Teaching Effectiveness of a Post Graduate Teacher

Published:

Teaching is a universal pursuit; everybody does it. Parents are the first teacher of their children they spend a wonderful amount of time teaching their younger ones. The role of a professional teacher comes in light afterwards. It is exciting to watch a young person gaining from a teaching relationship something new, which will expand their understanding. Some time it is richly rewarding because in this process a teacher also gains new skills and acquires new insights which is a joyous experience. But as everyone knows, teaching young people can also be terribly frustrating and full with lot of disappointments. Many times a teacher observes stubborn resistance, low motivation, short attention, and often open unfriendliness. Here the quality of a teacher-learner relationship, which is the most crucial aspect, comes into picture. The difference between teaching that works and teaching that fails brings the importance of the degree of effectiveness of the teacher. Many factors influence the degree of effectiveness of the teacher out of which one of the major factors is Organization itself. Looking into requirements of the objectives of the study the research design employed for the study is of mixed (Subjective / Objective) type. Keeping in view the set objectives, this research design was adopted to have greater accuracy and in depth analysis of the research study. The investigator procures primary data through survey, discussion & observation method. Printed questionnaire were used which were enumerated and recorded. Also available secondary data was extensively used for the study.

Keywords: Teaching Effectiveness, Organizational Issues, Students, Factors Affecting Teaching, Quality of Teaching

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

Professional

Essay Writers

Lady Using Tablet

Get your grade
or your money back

using our Essay Writing Service!

Essay Writing Service

Introduction

Management education predominantly center on the dissemination of management knowledge, and assisting management students to acquire the essential skills and attitudes associated with management practices. Generally with professional preparation, management education encompasses the three domains of learning, the cognitive, the affective, and the psychological. One way to enhance management education is to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching in management education programs. A curiosity in evaluating teaching effectiveness has increased over time and recognizing the need to evaluate teaching has continued to grow. Defining what we mean by effective teaching, however, presents a challenge to this profession.

Teaching is a skill and it should be judged for the passion, performance and the meaningfulness of the message conveyed. Teaching is a complex and demanding activity that involves mastery of content, classroom control, command on teaching skills and effectiveness of organization. Teaching consists not only of instruction, but also of the systematic promotion of learning by involvement of the students. The profiles of effective teachers are as diverse as the students they teach. An Effective Teachers, always contribute to student achievements, rather than looking at external environmental factors like demographics, politics, leadership, etc., Few philosophers have suggested to focus specific attributes on what teachers can control; their own preparation, personality, and practices.

Though these global perspectives are important they do not identify many of the particulars that are associated with effective teaching in management education. These particulars include: determining What are the effective teaching skills? What idea do educators and their students hold about the teaching and learning process? What criteria should be used to assess teaching effectiveness? Who should evaluate the various aspects of teaching? & What other important elements in management education should and do lead the assessment of effective teaching? Identifying these components is necessary for educators to improve their teaching and, ultimately, for helping aspiring management trainees to acquire the attitude, the skills, and the knowledge that are needed in management practice. Indeed, evaluation of teaching is central to providing feedback to educators, and for providing reliable and valid information for the tenure and promotion process.

In the past two decades as economic realities and accountability requirements have affected higher education, the assessment of educators in management education programs has become a vital issue. Documenting teaching effectiveness in management education is essential to demonstrating management education's accountability to the profession and to the students' community it serves. The evaluation of teaching facilitates realization of several important objectives: To improve the quality of teaching, To assist faculty to evaluate their own teaching, To fulfill the criteria of the academic institution, to improve accountability in education, & To identify the content areas for faculty development programs. Evaluation of teaching is important in the teaching-learning process, as the review of evaluation data can identify areas of effectiveness, as well as lacunas in teaching.

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

Comprehensive

Writing Services

Lady Using Tablet

Plagiarism-free
Always on Time

Marked to Standard

Order Now

At present, the management programs in India offer a Two year post graduate program in management accredited by the All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE). The two year management education program consists of two years of theoretical education in which student have to undergo two months summer internship program with corporate houses. Teaching to post graduate students is difficult therefore it is important to know Teaching Effectiveness of a Post Graduate Teacher. With context to this the role of an organization is most important in improving the teaching effectiveness. To evaluate the teaching effectiveness a questionnaire is circulated to the Post Graduate Management Teacher from the different management institutes of University of Pune during the academic course.

