Teaching Behaviours with ICT Integration in Mahatma Gandhi

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The purpose of this paper is to share with the readers the findings of a study to investigate the prospective teaching behaviours with ICT integration at secondary level. This study seeks to investigate the likely attitudes of teachers towards the use of ICT for educational purposes if equal access is given to them. ICTs is expected to enhance the teaching and learning process but given that human beings generally show resistance to change, it is imperative to focus on teacher's motivation and readiness to use ICT in teaching.

Background and Objectives of the Present study

Technology is claimed to be a universal language and is regarded as one of the influential agents of globalisation. On the global front, ICT is already creating new, open learning environments and in the local context, the present government has announced in the latest budget, that classrooms will be equipped with ICT support and that teachers will be expected to use innovative teaching strategies, more precisely ICT for teaching. Furthermore, during the recent years, the government has embraced the vision of metamorphosing Mauritius from an agricultural island to a cyber island.

In line with this vision, teachers are expected to play a catalysing role in this transformation process. According to Murray, 2007, the use of technology in education is an emerging field of study as it involves the introduction of new instructional possibilities. Consequently, the aim of this study has been to focus on the factors which encourage the uptake of ICT by teachers as well as the barriers which prevent teachers from making full use of ICT in teaching.

2.2 Related Literature Review

In developing countries, education is seen as the hope of the future and massive investment is done in this sector as it is expected to bring economic progress while simultaneously ensuring sustainable development.

2. 3 The use of ICT in Teaching

According to a UNESCO handbook in 2005, researchers claim that to "be effective, especially in developing countries, ICT should be combined with more traditional technologies such as books and radios and be more extensively applied to the training of teachers." Consequently, the International Education Studies journal, May 2010 highlighted that teachers' attitudes levels towards the use of ICT had a direct relation with the use of ICT for educational purposes and similar findings were reported by Albirini (2004) and Isleem (2003)

Perraton et al. (2001) identified two sets of activities or roles which should be considered to integrate ICT in education which are the need for the training of teachers to learn about ICT and its use in teaching and the need to provide teacher education. Thus, in many countries, ICT is now at the center of education reforms that involve (i) its use in coordination with changes in curriculum, (ii) teacher training, (iii) assessment and (iv) pedagogy.

In the local context, Mauritius is also following the same trend since ICT is playing role in its education reform efforts. There are expectations that there will be much ICT investment in the education sector but according to a survey by S. Ramessur Seenarain, ICT is perceived as a mere learning tool.

2.4 Attitudes towards the use of ICT

Many factors influence the use of ICT in teaching and one of these factors is teachers' attitudes towards the use of ICT in the teaching and learning process. Huang and Liaw (2005) states that among the factors that affect the successful use of computers in the classroom, teachers' attitudes towards computers play a key role. Much literature review focuses on attitudes of teachers as central to the integration or consequent rejection of ICT in teaching. Consequently, a number of studies have been carried out to investigate teachers' attitudes towards computer use. Albirini (2004) investigated the attitudes of teachers in Syrian high schools regarding the use of ICT in teaching and he found out that in general teachers had positive attitudes toward technology use in education. However, given the ambivalent nature of human behaviour, teachers' attitudes can help to determine their reaction in some situations. Fishbein (1967) defined attitude as "a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favourable or unfavourable way".

Cuban (1993) classified teachers as (i) technophile; those who are enthusiastic about new technology, (ii) preservationist; those who hold traditional views regarding the use of ICT and (iii) cautious optimist; namely teachers who exhibit slow, steady movement towards fundamental changes in teaching.

Evans-Andris (1995) used corresponding classifications of teachers as showing (i) technical specialisation; those who embrace computers and view technology as a challenge, (ii) avoidance; teachers who distance themselves from computers and (iii) integration; those who embrace computers in teaching. Teo (2006) put forward the argument that, "the success of student learning with ICT will depend largely on the attitudes of teachers and their willingness to embrace the technology.

