Teacher Satisfaction Of Private Colleges In London Education Essay

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University/ College teachers show wide variations in the satisfaction levels they enjoy for various dimensions of their jobs (oshagbemi, 1997). It is known to everyone that the quality of an educational institute depends a lot on the quality of the faculty. Also the quality of the performance of the employees naturally depends on whether the employee is satisfied or not. In London it is common phenomenon that the faculties from one private institution switch to another one. This may happen because of the salary structure or some other reason. Teachers are the employees of education organizations, and teacher satisfaction with the working environment can promote teaching and research quality. (chen et al, 2006).Therefore, teacher requirements must be fulfilled to improve the working environment and enable teachers to achieve outstanding research and teaching performance. (chen et al, 2006). In higher education, most studies focus on students as "customers", and evaluate their level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with their programs of study (Comm and Mathaisel, 2000). Since employee satisfaction has been found to be as important as customer (student) satisfaction (Oshagbemi, 1997a), research on higher education quality has now also begun to considering academic satisfaction (Comm and Mathaisel, 2003). So I feel that there is a need for doing a teacher satisfaction survey of private colleges in London to ensure whether there is a significant relationship between the studied variables, work environment, pays and benefits, management system, result feedback and motivation, (independent variables) and teacher satisfaction (dependent variable).

Objective: (Intended outcomes/significance and scope of the project)

The objectives of this research is to examine and present the relationship between work environment, pays and benefits, management system, result feedback and motivation, (independent variables) and teacher satisfaction (dependent variable) in the context of private colleges in London.

Teacher satisfaction is definitely a very important aspect for any kind of educational institution. If the teachers are not satisfied than naturally it hampers the productivity of the students, quality of the students, institution image and the internal environment of the institution finally which results into the problems related with teacher retention Therefore it is mandatory for the management to know why their employees in other words teachers are dissatisfied and how the management can reduce the dissatisfaction. Now the researcher initiated this study to understand whether teacher satisfaction in influenced by work environment, pays and benefits, management system, result feedback and motivation and organization vision in the context of private colleges in London. This type of study was never conducted before in London according to my level of knowledge.

Literature Review:

Definition of Work Environment

In the workplace, it is often assumed that employees who are more satisfied with the

Physical environment are more likely to produce better work outcomes.

The nature and effects of stress might be best understood by saying that some environmental variables (stressors), when interpreted by the individual (cognitive interpretation), may lead to stress (Dua, 1994). Dua tried to say not only do various stimuli at work act as stressors, various things that happen to people outside their work environment may also contribute to their work stress.

For the individuals involved the teaching and administrative environment is becoming an increasingly contested one (Adler et al., 2000; Johnsrud, 2002). According to Leveson (1994), to date there are very few reported studies into lecturers' perceptions of their teaching environment and fewer still into the relationship between these and teaching approach. Two studies, Adler et al., (2000) and Prosser and Trigwell (1997), have provided some interesting insights into the environmental factors that are perceived as affecting teaching both positively and negatively. Perceived control, which is defined as "an individual's subjective estimate of his or her capacity to influence and predict outcomes in the environment" ( Johnsrud, 2002, p. 387) appears to be a key factor in both attitude and performance. Perry et al. (2000), in a study of performance in university/college faculties, found perceived control to be associated with research productivity among recently hired staff. An increasing amount of research in this area has shown that organizational or work-related factors act as stressors that employees in different categories experience different stressors in the same work environment, and that stress is associated with poor physical health, poor emotional or psychological health, and high job dissatisfaction.

Physical environmental status below expectation levels leads to dissatisfaction, but exceeding expectation levels does not increase satisfaction levels.(Lee, 2006). Carlopio (1996) found that employees' satisfaction with their work environment is directly related to their job satisfaction and indirectly related to organizational commitment and turnover intention. Investigators have demonstrated that the physical environmental quality affects job perception, attitudes, and job satisfaction (Zalesny et al., 1985; Ferguson and Weisman, 1986; Oldham and Fried, 1987; Sundstrom et al., 1994; Carlopio, 1996; Leather et al., 2003; Lee and Brand, 2005). Many environmental satisfaction studies attempt either to determine the importance of various properties or components which form part of a user's environmental satisfaction/dissatisfaction, or to specify more complex relationships between people and the environment. For instance, attitudes and socio-demographic variables influence evaluative hierarchies of environmental aspects, thus contributing to the relationship between the persons and the environment (Bonnes and Secchiaroli, 1995; Varady and Carrossa, 2000).