The principal aim of this paper is to determine role of an organization in uplifting the standards of business teachers' importance and competence, as they relate to specific management program competencies, and use that information to ascertain professional development needs of management teachers. Specific objectives of this study were to:

OBJECTIVES:

The Present paper is basically concerned with the following objectives.

Describe the role of organization in the development of Post Graduate Management Teachers.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

Looking into requirements of the objectives of the study the research design employed for the study is of descriptive type. Keeping in view of the set objectives, this research design was adopted to have greater accuracy and in depth analysis of the research study.

The investigator procures primary data through survey method. Printed questionnaire were used which were enumerated and recorded. Total 50 leading management institutes were selected for the study. Personal visits were made to all these management institutes. Also available secondary data was extensively used for the study.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY:

The study aims to collect primary data from the selected management institutes regarding organizational involvement in uplifting the standards of Post Graduate teachers. The scope of the study was restricted for the selected period and to the selected management institutes. They were specifically belonging from urban areas. Because of secrecy, some institutes did not provide required information. Secrecy element and constraints on the period are the limitations for the study.

ANALYSIS OF THE DATA:

Right away from ancient time India has a well-established tradition of teaching and learning and has retained its inherent strength even under adverse circumstances. The period after independence was characterized by major efforts being made to nurture and transform teacher education and development. The system of Post Graduate Management Teacher preparation has come under considerable pressure as a result of the expansion and growth of graduate colleges, increased awareness of education etc. Therefore major efforts have been made to adapt and up-date the teacher education development programs as per local needs, to make it more context based, responsive and dynamic with regard to best meeting the particular needs of the Indian Students. The current system of teacher education and development is supported by a network of national, provincial and district level resource institutions working together to enhance the quality and effectiveness of teacher development programs at the pre-service level and also through in-service programs for serving teachers throughout the country.

The changing role of teachers and the changing definitions of teacher effectiveness have been increasingly studied and analyzed, with research undertaken and the outcomes being feedback into the system to facilitate the process of education reform. The current focus of researchers is on the development of professional competencies, and on the most effective ways of achieving higher levels of commitment and motivation for higher-level performance on the part of teachers and the role of an organization.

Effectiveness of PG Teachers & impact of Services/ Facilities Provided by Educational Institute: While evaluating the effectiveness of PG teachers and facilities provided by organizations, the resultant data is summarized in Table no.1.

Table No.1

Sr. No

Attribute

PG Teacher

PG Students

Management Representative

Total

%

1

Yes

71

69

10

150

85%

2

No

04

06

20

30

15%

Total

180

100

Above table indicates that, 85% respondents agree that there is Impact of Services / Facilities provided by Education Institute on Effectiveness of PG Teacher and only 15 % respondent does not agree on it. This shows that if organization is able to provide good facilities to the teachers, it results in to the increased effectiveness of the PG teachers.

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

This Essay is

a Student's Work

Lady Using Tablet

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Examples of our work

Facilities offered by the organization includes the Laptop, Connectivity, Accommodation, Training offered by the organization. Feeling of PG teachers about these facilities is like these are the essentials to be provided by the organization for the faculty development. While organizations feels that only providing the good salaries is important for the effectiveness of the teachers.

Following table no 2 point out the ranking of these attributes to PG teachers, Students and Organization. Majority of Respondents i.e. 67.5% agree on Educational Institute should provide all facilities for effectiveness of PG Teacher. 10% only agree to provide Laptops and connectivity, 5% agree to provide only Accommodation, 12.5% agree to provide meet salary expectation and 2.5% agree to Provide T & D and 2.5% agree to Provide to Appraisal.

The dark side of this research is that many of the organizations are still not ready to spend on significant amount of training and development of the PG teachers. Only 20% of the organization is ready to spend minor amount on teacher development. Rest of the organization feels that only providing physical facilities to the teachers will suffice their duty. Hence for increasing the effectiveness of the teachers they are offering the good salaries to the teaching staff. Following table no 2 point out all these facts.

Table. No. 2.