Ajzen (1988) referred to attitude as "a predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to an object, person, or event". Van Braak (2001) also highlighted the strong relationship between computer related attitudes and computer use in education. Van Braak, Tondeur, & Valcke, (2004) mentioned that positive computer attitudes are expected to foster computer integration in the classroom. Akbaba & Kurubacak, 1998; Clark, (2001) further mentioned that attitudes toward computers influence teachers' acceptance of the usefulness of technology, and also influence whether teachers integrate ICT in their classroom.

2.5 Positive Teacher's Behaviour

Integration of information and communication technology (ICT) tools in teaching has been at the forefront of the education sector and have had a profound effect on the way teachers teach and how learners learn. The Success of student learning with ICT will depend largely on the attitudes of teachers and their willingness to embrace the technology. (Teo 2006). Teachers are the central forces in tapping the learning opportunities created by information communication technology.

Technology enables teachers to individualise instruction, allows students to learn and develop at their own pace (Peck and Domcott1994). ICT can improve learning outcomes, even in traditional rote learning exercises and innovative in areas, which are challenging and little explored in the development of pedagogy-ICT integration. Changes may be introduced in both teaching-learning methods and in content. Students can enjoy learning actively, such as by bringing the outside world into the classroom or by interacting with peers, experts and others. Furthermore, the students will have the opportunity to learn new skills, such as locating appropriate information, making informed choices by learning to recognise the authenticity of sources, and collaborating with other learners.

Five important reasons for teachers to use technology in education: motivation, distinctive instructional abilities, higher productivity of teachers, essential skills for the information age, support for new teaching techniques. (Roblyer and Edwards 2000). Researchers have shown technology integrated into mainstream classrooms support higher-level learning and thinking skills among students. Moreover it promotes to social and economic interests, such as reducing the costs of education, supporting the computer industry, preparing students for work and for living in a society permeated with technology, and making the school more attractive to its public. Public initiatives have intended to spread the use of computer technology in schools by implementing computer laboratories and embedding actual classrooms with digital technologies to assist and support current classroom learning.

Teachers' beliefs motivate students and enhance their self- esteem as well as influence decisions about computer use (Blumefeld 1992). One of these factors is teachers' attitudes towards the use of technology in teaching and learning process. Research shows that the success of technology use in the educational settings largely depends on teachers attitudes toward technology use (Albirini, 2006, Baylor & Ritchie, 2002). Teachers' attitudes are considered as a major predictor of the use of new technologies in the educational settings (Albirini, 2006). Thus, their attitudes toward computer can play an important role in the acceptance and actual use of computers. The successful utilisation of technologies in the classroom depends mainly on the teachers' attitudes toward these tools. Thus, an attitude plays an important role in determining people reactions to situations. A review of the psychological literature reveals diverse definitions of attitudes. Allport (1935) defined it as "a mental and neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual's response to all objects and situations with which it is related. Much of the research on barriers also considers what factors enable or encourage people to use ICT. It is important to recognise that a number of factors have been identified which encourage and enable teachers to integrate ICT into their teaching.

ICT can offer teachers, whatever their context is: scaffolding tools to support their own construction and understanding of new academic and professional knowledge; environments and contexts for learning, enabling teachers to experience new situations, activities, problems and solutions; communicative tools facilitating unique social participation structures between teachers; meta -cognitive tools enabling teachers to reflect on the learning process itself, both at individual and group individual (Leech, Moon & Power,2002).Thus, it can be concluded that the attitude related to the usage frequency of technology and usage amount of the technology.

2.6 Barriers for teachers` ICT integration

There are many elements identified as obstacles in the way of introducing ICT in schools. Pelgrum (2001) presents a list of ten such issues that educational practitioners perceive as serious impediments for realising their ICT related goals. The three major ones: (1) insufficient number of computers, (2) teachers' lack of knowledge/skills, and (3) difficult to integrate in instruction. Ely (1993) similarly distinguishes as major conditions, relevant to ICT implementation, the following: (1) dissatisfaction with the status quo, (2) existence of knowledge and skills, and (3) availability of resources.