Relation between work environment & teacher satisfaction

For the individuals involved the teaching and administrative environment is becoming an increasingly contested one (Adler et al., 2000; Johnsrud, 2002). Despite ample anecdotal evidence of increased levels of stress and job dissatisfaction, it appears that there are few initiatives undertaken by these institutions to ascertain, on an empirical basis, the reasons underlying these responses and their effects on work performance ( Johnsrud, 2002). There was no significant difference in stress due to interpersonal dealings at work among staff in different jobs at the university/College. Research staff, followed by staff below senior lecturer level and staff below senior technical officer, reported more work conditions stressors than other staff (Dua, 2004). Employees are the internal customers of the business; they satisfy the current working environment and are willing to cooperate with the business to accomplish business goals. Teachers are the employees of education organizations, and teacher satisfaction with the working environment can promote teaching and research quality. Therefore, teacher requirements must be fulfilled to improve the working environment and enable teachers to achieve outstanding research and teaching performance. (Chen et al 2006). In educational working environments, teachers are most concerned with the prospects for promotion; however, the artificial factors in the promotion systems usually cause teachers to feel unfairness, mirroring the findings of research by other scholars (Oshagbemi , 1996).

Definition of Pay and Benefits

Individuals would choose higher-paying private sector jobs and create an inferior class of academic employed at universities. (Wicks, 2004). As a tradeoff for higher pay, tenure allows universities/Colleges to recruit and retain high quality personnel and prevent labor market mobility based solely on wage (Finkin, 1996). Previous studies suggest that both pay and promotion opportunities are important determinants of commitment.(Morris et al 2004). Mottaz (1988) has shown that both opportunities for advancement and pay have a positive effect on organizational commitment. Equity theory posits that perceptions of equitable pay play an important role in defining attitudes and behaviors concerning employment because individuals attempt to equate their ratios of outcomes to inputs. Johnson and Johnson (1991), As a result of annual assessment employees can either stay at the same pay point, move vertically within a job scale (as was always the case), move horizontally to a higher job scale (thus gaining a pay increase and promotion) or move diagonally to a higher job scale (promotion) but not necessarily with a pay increase (Morris et al, 2004). The extent of relative deprivation experienced by employees - in terms of relative fairness - with regard to both pay and promotion, and the extent to which they "blame" management for their position will have far reaching consequences for the organization (Kelly, 1997).

Researchers such as Herzberg (1966, pp. 71-90) classified pay as a ``hygiene factor'' in the work environment and maintained that pay can only lead to feelings of dissatisfaction, but not to satisfaction. Pay satisfaction happens when existing pay corresponds to, or is greater than, desired pay while pay dissatisfaction occurs when existing pay is less than the desired pay.(Oshagbemi, 2000). According to Taylor and Vest (1992), when deciding if they are fairly paid, people look at both the absolute and the relative amount of pay.

A study by Lee and Martin (1996) found that employees' loss of high-tier status possibly explained their pay dissatisfaction when they changed from hightier to low-tier jobs. This is despite the fact that their pay was increased in the low-tier jobs. Klein and Maher (1966) in their sample found that higher education is associated with relative dissatisfaction with pay. In a study by Oshagbemi (1997b), overall job satisfaction was positively and significantly related to rank but not gender or age. Among other things, that in the area of pay, workers in private organisations received higher absolute levels and were more satisfied with their monetary compensation compared with workers in public organizations.(Kovach ,1993). The overall conclusion of our findings is that gender and rank are correlates of employee satisfaction with pay but not age. The implications of these results are explored. In conclusion, it is appropriate to highlight the fact that the relationships found in this study are only associations, not cause-and-effect relationships. For example, finding that female academics are more satisfied with their pay does not imply that gender is the cause of their satisfaction with that aspect of their work. Perhaps, as a direction for future research, more extensive studies can be carried out to examine other correlates of job satisfaction such as length of service in present university or length of service in higher education as a whole.