Services / Facilities

PG Teacher

PG Students

Management Representative

Total

%

Laptop , connectivity

03

15

02

20

10

Accommodation

01

01

08

10

05

Meet Salary Exp

02

03

20

25

12.5

Training Development

03

02

00

05

02.5

Appraisal

03

02

00

05

02.5

Above All

63

52

20

135

67.5

200

100

A sound work culture of the organization is also playing a dominant role in the effectiveness of the PG teachers. 71 % of the PG teachers feel that there is a direct correlation between the work culture and effectiveness. Here many of the teachers are pointed out that a politics at work place is the main hindrance in the development of good work culture. Roughly 66% organization feels that there is no direct relation between the work culture and effectiveness of the teachers. Many of these business schools belong to political leaders. Another side of the work culture we have tested with student fraternity and they have also agreed that a good work culture is a dominating factor in the teachers' effectiveness. They have claimed that a good work culture motivates a teacher to deliver at his best. If the work culture of the institute is not good then it hampers the moral of a good teacher and involves them in all other nonsense and political games within the faculties.

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of PG Teachers by organization: Organization is trying to assess the effectiveness of the teachers with the help of the few parameters. These parameters and the resultant data is shown in the table no 3

Table No. 3

Dimensions

PG Teacher

PG Students

Management Representative

Total

%

Students Feedback

35

20

20

75

37.5

Result Analysis

05

10

10

25

12.5

360 Appraisal

30

40

05

75

37.5

No yrs Experience

05

05

15

25

12.5

200

100

The above table give you an idea about response of the respondents and indicates that, 37.5 % agree on Students Feedback and similarly other 37.5% refer 360 degree Appraisal are best methods for evaluating effectiveness of PG Teacher . 12.5 % respondents refer Result analysis and other 12.5% refer No. years experience as method for evaluating effectiveness of PG Teacher.

Although faculty prefers self evaluation and students prefer student evaluation, both reported limited use of multiple evaluators. With the exception of educators' views that students should be less involved in the evaluation of teaching, both groups of respondents preferred greater involvement for the five groups of evaluators: educator (self) evaluation, evaluation by head of group, peer evaluation, administrator evaluation, and student evaluation. Use of student ratings of teaching effectiveness is enhanced by an understanding of the nature of the underlying dimensions.

Teachers and students stated that most of the criteria for evaluating the inputs, the process, and the outputs of teaching are of less significant. Also, they shared the same perceptions regarding the importance of the four categories of criteria used in the current study that were ranked in the following order: inputs into the teaching/learning process, instructor teaching behavior: student engagement, instructor teaching strategies, and instructor helping behavior.

Important elements for evaluating teaching effectiveness were consistent with several studies studied during the research which showed that instructor personality, instructor experience, and the psychological environment were important variables in teaching effectiveness as perceived by teachers and by students. In contrast with the literature, students' and teachers' perceptions in this study showed that teacher academic rank and experience was viewed as an important variable for evaluating teaching effectiveness.

Although performance observation, result analysis were the most common current evaluation practices, as perceived by the respondents, the two groups reported somewhat limited use of these practices, and especially of teacher tests and self-appraisal in 360 appraisal. It was significant that both teachers and students expressed a desire for more use of all five evaluation practices. The available secondary data on the efficacy of some of these evaluation practices is vague. For example, self-appraisal in 360 appraisals is seen to have the disadvantages of subjectivity whereas the process of self-appraisal is seen to enable individuals to develop reflection skills, and to enhance understanding of one's own strengths and weaknesses thereby helping them become more self-aware and objective in judging their own performance. The use of student behaviors and achievement as criteria of effective teaching has its own challenges.

Student learning is widely believed to be a good measure of teaching effectiveness. Unfortunately, measures of student achievements are not as ideal as they may first appear. Factors such as initial level of student knowledge, student motivation, and student ability are beyond the teachers control yet can strongly affect the amount of student learning. Input from students, like student ratings, is also recognized as an essential component of a comprehensive system for evaluating teaching effectiveness.

Focus of Education Institute on increasing effectiveness PG Teacher by: Organization must remember that learning occurs within each individual as a continual process throughout life. People learn at different speeds, so it is natural for them to be anxious or nervous when faced with a learning situation. Positive reinforcement by the organization can enhance learning, as can proper timing of the instruction.

The director of theses institutes were aware of shortcomings of their teacher evaluation system and they expressed the desire to improve teaching effectiveness in their respective organizations. They also emphasized the importance of evaluation and evaluation results, and the need to have these evaluations completed by different individuals. They stressed that systematic and continuous evaluation as well as staff development should be an ultimate goal for the faculty evaluation process. Table no 4 indicates the different initiatives organization can plan for the uplifting the effectiveness of the PG teachers.