2.6.1 External and internal barriers

Many authors categorise barriers as external (first order) or internal (second order). First-order barriers include lack of equipment, unreliability, lack of technical support and other resource-related issues; second-order barriers include both school-level factors such as organisational culture and teacher-level factors such as beliefs about teaching and technology, and openness to change (Snoeyink & Ertmer 2001). A lack of equipment is the highest rated barrier internationally (Pelgrum 2001), often cited even in well-resourced countries. Indeed, one study (Guha 2000) found that teachers who used technology most were more likely to complain about a lack of equipment. It would appear therefore this is less a barrier to the introduction of technology than to its use in creative and innovative ways. While these first-order barriers are clearly significant, research suggests the importance teachers attach to them can reflect their own second-order barriers (Ertmer et al. 1999)

Senior teachers seem to be reluctant towards the incorporation of ICT in schools, while student teachers and some newly qualified teachers are the most confident users of ICT (Galanouli & McNair 2001). Underlying these anxieties are fear of embarrassment when using computers (Russell & Bradley 1997) and fear of losing professional status through a downgrading of traditional pedagogical skills (Fabry & Higgs 1997).

It seems that teachers' attitudes regarding ICT use in schools not only pose difficulties in the use of technology but also cancel the learning benefits expected to spring from the instructional reform. Teachers are characterized as being 'technophobic' about using ICT (Rosen & Weil)

2.7 Information and Communication Technology in a Mauritian educational context

Basic telephony was first introduced in Mauritius in October 1883. The first telephone line was set up between the Colony Governor's residence in Reduit and the Government House in Port Louis. The introduction took place only seven years after telephone was invented.

In the late twentieth century, telecommunications has entered a dramatic period of explosive growth and it has evolved due to "technology push". The telecommunications revolution has been characterised by competition, technological changes and privatisation of most state monopolies, the emergence of new companies and the merging of global service providers around the world. This has also been the trend in Mauritius.

Information and communication technologies hold great promises for small island economies like Mauritius. The ICT sector is believed to be the most dynamic industry in the world and constitutes one of the most powerful tools needed to open new prospects of sustainable development (The ICT Sector in Mauritius-An overview, 2004).

2.8 ICT Policies in Mauritius

According to Isaacs (2007), the Government of Mauritius has actively promoted ICT since 1989. Since then it also proposed a national ICT policy modeled on the Singaporean experience. The Mauritius strategy involved creating instruments to support liberalisation of its telecommunication sector, creating an ICT literate workforce, improving the capacity of public institutions to harness ICTs, and positioning Mauritius to be a key player in ICTs by creating enabling environment and robust infrastructure.

In 1989 the government set up four institutions: the National Computer Board (NCB) , the Central Informatics Bureau (CIS) , the State Informatics Limited(SIL) , and the State Informatics Training Centre Limited(SITCL). The government vision is to make Mauritius a "cyber island" in which ICT would become the fifth pillar of the economy after sugar, textile, tourism and financial services as well as a regional hub.

2.9 ICT in schools

The Mauritius Ministry of Education has been involved in the introduction of ICTs in schools since 1991. School IT project-The national ICT policy states that "IT will be taught in schools as a subject and integrated into teaching across the curriculum in primary and secondary schools". There remains a challenge to promote connectivity in schools and establish a network for information exchange and information in the education sector. ICT competition- With the objective of promoting ICT use as an education instrument, the NCB organises two ICT competitions for secondary- and tertiary-level students each year, namely the School IT Competition and the ICT Project Competition. NCB has revised the scope of the School IT Competition to allow students to participate in an international Web site competition, ThinkQuest. NEPAD eSchools Mauritius- The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) eSchools Initiative is a multi-country, multi-stakeholder, continental initiative that aims to:

Impart ICT skills to young Africans in primary and secondary schools

Improve the provision of education in schools through ICT applications and the use

of the Internet

ICT is playing a vital role in the education sector. For instance, ICT courses were made compulsory in secondary schools in 1995 and students are expected to be proficient after the third year. As from 2006, ICT was used as a pedagogical tool across the curriculum.

