firs draft, for a second stage researcher sent the questionnaire to two of lecturers who had experiences using questionnaire at school of education at the researcher home institution. As it suggested by Robson, through the second stage the volunteer is expected to give possitive feedback on improving the clarity of the questionnaire. After the second stage, the researcher carried out the final check to make sure the clarity and misstype in the questionnaire.
As describe above that the researcher uses the second methods as a part of triangulation process. Accodring to Yin (2003), employing multiple methods can help the researcher to corroborate the data. This is in line with the suggestion of Opie (2004) that additional methods for collecting data can contribute to the credibility of study.
Krippendorff (1980) states that "content analysis is a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from data to their context (Krippendorff 1980, p 21). For this study,the researcher conducted the procedures of content analysis.proposed by Denscombe (1998) and Robson (2011) includes : choose sample pages , break the sample into unit of analysis, generate categories for analizyng data and carry out data analysis.
The researcher adapted the sampling technique proposed by Chiappetta et al (2007). Chiappetta suggest that 5% random samples of page from entire book should be a sample of the content analysis. Since the number of pages in each chapters is different some chapters had more sample pages. According to Chiappetta et al, 80 % of page should be taken if the sections is only consist of 5-9 pages, 40% sample pages for 10-14 pages sections length, 25% of the pages for chapter which consist of 15-19 pages, 20% pages should be taken from chapters containing 20-24 pages, and 15% sample pages for chapters consist of more than 25 pages. Employing the Chiappetta et al strategy, the sample pages for this study is presented bellow
Table 1. Sample pages of the book " the guidance
of the implementation of character education"
Total Sample Pages
Unit of analysis
The second step employed is breaking down the sample into unit analysis.the unit for analysis can be vary from single words, sentence, paragraph or the whole text ( Denscombe 1980, Robson 2011, and Cohen et al). In line with this view, Chiappettaet al ( 1991) suggest that the unit of analysis of textbook can be afigures, table with captions, sentence, questions and complete paragraph. In In this study, the researcher decide to break unit of analysis into paragraph.
Denscombe (1980) propose that the investigator should have clear idea about the categories, issues or themes that he or she concerned with. The categories can be vary from subject matter, goals, methods location, goals and values (Robson 2011). Adapted Chiappetta et al (1991) technique, the researcher decided four thems as categories, includes :
General information on character education program.The researcher check this category when the paragraph consist of the general information such as goal, objective, and strategy of character education.
Preparation of character education program. The researcher check this category if the information about sosialisation, campaign, and teachers training appear in the paragraph.
Implementation of character education program. The researcher check this category when the paragraph consists of the information on implementation such as, the obstacles teachers have, testimony from bestpractice school, and related story on implementation.
Evaluation of Character education program. The researcher check this category if the information on monitoring and evaluation appear in the paragraph.
The researcher employed simple statistic descriptive to analyse the data. Mean and frequency will be calculated and the result will be present in percentage and bar chart.
Data collection for this study was carried out between 20 to 24 December 2012.
Phase 1 : Preparation
During the period of preparation, the researcher developed the research instruments which are questionnaire sheet and content analysis schedule. The questionnaire was tranlated into indonesia languaged in rated through two stages as it describe in the method section above. The researcher then sent an email to colleague in the researcher home base institution to seek a help finding 15 volunteers for this study. Then, the researcher sent information sheet and consent form to participants. As a part of ethical issue in research with human as participant, the participants were given a right to withdraw or continue the study since the participation is voluntarily.
Phase 2 : Data Collection
The questionnaires was administrated to the participants through their e-mail address. Since the number of participants is only 15, the time of response is very quick and all the participants sent the questionnaires back within three days. For content analysis, the researcher developed his own content analysis schedule.
Validity and Realibility
Validity and reliability is two important properties in quantitative research. According to Johnson and Christensen (2004), Validity defined as " the appropirateness of the interpretations, inferences, and actions that we make based on test score" ( Jonhson and Christensen 2004 pp140). On other words, Robson (2011) argues that "validity is refers to the accuracy of result" ( Robson 2011, pp85). Reliability is the consistency or stability of a generated score (Robson 2011, pp 85 and Johnson and Christensen 2004 pp 133), and it is refers to "the extent to which test scores are free of measurement error" ( Muijs 2004, pp 71).
