Teaching Maths and science using technology

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CHAPTER: 3

RESEARCH FOUNDATION AND RESEARCH PLANNING

CHAPTER THREE:

RESEARCH FOUNDATION AND RESEARCH PLANNING

3.0 Introduction

3.1 Origin of the problem

3.2 Population

3.3 Selection of sample

3.4 Selection of Research method

3.5 Selection of experimental method

3.6 Tool for data collection

3.7 Schedule for learning program

3.8 Experiences during data collection

3.9 Summary

3.0 Introduction

The research plan is the main part of a grant application describing a principal investigator's proposed research, stating its importance and how it will be conducted.

Any project done with proper planning only can bring a success. A research design is the conceptual framework within which the research will be conducted. Some scholars have called it the blue print of the research. The research design is meant to ensure efficiency of the research project. It ensures collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. The design used is dependent upon the purpose or objectives of the research. Research may be done for exploration, description, diagnosis or experimentation. Preparation of a research design is influenced by the following factors:

  • means of obtaining the information
  • skills of the research personnel
  • time available for the research
  • resources available to the researcher
  • size of the sample

Educational experts in all over the world are seriously thinking about making the teaching learning process more effective and are working in that direction with great zeal.From experience it has been found that there are various ways to reach to a particular destination. So, at the starting we have to finalize the specific way and have to work in that specific direction to achieve success.

Considering the present scenario it is a need of hour to change the ordinary and traditional way of teaching and replacing it with more enjoyable and interesting one.To do that importance of a teacher is a lot. Content is the same, now it depends up on a teacher that how she represents the same. The way she converts the abstract thought into the concrete things makes much difference.

Traditional way of teaching is a unipolar process. It has been found that the method in which participations of students are involved only those methods get succeeds. So, To make it bipolar from unipolar the necessary efforts need to be done. Also the learning method which involves more than one senses grabs more attention and knowledge gained can be remember for a longer period of time. It generates interest among the students and teaching can be make more effective.

3.1 Origin of the problem

Maths becomes an abstract concept as it goes to higher standards. The knowledge gained though abstract thoughts can be retained for a very short duration. To make it long lasting some concretization felt required and the thought arise in the mind can anything better be given in the field of maths which makes the students journey more comfortable?

Teaching maths , specially in Geometry , developing the skill for preparing various types of shapes with proper measurements , understanding 3 dimensional shpes and its basics found very very tricky job for a teacher. If teacher represents the knowledge tactfully the information can be easily grasped by the students with a very short duration of the time and also teacher can prepare a solid foundation of geometry. To impart 100% content to 100% students should be the motto of the teacher and so a teacher always need to search whethere any short of technology can be a help for him for achieving this.

This is an era of science and technology and no any aspect of life is untouched without technology. Here researcher has tried to use the technology to prepare the learning program with Geometer’s sketchpad along with some manipulative to make the teaching of geometry much much easier than ever before. Also researcher tried to find out the extent to which this program is useful for the students to understand the concept of geometry and also the amount of time which can be saved by teaching with this method.

3.2 Population

Population is an important aspect of research. Till we do not properly define the population ,it is not possible to derive conclusions. In any research we find such conclusions which we can apply to the population so it is must to define the population.

In present study The students studying in standard 8 of Ahmedabad city can be defined as a population.

3.3 Selection of sample

In any research the representative portion of the population is called sample. The sample should represent the population properly and should be enough in size.

Here the population is divided into no. of clusters (Each cluster is a separate school (having middle section) in the city of Ahmedabad.)

From the population researcher has selected UDGAM SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN with purpose and here the Selection of students done with RANDOM SAMPLING METHOD.

Here section wise students of standard 8 are

Table 3.1

Sr. No.

Std

Section

No. of students

1

8

A

39

2

8

B

41

3

8

C

41

4

8

D

40

5

8

E

40

6

8

F

40

TOTAL

241

In Random sampling, by lottery method 2 sections of standard 8 had beed selected( STD 8D and STD 8F) as a sample. So, here total 80 students are selected in sample. Out of that STD 8 D is selected in control group and STD 8F has been selected in experiment group using random method.

3.4 Selection of Research method

In any research work after considering the various factors associated with it , it becomes necessary to define the method of research.

In the field of education according to the problem various research methods are taken in use.

It is characterized by:

  • causal-comparative
  • correlational
  • experimental
  • descriptive research
  • Historical research

Here in this research , researcher wants to study the effectiveness of learning program and so has selected experimental method.

3.5 Selection of experimental method

As per the problem of research , it is very essential to select a proper method of research. There are various plans when we select Experimental method as a method of research such as

  1. One group pretest post test design (Fully experimental design –FED)
  2. Randomized control group pre test post test design (FED)
  3. Randomized Solomon four group design (FED)
  4. Randomized control group post test design (Quasi experimental desing- QED)
  5. Unequel control group pretest, post test design. (QED)
  6. Counter balanced Design – Quasi experimental design (QED)
  7. One group time series design (TSD)
  8. Control group time series design (TSD)
  9. Factorial design (FED)

Here for the present study PLAN 4 is worked out. In this plan there is no need to give pretest. Here the researcher wants to make the children unaware about the experiment and also a totally new concept need to be explore so researcher here select PLAN 4 as a method of research.