It was noted by (Jhuree, 2005) that much research in the area of technology integration in education has been conducted in technologically advanced countries, but little in the developing countries, few statistics were available from developing countries.

2.10 The Mahatma Gandhi Institute

The Mahatma Gandhi Institute (MGI) and the Rabindranath Tagore Institute (RTI) are polynodal institutions in the educational landscape of Mauritius. The foundation stone  of the  Institute was laid on 3rd June 1970 by the then Prime Minister of India, Shrimati Indira Gandhi and the then Prime Minister of Mauritius, Sir Seewoosagar Ramgoolam. Both Institutes are dynamic and abreast of our times and function effectively thanks to the schools and departments attached to them

The secondary schooling of MGI is headed by the Director of Schooling and comprises of six institutions namely: MGI Secondary School, Mahatma Gandhi Secondary School (MGSS) Moka, MGSS Flacq, MGSS Solferino, MGSS Nouvelle France and Rabindranath Tagore Secondary School (RTSS).These schools are today an established and recognized institution of education and culture and aim at being a top performing institution and will endeavour to provide quality education to its students and enhances teaching and learning opportunities for both students and staff by promoting a learning environment in the school.

2.11 Researches in ICT Education in Mauritius

From a survey conducted by Ramessur-Seenarain (2007), it was revealed that ICT is perceived only as a mere learning tool which helps in delivery and access. Moreover the researcher found that:

there is a long way to go before ICT can be perceived as a tool of supporting knowledge creativity and preparing students at the secondary level to face the challenges of globalisation and ensure sustained economic growth.

ICT as an educational tool is limited at the secondary level in the island. Hence there is urgency for ministries to make a commitment to helping teachers effectively integrate computers and Internet technologies into their schools by aligning curriculums, exams, and incentives with the educational outcomes that they hope to gain.

The case study carried out by Jhuree et al, (2007) has shed light into an important aspect of primary school teachers' mental state and their attitudes towards ICT and their preparedness in integrating it in their profession. The study concluded that prospective Oriental language teachers had a positive attitude towards ICT, the course they had followed and the subsequent use of ICT in schools.

However, ICT integration at school is contingent on a number of technology integration factors such as the

availability of ICT resources in the schools,

political commitment,

planning for integration and

monitoring, training and funds (Jhurree, 2004)

3. Rationale

New technologies have been widely recognized to play a valuable role in developing and improving the teaching and learning situations. Many researchers have thought about integration of technology in the process of teaching and learning to increase teachers' and students' productivity as well as to make vast amounts of information available.

In the late 1990's many countries developed plans to intensify their investments regarding ICT in education. The quick rise of the internet and World Wide Web (www) have led to the adoption of objectives to equip all schools with access to these facilities in a relatively short period of time.

Researchers from all parts of the world believe that the use of ICT tools for educational purposes depends upon the attitudes of teachers towards the technology (Albirini, 2004; Teo, 2008; Huang and Liaw, 2005).

Khine and Fisher have discussed how the introduction of integrated ICT in education has led many educators to improve the way they teach and structure their pedagogy. Therefore, ICT has changed the quality of education and it is clear for many educators that students are changing by using ICT tools (Finger, Russell, Jamieson - Proctor, & Russell, 2007).

There is no doubt that the use of ICT makes education and learning scientific, understandable, efficient, effective and interesting. However, the most fundamental issue for ICT is that of teachers and their perspective about the use of ICT.

Most previous studies have centered on Technology integration in technologically advanced countries but little in developing countries. In our fast moving cyber island, ICT sector is very dynamic and is contributing to the economy of Mauritius. In fact, the pervasiveness of ICT has brought remarkable changes in various fields and sectors. In the 21st century, the relevance of a teacher is determined by the will to develop professionally and be technologically skillful.