Relation between pay and benefits & teacher satisfaction

When rank was examined in relation to pay, senior lecturers were most satisfied, followed by professors, lecturers and readers in that order. The differences in satisfaction levels with rank and gender are statistically significant. However, there are no statistical differences with respect to age variations relating to satisfaction with pay. ( Oshagbemi , 2000). This is despite the fact that their pay was increased in the low-tier jobs. Klein and Maher (1966) in their sample found that higher education is associated with relative dissatisfaction with pay. An insight from some of the factors which university/ College academic listed as contributing most to their dissatisfaction on pay was obtained in a content analytical study (Oshagbemi, 1997). It was revealed that on salary, complaint seems to centre on the procedures for determining salary increases, the inadequacy of the salary levels to enable respondents to have the desired standard of living, and government policy towards pay levels in the universities/colleges (along with other organizations in the public sector). Although both male and female academics are dissatisfied with their pay, the men are significantly more dissatisfied compared with the women. One possible explanation is that in some families, it is only the men that work all the time while the women stay at home some of the time to give birth to and rear their children. From this perspective, pay and career may be less important to women compared with the men (Oshagbemi , 2000)

Definition of management system

The responsibility of the department chair in this management process is threefold. First, the department chair assumes primary responsibility with regard to faculty development in his or her department. It is this individual's responsibility to collect faculty IC data, and in turn, counsel and direct the scholarly achievements of the reporting individuals. A second role of the department chair is to collect, evaluate and document each faculty member's IC contributions. Finally, under the current system, the department chair has the responsibility to decide whether a particular faculty member is ``academically qualified.'' Ultimately, this recommendation is passed on to the dean of the college for final approval.( Jack McKenna and Marc Siegall , 2001) Another main concern when re-engineering a process is making certain that organizational and management practices are in place that support and reinforce the stated methods and objectives. There exist, intentionally or unintentionally, several key ties between what the AACSB encourages and the salient issues rose by Champy (1995) in his book, Reengineering Management. These include: ``processes should be supportive, not punitive'' (p. 145); ``Measurement and reward processes must reinforce the culture you want to create'' (p. 144); ``everyone must know how they are doing if we are to expect them to assume accountability'' (p. 105)

Goal difficulty/specificity/achievability is another important aspect of the current study. To the extent that employees recognize that conscious planning and discussion has gone into the development of prescribed performance expectations, they seem to be more willing to accept these goals and work toward their achievement. Alternatively, if employees are under the impression that management has been arbitrary and/or capricious in the establishment of performance objectives, they may actually be encouraged to subvert the entire process. This was clearly the case in the current study. The authors recognized, early on, that performance expectations needed to take into consideration both the realities of the new accreditation standards as well as the feelings of the faculty. Again, employee involvement was a critical variable in this process redesign. The importance of feedback to faculty cannot be overstated. Additionally, the role of the first-line supervisor (in this instance, the department chair) was vital to the success of the process. These individuals were highly instrumental in both the clarification of the process to faculty and, more importantly, providing them with feedback on how well they were meeting performance expectations. For this reason, it was critical that these first-line supervisors both understood and accepted the new process, and to some degree served as champions of the change process. The enactment of the post-1991 AACSB Standards for accreditation asked business schools to re-evaluate many of their basic organizational processes and to adopt some methods that had been successful in the for-profit sector. In the present study, the specific charge was to develop an employee performance model based around (and engaging) a set of principles (standards) that have been historically reported in the literature. The case results are consistent with those documented in the for-profit sector in several key areas: define

Performance expectations, set attainable goals, create a measurement system, involve employees and clearly define the new process with a method of feedback. In total, the findings that are reported here tentatively suggest success and show that the profit motive does not necessarily play the dominant role in successful re-engineering of management practices. (Jack McKenna and Marc Siegall, 2001)

Relation between management system & teacher satisfaction

Perkins (1973) proposed that university teachers fulfill three major functions, namely teaching, researching and administration and management. Consequently, university teacher satisfaction is related to the functions of higher education. As organizations focus on customer relationship management, they should not forget that employees are also internal customers. Organizations have satisfied their customers only if they have also satisfied their employees. If considered wishes of the teachers, which include financial satisfaction, related welfare and fair promotion systems; teacher satisfaction with schools management can benefit both teachers and schools (Chen et al, 2006). Management system sometimes plays a huge impact on the satisfaction level of the employees of an organization. And in service organization like university, management system is considered as one of the most important variable considering the satisfaction of the faculties as dependent.