Table No .4

Dimensions

PG Teacher

Management Representative

Total

%

Courses/workshops

20

10

30

15

Education conferences or seminars

30

20

50

25

Qualification program

05

05

10

5

Participation in a professional development of teachers

35

05

40

20

Individual or collaborative research on a topic of interest to you professionally

30

10

40

20

Mentoring and/or peer observation and coaching, as part of a formal program

30

00

30

15

200

100

The above data point out that, respondents refers all options very close to each other ,Institute should refers all options for motivating PG Teachers .Respondents refers Workshop 15% , education conference 25% , qualification 5% , Professional development Program 20% , collaborative research 20% , Mentoring 15% . Surprisingly many of the organization are ready to provide these inputs for uplifting the status of a PG teacher.

Based on this content analysis, six items were proposed for use as a set of core items for uplifting of teaching effectiveness. The six items identified as those used by most of the organization were: 1) Courses/workshops well prepared, well organized; 2) Education conferences or seminars; 3) Participation in a professional development of teachers; 4) Qualification program; 5) Individual or collaborative research on a topic of interest to you professionally; and 6) Mentoring and/or peer observation and coaching, as part of a formal program.

Faculty Development Program: Wilkerson and Irby, on faculty development, have written, "Academic vitality is dependent upon faculty members' interest and expertise; faculty development has a critical role to play in promoting academic excellence and innovation, and it is a tool for improving the educational vitality of our institutions through attention to the competencies needed by individual teachers and to the institutional policies required to promote academic excellence."

Faculty development is more than just about "teaching the teachers to teach". It should be an institution-wide pursuit with the intent of professionalizing the educational activities of post graduate teachers, enhancing educational infrastructure, and building educational capacity for the future-in other words, establishing education and training at the centre of what a trainer, and trainees, do. The "planned program" aspect of faculty development is particularly important, as not only should faculty development provide entry level training for a teachers, it also provides opportunities of ongoing professional development and support.

Different classifications of faculty development are found in literature. According to these classifications, faculty development generally falls into four groups as instructional, professional, personal and institutional development areas. Instructional development area covers activities related to the development of such educational identities of faculty members as the systematic design, development, application and evaluation of the educational programs or of lessons, courses and teaching materials. Professional development area is made up of activities related to the development of their researcher-identities such as getting information about research techniques and statistical research methods, use of research funds and research grants and preparation and publication of scientific studies. Another development area, personal development includes activities related to increasing the productivity of faculty members and supporting and encouraging their academic development related to their individual development in and out of their academic environment As for the institutional development area, it consists of activities that help to inform trainers about the organizational operations, to adopt themselves to the institutional culture and to see themselves as a part of the institution they work for.

The necessary features of faculty development programs for teachersare as follows

The Head of the department of the institute should hold a appraisal interview with Teacher for the purpose of evaluation and planning of the faculty development program for trainees specifically in vacation periods. In this way, primarily the need for faculty development program should be identified.

The selection criteria should be determined by the Head of the department of the institute in order to support the need, requirement and expectations of the teacher.

A variety of programs should be organized for each professional development area as the instructional, professional, personal and institutional areas.

The programs to meet the faculty development needs of a post graduate should be current and be supported by as many tools of educational technology as possible.

The necessary technological tools that will enable a teacher to benefit from faculty development programs should be available for use.

A formal interview with faculty members are conducted and reviews of the general fields of faculty development programs was determined to several characteristics for an effective planning and implementation of faculty development programs. According to these characteristics, it should be considered administrative support, good management, good communication, orientation toward the future goals, are key requisites for an effective faculty development programs. In addition, strategies for developing professional development area of faculty development include mentoring, group projects, research attitudes, travel money to interact with the large community of scholars, a reasonable amount of research time in short blocks, research support programs and good facilities, equipment and maintenance are also required. The views of a teacher about the organization of the program and the principles of professional education and the effective planning principles of faculty development programs should be taken into consideration together with the faculty development areas. The different dimensions of the Faculty Development programs are summarized in table no 5

Table No.5

Dimensions

PG Teacher %

Organization Response %

Self assessed Training needs

89.1

10.9

Needs assessed by the Head of Department

44.0

56.0

Feedback on Teaching Methodology Action

37.8

51.1

Adopt update Teaching Aids and Materials

36.0

64.0

The above data point out that, 89 % teachers prefer the training program for self assessed needs, while 44 % teachers believe on the need assessment by the head of department and they think that the training programs will help them to uplift their subject knowledge, teaching methodologies etc. Their feel that organization can conduct the training program by four ways like

By Faculty within the Education Institute

By specialists in an education centers, established by the university

In a private education center out of the university and by its specialists

By experienced faculty members of the Industries

As per the organizations feedback, adopting teaching aids and need assessment by head of the departments are more crucial aspects for planning a faculty development program. Surprisingly, only 10.9 % organizations are willing to consider the self assed personal needs of the teachers.