Concerning the use of ICT, in 1996, Brown et al, mentioned in the electronic Journal of sociology, that the "majority projects are on the constructs of anxiety and of stress in interactive situations with computers" and in the light of this statement the question that was raised was whether this situation apply equally to Mauritian teachers?

In fact, there has been only one case study carried out on Primary Oriental Teachers Attitudes towards Computer (Jhuree et al, 2007), according to which "oriental language teachers have a positive attitudes towards ICT and there is subsequent use of ICT in schools." Therefore, there has been no study on attitudes of educators of secondary schools concerning the use of ICT. So, the main objective of the present study is to gather the technology level, the behaviors and attitudes of teachers working particularly in the schools falling under the aegis of MGI, in relation to integration of ICT in their profession.

These guiding research questions can be stated as follows:

1. What is the technology level of the educators in MGSSs?

2. How do the educators perceive integration of ICT in their subjects?

3. Why are the educators willing or unwilling to use ICT?

4. Which factors motivate or hinder them to use ICT?

5. What are the possibilities to integrate ICT based teaching practices?

6. If facilities and training be provided, will the educators show readiness to develop ICT skills?

4. Methodology

This study employed a survey research method that has been frequently used in research on information technology and computer use. A survey research method is particularly useful for generating quantitative data that can be used to establish the basis for wider generalization.

4.1Research Tool

A structured questionnaire was used as the research instrument in the current study. Because the research constructs of this study (that is, attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs) are latent variables which are not directly observable, the use of multiple item scales is beneficial since it ensures greater variability and enhances reliability of measures because the errors of each item tend to cancel each other out (DeVellis, 1991). The questionnaire was based namely on Technology Level of Use developed by Isleem (2003) and Teacher Attitudes towards ICT Scale developed by Albirini (2006).It included 32 items used to measure teachers' level of ICT use for educational purposes. A five Likert scale format was used to assessing teachers' level of ICT use for educational purposes (1=never use, 2=rarely use, 3=sometimes use, 4=often use, 5=very often use).It also consisted of 32 other items on Teacher Attitudes towards ICT designed again as 5-point Likert's scale, where 1=strongly disagree to the concept, 2=disagree to the concept, 3=undecided to the concept, 4=agree to the concept, and 5=strongly strongly favorable to the concept.

4.2 Pilot Testing

A few test questionnaires were distributed to teachers on a pilot basis. The teachers used for the pre-testing exercise were not used in the sample for the survey. The responses revealed that certain terms, the presentation and order of question were not clear. Then the questionnaire was reviewed with the test takers and confusing points that were discussed and worked together to solve the problems.

4.3 Sample Characteristics.

The survey was carried out at the end of the third semester, school year 2010. The sampling strategy used for this research was convenience sampling A total number of 210 respondents, representing a response rate of 93.3%, completed the survey. Participants were Educators working in the six Secondary Schools of the Mahatma Gandhi Institute (MGI).

Looking at the gender characteristics of the sample, two third of the respondents were female. This mirrors the predominance of the female Educators from the population of Educators in the six Secondary Schools under the aegis of MGI. Consequently, we have to study the gender variable on our object of study: ICT integration.

Table 1 shows a frequency table on the respondent profiles with respect to gender.

Respondents` Profile

Male

in %

Age Group

Between 18 and 25

31.7

Between 26 and 30

30.2

Between 31 and 35

19.1

Between 36 and 40

9.5

Between 41 and 45

1.6

Above 46

7.9

Years of Experience

Between 0 and 1

22.2

Between 2 and 5

49.2

Between 6 and 10

11.2

Between 11 and 15

9.5

Above 15

7.9

Category of Subjects Taught

Languages and Social Studies

19.3

Science

24.6

Mathematics and computer

14.1

Art & Music

15.7

Technical subjects

19.3

Economics/Accounts/Business studies

7.0

Table

Below is a cluster bar chart (Figure 1) showing the distribution of the gender with the 14 subjects taught obtained from the respondents.