Validity and reliability of the questionnaire
For this study, the questionnaires validated using content validity or face validity. Muijs (2004) noted that content validity can be employed to examine whether the questionnaire is right to measure the latent concept such as attitude, and it can be done by asking participants or group of people to judge the content of the instrument which ussually caled face validity. In thi study the researcher employed face validity during the protocol analysis of instrument, by asking group of people wheter the questionnaire is OK to them.
And for the reliability, the researcher measured the internal contingency realibility. The coeeficient cornbach alpha for the questionnaire is measured by manual and the coeffecient alpha for the study is .....which means that the questionnaire is internally consistent.
Validity and Realibility of the content Analysis method
As proposed by Krippendorff (1980) that the concept of validity and reliability for content analysis is different from other methods. Krippendorff then suggest the validity for content analysis can be categorized into several type, includes: semantical validty, sampling validity, correlational validity, predictive validity and construct validity (figure 2). And due to time limitiation, the researcher only focused on the sampling validity.
According to Krippendorf (1980), the sampling validity is suitable for study when sampling strategy is well developed. The sampling strategy employed in this study is a well developed sampling strategy which developed by Chiappetta et all (1991). This sampling strategy has been used widely in the content analysis for text book which means in term of data oriented this content analysis is valid,
Quality Criteria content analysis
Figure 2. The Criteria for the Quality of Content Analysis (Krippendorff 1980, p158)
As can be seen from the figure 2 above, Krippendorf (1980) divides reliability for content analysis into three categories: stability, reproducibility and accuracy. Stability is the degree to which the result of content analysis are unchanging over time. Reproducibility is the extent to which the analysis by different coder produce the same result. Then, acuracy is a degree to which that the classification of text corresponds to a standard. (Krippendorff 1980, and Weber 1990. For this study, the researcher carried out the first type of reliability called stability. After generating the content analysis schedule, the researcher used the schedule over two different time and the results were similar.
This small project is quite challenging for the researcher since the researcher familiar with questionnaire not a content analysis . Before pursuing post graduate research degree at School of Education University of Manchester, the researchers did some quantitative research which employed questionnaires and observations in Indonesia. Based on this experiences, the researcher quite confident using questionnaire method for this study.
However, the researcher had a problem with the issue of validity and reliability. Most of the research carried out by researcher were a descriptive study which employed simple descriptive statistic. The researchers used to calculated means, frequencies and convert them into percentage and presented the results in the form of graphic or charts. The researcher have never used internal consistency eventhough learn about it at statistic courses during bachelor and master program. For the purpose of this study, the researcher had to re-learn how to calculate coeeficent of cronbach alpha. This course assignment really motivated the researcher to employ more complex validity and reliability for the next research, not only using the face validity -the weakess type of validity for every study carried out.
Content analysis is a new approach for the researcher. If there were a chance for the researcher to come to Indonesia for conducting this study, the researcher would employed observation as second method instead of content analysis. It is always difficult to learn a new topic at the first, but if one did great efforts then he or she could deal with it. The researcher tried to understand more on content analysis, yet the researcher understanding still quite limited.
At firts time employing content analysis, the researcher struggling with the procedure of content analysis. The researcher read the procedure proposed by Robson, Krippendorff and Weber many times before understand it. When the researcher started to understand the content analysis, the next issue come to researcher head is how to do a sampling and develop content analysis schedule. The researcher share the problem with classmates, and found that all students face the same problem. Then, the researcher communicate with colleagues in Jakarta who are familiar with content analysis, and they suggested to read Chiappetta works on content analysis. The Chiappetta works on content analysis help the researcher in designing sampling strategy as well as the schedule. The researcher then adapted sampling technique proposed by chiappetta and modified the schedule.
To sum up, as far as the researcher concern that the study run smoothly for questionnare method and work quite slow when content analysis carried out. Regardles the time consumption and the limitation researcher had, both questionnaire and content analysis work well. Both metohds are not only suitable for answering the research questions but also beneficial for triangulating the data. This project is done,however due to limitation the researcher had the researcher has a home work to develop research skills on quantitative research approcah. And the researcher is hoping that one course on quantitative approach next semester can enrich the research knowledge and understanding on this approach.
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