The heads of institutes stressed that staff development should be the ultimate goal for the faculty development program. Overall, they recognized that there were shortcomings to the current system in use & in their faculty and expressed a desire to improve teaching effectiveness within the faculty through the proper system.

CONCLUSION:

The teaching profession seems to be increasingly concerned with effective teaching and as part of its accountability. However, the this research paper indicates that little attention has been paid to the effectivity of a post graduate teacher and evaluating teaching effectiveness. The evaluation of teaching effectiveness and role of an organization in that is a complex process and will never be an easy task nor perceived to be a totally fair endeavor. The advantages and limitations inherent in any system are intensified by the variety of roles and responsibilities assumed by organizations. The development of a comprehensive faculty evaluation system within the organization has as one of its important objectives to distinguish good from superior performance can challenge and stimulate all teaching faculties to strive for meaningful accomplishments that are both rewarding to the individuals, recognized as important in the administrative decision making process and should be beneficial for organization.

According to the findings obtained from the study, it is concluded that the faculty development area which teachers need most includes the faculty development activities. Among the presentation forms of faculty development programs, the teachers at most preferred the faculty development programs executed in the form of workshops. According discussion, the teachers stated that faculty development programs should be executed by specialists in an education center to be established for this purpose at the university. One more conclusion is that the factor most effective on the participation of teachers in faculty development programs is the fact that faculty development programs for teachers should be supported by education faculty members and specialists in the field. The factor most effective on the participation in the faculty development program is the monetary awarding of participation in the program. According to another finding obtained in the study, it is concluded that teachers do not prefer a faculty development program more which will be organized in the vacation period.

It is also important that organization role is predominant in increasing the teaching effectiveness of the post graduate teachers. Hence organization should continue to develop better and more comprehensive measures of teaching effectiveness and keep on assessing the requirement of the teacher to enhance their capabilities. Following measures can be adopted by the organization

Role of Education Institute is very vital, as facilities and services provided by Education Institute as they are directly correlated with the Effectiveness of PG Teachers. Therefore Education Institute Provide all type of facilities like Laptop connectivity , Accommodation, Meet Salary expectations , Training and development by which PG Teacher motivated and help to boast the his moral .

Technology's has a great impact and capacity to reach learners on any place and at any time. It has the potential to promote revolutionary changes in the educational paradigm. This means eliminating the premise that learning time equals classroom time. Students can be encouraged to revisit the lessons/topics to reinforce learning active intervention by teachers. Another illustration of efficiency is the domain of virtual Classroom. Education Institute focus on building the Virtual Classroom for effectiveness of PG Teacher and Students.

Library is main knowledge resource for building capacity of PG Teacher and Students. Education Institute should think on Digital Library / E-Library - Subscription of Online Journal, Books etc.

For building capacity of PG Teacher Education Institute should Send to Maximum FDPs, Professional development Program, Motivate for Research Work, Provide special funding for FDP and research Activity, Provide good working environment, Start system of Self Appraisal

Access the need of Training and take corrective action, Students Feedback should be use for improvement tool.

Education Institute should focus on indirect or teaching support facilities such as offices, cafeteria, acoustics, toilets, laundry, mowers, residential halls, common rooms, cleaning materials ground and similar items satisfy the individual's physical and emotional needs.

Education Institute Play a vital role in effectiveness of PG Teacher. Education Institute always tries to give meaning to the teaching and learning process. Education Institute should carry out comprehensive assessment of the PG Teacher and Provide services/ facilities to determine areas of need. This requires an integrated effort of all stakeholders who possess the expertise needed for accurate and up-to-date assessment of all aspects. The actualization of the goals and objectives of Education Institute majorly depending upon the effectiveness of PG Teacher and Effectiveness of PG Teacher depending upon the provision, maximum utilization and appropriate management of the facilities/ services Provided by Education Institute . Furthermore, advances in science and technology, necessitate that the Education Institute should adopt modern methods , new Pedagogy like virtual class room , E-Library , Simulation Lab , Advance Computer center. This will improve the quality of teaching and learning.