Figure 1

The data collected was processed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) program version 14.0. It was used to analyze data as follows:

1). The descriptive statistics was used in summing the data into cross tabulations and using the Chi-Square test together with the Phi and Cramer's V symmetric measures

2). The Factor analysis was used to attempt identifying underlying variables, or factors, that explain the pattern of correlations within a set of observed variables.

4.4 Ethical Considerations

As this study required the participation of human respondents, specifically human resource professionals, certain ethical issues were addressed. The consideration of these ethical issues was necessary for the purpose of ensuring the privacy the participants. Among the significant ethical issues that were considered in the research process include consent and confidentiality. The confidentiality of the participants was ensured by not disclosing their names or personal information in the research. Only relevant details that helped in answering the research questions were included. 

5. Results

5.1 Results of Gender on for using ICT for Students` Learning.

Table 2

Cross tabulation for Gender Versus Using ICT for learning by students

USING OF ICT FOR LEARNING

 

 

GENDER

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M

 

 

 

 

 

VERY UNLIKELY

UNLIKELY

NEUTRAL

LIKELY

VERY LIKELY

Count

4

12

11

10

25

Expected Count

8.3

10.6

14.6

13.9

14.6

% within GENDER

6.5

19.4

17.7

16.1

40.3

% within USING OF ICT FOR LEARNING

16

37.5

25

23.8

56.8

% of Total

2.1

6.4

5.9

5.3

13.4

F

 

 

 

 

Count

21

20

33

32

19

Expected Count

16.7

21.4

29.4

28.1

29.4

% within GENDER

16.8

16

26.4

25.6

15.2

% within USING OF ICT FOR LEARNING

84

62.5

75

76.2

43.2

% of Total

11.2

10.7

17.6

17.1

10.2

TOTAL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Count

25

32

44

42

44

Expected Count

25

32

44

42

44

% within GENDER

13.4

17.1

23.5

22.5

23.5

% within USING OF ICT FOR LEARNING

100

100

100

100

100

% of Total

13.4

17.1

23.5

22.5

23.5

Table 3

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Pearson Chi-Square

17.7

4

Likelihood Ratio

17.5

4

Linear-by-Linear Association

7.7

1

N of Valid Cases

187

a 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The minimum expected count is 8.29.

Table 4

Symmetric Measures

Value

Nominal by Phi

Nominal Cramer's V

N of Valid Cases

0.308

0.308

187

a Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

Referring to Table 1 we observe that 6.5% of the male Educators were very unlikely to use ICT for their students` learning while for the female Educators it was 16.8%. 17.7% of the male respondents and 26.4% of the female respondents were neutral about the idea of using ICT for this purpose. While only 15.2% of the female respondents were very likely to use ICT for learning to take place, 40.3% of the males were very likely to use ICT for the students` learning.

Formulating the Null Hypothesis and the Alternative Hypothesis:

H0 : Using ICT for students` learning and Gender are independent.

H1 : Using ICT for students` learning depends on Gender.

Test: Chi-Square. (From Table 3)

Statistics: Chi-Square = 17.7 p = 0.001

Conclusion: Since p = 0.001 < 5%, we reject H0. We conclude that at 5% level of significance, there is an association between using ICT for students` learning and Gender of the Educator.

Strength of the association:

From table 3, Cramer`s V = 0.308 out of a possible maximum value of 1. This represents a rather weak association between these two variables.

5.2 Results of Subjects taught with using ICT for Presentation.

It was noted that 40% of the Science Educators were very likely to use ICT for presentation in their teaching.

33% of Mathematics Educators were very likely to use ICT in class for presentations while for Economics and Technical subjects it was less than 14%. It is worth noting that 29% of the language teachers were very likely of using ICT for their presentations.