Definition of Result feedback and motivation

Student feedback systems have been the subject of increasing interest in UK Higher Education (HE) in recent years. This is in part due to a general climate of demands for quality assurance in the public sector, with the emphasis on information from quality indicators such as customer satisfaction. The formation of the Higher Education Quality Council (HEQC) to audit the quality of universities' education provision and the Subsequent Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) TQA assessments Raised the profile of teaching and learning quality in HE. While the "new", post- 1992, universities/ Colleges already had experience of quality systems from the CNAA structure, the removal of the binary divide meant that "old" universities now joined them in setting up systematic quality procedures. Recent years have seen both "old" and "new" universities/ Colleges developing and re-designing measures of teaching quality, and systems to present evidence there from.( Malcolm King, Ian Morison, Gary Reed and Grazyna Stachow, 1999)

While the use of feedback questionnaires is accepted practice in North America and elsewhere, with the data contributing to staff appraisal, questionnaires have been less readily accepted by teaching staff in the UK. Research in the UK has concentrated on the range of methods available for collecting feedback, and the use of feedback for the purpose of evaluating teaching quality, especially with the aim of encouraging reflective practice among lecturers, rather than as a source of data for the use of academic managers(Ramsden, 1992).

When properly designed and administered, and used in conjunction with other student feedback methods, questionnaires are believed to be an efficient and effective way of gathering data from large numbers of students and permitting year-on year comparisons. Numerous studies on feedback questionnaires, including Marsh(1987) and Ramsden (1991),

Relation between result feedback and motivation & teacher satisfaction

Motivation is very important for the teacher which was found is several empirical studies. In the employee satisfaction model for higher education it was found that motivation is given a lot of importance by the teacher. Motivation was found in two different aspects which is before joining the organization and another one is the actual experience at the time of job. Again the feedback from the management carries a huge importance for the teachers as the research of Chen et al (2006) shows that there is a very significant relationship between the result feedback and motivation and the teacher satisfaction. Result feedback and motivation directly effects whether the teacher is satisfied with his or her job or not.

Definition of Teacher Satisfaction

When job satisfaction studies relating to university/ College teachers were specifically sought, the Institute of Scientific Information Social Sciences Database revealed that there were none between1981 and 1997. In fact, teachers at all levels do not appear to attract much attention from researchers. About half a dozen job satisfaction related studies conducted with university teachers as subjects were, however, reported before 1981 (Oshagbemi, 1996). Although Mackay (1995a, 1995b) found that personnel policies within the two types of universities differ, old and new. Possibly, this factor may have some relevance in explaining the job satisfaction of academics within the two categories of universities It is interesting to know that the managers in academic institutions derive more satisfaction from teaching than the other academics, although it is probable that the managers do not teach for as many hours as the other academics. ( Oshagbemi, 1999).

Research Question:

This study proposes to investigate the following research questions:

1. Is there any significant relationship between work environment and teacher satisfaction in the context of private colleges in London?

2. Is there any significant relationship between pay & benefits and teacher satisfaction in the context of private colleges in London?

3. Is there any significant relationship between management system and teacher satisfaction in the context of private colleges in London?

4. Is there any significant relationship between result feedback & motivation and teacher satisfaction in the context of private colleges in London?

5. Is there any significant relationship between organization vision and teacher satisfaction in the context of private colleges in London?

Operational Definition:

From the literature review the operational definition of the measured variables are identified as follows:

Table: 1

Operational Definition of Measured Variables

Measured Variables Operational Definitions

Work Environment Will be operationally defined by Chen et al (2006)

Pay and Benefits will be operationally defined by Chen et al (2006)

Management Systems Will be operationally defined by Chen et al (2006)

Result Feedback and Motivation Will be operationally defined by Chen et al(2006)

Teacher Satisfaction Will be operationally defined by Chen et al (2006) ____________________________________________________________________

Methodology: (Details of techniques, data collection, data recording etc.)

Research Design

The study will investigate the relationship the relationship between work environment, pays and benefits, management system, result feedback and motivation, organization vision (independent variables) and teacher satisfaction (dependent variable) in the context of private colleges in London. According to (Cooper, D.R & Schindler 1998) refers the relationship between two or more variables as a correlational study. This correlational study will be done to get the answers of the research questions and to test the hypothesis. In the model it can also be found that a correlational study design is needed where work environment, pays and benefits, management system, result feedback and motivation, organization vision as the independent variables and teacher satisfaction stands as the dependent variable. We will use a correlational study to establish the existence relationships between the measured variables. In this research, the researchers try to find out whether there is any relationship between the measured variables or not. A correlational study proves the relationship between two or more variables. Therefore, the present study will be considered as a correlational study.