  1. Here in this PLAN Randomized control group post test design (Quasi experimental desing- QED) the steps are

Table 3.2

Pre-test

Program

Post test

Experimental group

-

X

T2E

Control group

-

-

T2C

Means here the researcher has selected two groups randomly – One as an experimental group (STD 8F) and another as control group (STD 8D). For both the groups pre- test was not given. For the experimental group the teaching was done with Learning program prepared by researcher and for the control group the teaching was done with traditional way of teaching by the researcher. At the end of the program Achievement test was given to both the groups prepared by the researcher and the effectiveness of the learning program had been tested.

3.6 Tool for data collection

It is necessary to have a tool for data collection. If the tool not properly designed the information which is required can’t be collected properly. So the researcher has prepared an achievement test to check the effectiveness as bellow.

3.6.1. Construction of test.

Expert opinions regarding construction of the test:

Table 3.3

Sr. No.

Subject expert

Name of school

Suggestions

1.

Ms. Snehal S. Shukla

Professor ,

Kameshwar college of B.Ed. and M.Ed.

Add knowledge related questions in blue print

2.

Ms. Hasumatiben K. Patel

Professor ,

Kameshwar college of B.Ed. and M.Ed

Add skill related questions

3.

Ms. Renu Gupta

Teacher,

Udgam School for children

Change the Multiple choice questions

4.

Ms. Vidya Menon

Teacher,

Udgam School for Children

Arrange the questions sequentially

ACHIEVEMENT TEST

Weightage of marks as per type of Questions

Table 3.4

Sr. No.

Type of questions

No. of questions

Weightage

%

1.

Multiple choice

=5+10=15

=5+10=15

30

2.

Fill in the blanks

=5+6+5=16

=5+6+5=16

32

3.

Match the pairs

6

6

12

4.

Short questions

=5+1=6

=10+3=13

26

Total

-

50

100

Weightage of marks as per objective of the study

Table 3.5

Sr. No.

Objective

No. of questions

Weightage

%

1

Knowledge

12

12

24

2

Understanding

25

25

50

3

Skill

6

8

16

4

Application

3

5

10

Total

-

50

100

3- Dimensional chart

Teaching points

Objectives

Knowledge

Understanding

Skill

Application

Total

Type of question

L

S

O

L

S

O

L

S

O

L

S

O

Introducing Qaudrilateral

2(2)

2(2)

4

Sum angle properties of quadrilateral

2(4)

4

Properties of

Differenet types of quadrilaterals

3(3)

3(3)

1(2)

2(4)

12

Concept of net of 3D shape and drawing its nets.

6(6)

16(16)

1(3)

25

Finding relation between the faces, vertices and edges of 3-D shapes

5(5)

5

Total

11

4

26

5

4

50

3.7 Schedule for learning program

Based on objectives of the study data are collected. For this First permission need to be asked from the principal of the school for conducting the learning program schedule. An e-mail was sent for getting the permission. Once the permission received, as per time table schedule for the learning program was decided.

Detailing about schedule For Class 8 –D (Teaching with traditional method)

Table 3.7

Sr.No.

Date

Time

Teaching points

1

15/12/14

40 min

Introducing Qaudrilateral

Sum angle properties of quadrilateral

2

16/12/14

40 min

Properties of parallelogram

Properties of Rectangle

3

17/12/14

40 min

Properties of Rhombus

Properties of Square

4

18/12/14

40 min

Properties of Trapezium

Properties of kite

5

19/12/14

40 min

20 Mark test and solving the question paper

6

22/12/14

40 min

Concept of net of 3D shape and drawing net of cube.

7

23/12/14

40 min

Net of square pyramid and net of triangular prism

8

24/12/14

40 min

Finding relation between the faces, vertices and edges of 3-D shapes

9

26/12/14

40 min

30 Mark test and solving the question paper.

Total duration of teaching (Excluding time for test)

280 min

Detailing about schedule For Class 8 –F (Teaching with Learning Program)

Table 3.8

Sr.No.

Date

Time

Teaching points

1

15/12/14

40 min

Introducing Qaudrilateral

Sum angle properties of quadrilateral

2

16/12/14

40 min

Properties of parallelogram

Properties of Rectangle

3

17/12/14

40 min

Properties of Rhombus

Properties of Square

4

18/12/14

40 min

Properties of Trapezium

Properties of kite

5

19/12/14

40 min

20 Mark test and solving the question paper

6

22/12/14

40 min

Concept of net of 3D shape and drawing net of cube.

Net of square pyramid and net of triangular prism

7

23/12/14

40 min

Finding relation between the faces, vertices and edges of 3-D shapes

8

26/12/14

40 min

30 Mark test and solving the question paper.

Total duration of teaching (Excluding time for test)

200 min

3.8 Experiences during data collection

Students familiarity with the basic functionality of computer was a doubt. Also entirely different concept was about to explore so there were so many parallel thoughts. First the researcher tried to get familiarity with the computer LAB network and installation of required software. Necessary support from the school and LAB in charge was a great help. With co-operation of students and other teachers the task was carried out successfully.

3.9 Summary

In the present chapter the planning schedule for teaching and test has been mentioned in detail. In the next chapter the data available after test results are statistically analyzed.

References:

  1. R.S. Patel(2012): Research in Education, Jay Publication, Ahmedabad, p.59
  1. K.S. Sidhu: (1996): “Methodology of Research in Education”, (New Delhi), Arya Book Depo, p. 134
  1. John W. Best : (1960): “ Research in Education”, (New Delhi), Printice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. P. 107,108
  1. John W. Best:( 1986): “Research in Education”, (New Delhi), Pretice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. P: 125

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