Formulating the Null Hypothesis and the Alternative Hypothesis:

H0 : Subjects taught and Using ICT for presentation are independent.

H1 : Using ICT for presentation are independent depends on Subjects Taught.

Test: Chi-Square.

Statistics: Chi-Square = 57.0 p = 0.003

Conclusion: Since p = 0.003 < 5%, we reject H0. We conclude that at 5% level of significance, there is an association between Subjects taught and Using ICT for presentation.

Strength of the association:

Cramer`s V = 0.538 out of a possible maximum value of 1. This represents that the association between these two variables cannot be described.

Assessment of normality for the individual variable can be made either statistically or graphically. Statistical assessment of normality is provided by examining skewness and kurtosis of the measured variables. Skewness refers to the symmetry of distribution of measured variables while kurtosis refers to the peakedness of distribution of measured variables. A distribution with positive kurtosis is called leptokurtic. In terms of shape, a leptokurtic distribution has a more acute "peak" around the mean .A distribution with negative kurtosis is called platykurtic. In terms of shape, a platykurtic distribution has a smaller "peak" around the mean.

5.3 Results of Age Group and frequency of using ICT last year.

Table 5

Age Group

Skewness

Kurtosis

Use of ICT last year

18 - 25

0.6

-1.0

26 - 30

0.6

-0.4

31- 35

0.4

-1.3

36 - 40

1.3

0.4

41- 45

1.2

-0.1

46 and more

1.4

0.1

Figure

Commenting on the results obtained (Table 5), we found that, the skewness of the distribution of age group with the frequency of usage of ICT last year becomes more and more positive as the age group increases. This means that the distribution becomes more positively skewed. It is worth to note that most of the Educators in the age groups of 36 - 40, 41 - 45 and more than 46 years, have never or rarely used ICT in their teaching last year. This is shown in the box plot in figure 3.

The kurtosis of the distributions gave a more or less a normal peak around the mean though it is interesting to see that for the age group of 31 - 35, it had a negative kurtosis showing that the frequency of usage of ICT last year by Educators of this age group is widely distributed .

5.4 Results of Years of Experience and Outcome of using ICT to be time consuming.

Table 6

Years of Experience

Skewness

Kurtosis

Outcome - Time consuming

0 - 1

0.1

-0.9

2 - 5

-0.3

-0.7

6 - 10

-0.6

-1.3

11 - 15

-0.9

0.1

More than 15

-1.0

-1.7

Figure

Doing a similar exercise as above, but now having Years of Experience and the outcome to use ICT to be time consuming as variables, we found from table 6 that, the skewness of the distribution of years of experience with the outcome to use ICT to be time consuming becomes more and more negative as the years of experiences increases. This means that the distribution becomes more negatively skewed. What can be inferred from this is most of the Educators having 11 years of experience or more believed that it is likely or very likely that using ICT in class is time consuming. The kurtosis of the distributions gave a more or less a normal peak around the mean though it is worth to see that for the 15 or more years of experience, the quite high negative value of kurtosis showed that the opinion that using ICT is time consuming is widely spread from a neutral opinion to a very likely to happen opinion.

5.5 Factor Analysis of item 4,5,8,10,12,18,20,23,26,29,33,39,50,51,54,57,62,65,68

The determinant of the R - matrix is vital for testing multicollinearity and it should be greater than 0.00001.For the data selected it was 0.000059. Therefore multicollinearity was not a problem for these data.

Table 6

KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

Bartlett's Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square

df

Sig.

From table 6, the value of the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy gave 0.682 which is greater than 0.5.So it was confident that factor analysis was appropriate for these data.

Moreover, for these data, Barlett`s test is highly significant (p<0.001) and therefore factor analysis is appropriate.

Before extraction, SPSS has identified 12 linear components within the data set.