Research Approach

In order to get answer of research questions, the researchers will collect information from the full time and part time faculties of different private colleges in central London. These colleges will include St. Patrick's College, Holborn College, Regents College, Oxford House college, Cavendish College. The context and the purpose of the research will be explained to the participants. Also the interviewer will explain the questionnaire to the respondents. The respondents will be chosen in a simple random sample selection manner so that every faculty gets the equal chance of being selected as a respondent.

Sampling Method

The population would be the faculties of the above mentionedPrivate college in London. The total sample size will be 200 (including both male and female faculties). From each college 20 respondents will be selected in a random manner. First the names of the faculties will be collected from the database of the college. Than each name will be given a unique number which will be written on a paper exclusively (each number on different paper). Than the researcher will pick any 20 papers and go to faculties whose number came up.

Survey Instrument

Questionnaire had been adapted from previous empirical studies some specific questions were altered to get the actual understanding about the relationship between the independent variables work environment, pays and benefits, management system, result feedback and motivation, organization vision and the dependent variable teacher satisfaction. The Psychometric Properties of the Scale items were assessed using Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha; In general, the acceptable range of the alpha value is greater than 0.50 which proves the authenticity.

Data Collection Procedure

The questionnaire survey is the most effective method for this study to collect the data for the following reasons-

• Respondents' identity can be kept hidden & secured.

• The researchers will conduct survey on 200 respondents. The researcher will go to the respondent personally at the office time but at the questionnaire the personal information of the respondent will not be given. Therefore, the respondents will be able to answer the questionnaire without any hesitation or any kind of fear.

• As mail survey will require immense amount of time and the authenticity can not be ensured the researcher will not consider this option for current study. Also in mail survey sometimes the respondents do not reply promptly and sometimes do not reply at all so for the risk of not getting the expected number of responses and the time constraint researcher is not considering the mail or e-mail survey for this particular research. Questionnaire provides data in a manner which is easy to analyze for the quantitative understanding.

The entire questionnaire will be divided into four parts for the simplicity of the research. Organizational Vision will be measured by using 7 items (quest 1-7) according to Chen et al (2006).Result feedback and motivation will be measured by using 5 items (quest 8-12) developed by Chen et al (2006). Management system will be measured by using 8 items (quest 13-20) developed by Chen et al (2006). Pay and benefits will be measured by using 6 items (quest 21-26) according to Chen et al (2006). Work environment will be measured by 9 items (quest 27-35) according to Chen et al (2006)). Teacher satisfaction will be measured by 5 items (quest 36-40) according to Rogers et al ( 1994).

MBA Dissertation:

Key Activities

(Milestones)

Time-scale

(Plan of action)

Resources required

(Equipment, software, personnel etc)

Surfing and reading literature

Week 1-week 3

Online source, Library database, University Database, Publication, Journals, Books, Online Newspaper, PC, MS word, Internet connection

Research objective

Week 3

Online source, Library database, University Database, Publication, Journals, Books, Online Newspaper, PC, MS word, Internet connection

Draft of Literature Review

Week 2- week 4

Online source, Library database, University Database, Publication, Journals, Books, Online Newspaper, PC, MS word, Internet connection

Draft Research Methodology

Week 4- Week 5

Online source, Library database, University Database, Publication, Journals, Books, Online Newspaper, PC, MS word, Internet connection

Plan and develop Research questionnaires

Week 5-Week 6

PC, MS word, Email, Telephone, Internet connection

Conduct Filling questionnaires

Week 6- Week 7

PC, MS word, Employee feedback, Internet Connection, Telephone

Analyse Data

Week 7

PC, MS word, Excel, Internet connection

Conclusion and Recommendation

Week 8

PC, MS word

Revise the whole research

Week 8

PC, MS Word, Visio, Excel

Draft Copy of Dissertation

Week 7- Week 9

PC, MS Word, Visio, Excel

Print, Bind and submission

Week 9

PC, Printer, Binding Materials

Supervisor Comments (Any comments or amendments appropriate to the project should be recorded here)

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