Table 7

Communalities

Initial

Extraction

SUBJECTS

1.000

.456

YEARS OF EXPERIENCE

1.000

.395

USING ICT IS A GOOD IDEA

1.000

.564

LIKE TEACHING USING ICT

1.000

.779

COMFORTABLE WITH ICT

1.000

.749

I AM CERTAINLY ABLE TO USE ICT

1.000

.629

I CANNOT CONTROL THINGS WHEN USING ICT

1.000

.612

I HAVE RESOURCES, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS TO USE ICT

1.000

.680

I AM CAPABLE OF USING ICT SUCCESSFULLY

1.000

.654

USING OF ICT FOR LEARNING

1.000

.445

OUTCOME - LESSONS ARE MORE DIVERSE

1.000

.626

OUTCOME - TIME CONSUMING

1.000

.653

IMPACT - DEVELOP STUDENTS' LEARNING SKILLS

1.000

.587

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: RESOURCES

1.000

.734

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT : PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

1.000

.694

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: SUPPORT FROM SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

1.000

.765

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: TECHNICAL SUPPORT

1.000

.706

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

1.000

.672

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: SUPPORT FROM SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

1.000

.773

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: TECHNICAL SUPPORT

1.000

.750

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

The table 7 shows the table of communalities before extraction. The principle component analysis works on the initial assumption that all variance is common. For example 61.2% of the variance associated with I CANNOT CONTROL THINGS WHEN USING ICT is common, or shared, variance.

Table 8

Component Matrix(a)

Component

1

2

3

4

COMFORTABLE WITH ICT

.759

LIKE TEACHING USING ICT

.749

-.444

I AM CERTAINLY ABLE TO USE ICT

.705

I AM CAPABLE OF USING ICT SUCCESSFULLY

.694

I HAVE RESOURCES, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS TO USE ICT

.693

OUTCOME - LESSONS ARE MORE DIVERSE

.669

USING ICT IS A GOOD IDEA

.662

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: RESOURCES

.610

-.581

USING OF ICT FOR LEARNING

.609

IMPACT - DEVELOP STUDENTS' LEARNING SKILLS

.570

.468

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: SUPPORT FROM SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

.527

-.617

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT : PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

.523

-.608

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: TECHNICAL SUPPORT

.521

-.548

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: SUPPORT FROM SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

.495

.628

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: TECHNICAL SUPPORT

.488

.579

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

.452

.563

OUTCOME - TIME CONSUMING

.750

I CANNOT CONTROL THINGS WHEN USING ICT

.554

SUBJECTS

YEARS OF EXPERIENCE

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

a 5 components extracted.

The table 8 shows the component matrix before rotation. It contains the loading of each variable onto each factor.

The table 9 shows the rotated component matrix. Before rotation, most variables loaded highly onto the first factor and the remaining factors did not really get a look in. However, the rotation of the factor structure has clarified things considerably. There are five factors and variables load very highly onto only one factor. (Except for one item)

Table 9

Rotated Component Matrix(a)

Component

1

2

3

4

LIKE TEACHING USING ICT

.869

COMFORTABLE WITH ICT

.853

I AM CAPABLE OF USING ICT SUCCESSFULLY

.756

I HAVE RESOURCES, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS TO USE ICT

.737

USING ICT IS A GOOD IDEA

.691

I AM CERTAINLY ABLE TO USE ICT

.661

OUTCOME - LESSONS ARE MORE DIVERSE

.541

USING OF ICT FOR LEARNING

.530

IMPACT - DEVELOP STUDENTS' LEARNING SKILLS

.428

.421

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: SUPPORT FROM SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

.856

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: TECHNICAL SUPPORT

.822

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT : PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

.810

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: RESOURCES

.794

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: SUPPORT FROM SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

.846

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: TECHNICAL SUPPORT

.836

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

.768

OUTCOME - TIME CONSUMING

.801

I CANNOT CONTROL THINGS WHEN USING ICT

.745

SUBJECTS

YEARS OF EXPERIENCE

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.

a Rotation converged in 5 iterations.

6. Discussion and Conclusion

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