Teacher-parent collaboration in class room management is very important because the participation of teachers have a practical based value since they can facilitate easier and effective teaching. Teachers for instance are likely to get access to student's personal abilities and needs when they come up with learner entered classroom surrounding (Eccles and Sameroff 2000). Parents on the other hand are very necessary to classroom participation because they can provide critical information related to students, for example their learning styles, learning history and interests.
Teaching can be more effective and easier as well when students are encouraged to learn. Parents should be there for child engagement in class because they have a significant influence in student's attitude toward school due to their close contact with them. It is therefore quite obvious that student motivation and learning is improved to a point that teachers see the participation by parents as resourceful in terms of education and therefore there is need to tap its capacity.
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Also in the context of teacher-parent involvement with the students, like family and classroom interaction, the same teachers and parents can come up with a context for children's learning development and school engagement. Some studies have however critically examined collective and special contributions of teacher's and parent's participation practices across school and home contexts.
Parent and teacher participation and contribution has attracted a huge attention form researchers from various educational background. Self regulated learning has been linked to students who are behaviorally, metacognitively and motivationally active participants in their education activities (Zimmerman 1990). Students who self regulate learning productivity for instance have several features in common which include persistence during difficulty, strong belief in their capacity to learn, ability to act in ways that make their comprehension deep and their capacity to monitor their understanding. There is also a frequent demonstration of behaviors such as help seeking and the endorsement of prosocial goals (Wentzel, 1999; Zimmerman and Martinez 1990). These features together reflect "adaptive motivational orientation" which supports school and learning success (Gurland, Kurowsky and Grolnick 1999).
However learning that can be self regulated can also be self handicapping approaches to learning or maladaptive (Covington, 1992; Urdan 1998). This kind of defensive self regulated learning is related to beliefs with limited ability, shallow approach to learning that with personal mastery and academic performance basis, helpless orientation in the field of problem solving and limited ability beliefs. Consistent with research and sociocultural perspectives (Murdock and McCaslin, 1991; Vygotsky 1978) regarding interpersonal relationships as developmental contexts (Wentzel 1999; Roser et al 2000), there is a belief that the ability of children to self regulate come as result of interaction with the social world.
Teacher and parent contribution to self regulate learning in the perspective of development system theory, which brings out the image of a child as an evolving active system that comes up as a result of reciprocal interaction with members of the society and the environment at large (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, 1992; Pianta and Walsh, 1996; Sameroff 1983). The environment is reflected by an increase in complex social systems which are nested and include; teachers and parents which makes up the dyadic systems, small group systems like classrooms and families and large community influences like schools. Development is mainly driven by a proximal process within these systems. These processes mainly involve making plans, knowledge acquiring and solving of problems which take place regularly for a long period. These cognitive activities can be seen as the essence of children's education. In dyadic systems there are again proximal social proximal processes like learning to balance individual interests with other's interests and needs. Therefore, consistent with parenting research (Grolnick and Slowiaczek, 1994) there is focus on two major forms of parental participation in student's education, personal engagement and cognitive-intellectual like helping with home work instead of a traditional conceptions related to parental involvement which usually consists of parents' involvement based activities.
Also, adult child relationship like what implicit and explicit ways that teachers and parents use to pass on their values and what they expect about school to the students, how the same mechanisms relate student self regulated patterns of learning during childhood and at early adolescence. Focus has been intensified by most people especially on areas of lower and early middle school performance where parents are very likely to endure and significantly contribute to their children's school triumph in cognitive-intellectual as well as affective support (Grolnick 2000; Murdock, 1991). It is true that parental participation in the success of the student at the adolescent stage, it is however well noted that a number of parental participation reduced during adolescence (Griffith 1998). In some situations the reduction may be as result of school structure plus the increased teacher participation of the post primary education of their students (Izzo, Fredrich, Kasprow and Weisberg 1999) and diminished chances for participation (Slowiaczeck, 1994 and Grolnick et al 2000)
Approaches focused on teacher-student relationship
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
A particular teaching practice or parenting can lead to different consequences depending on interpersonal perspective under which it is applied (Steinberg 1993). Speculation by Steinberg shows that parenting style can moderate the effects of parenting styles in the development of their children in two major ways; style for instance improves the effectiveness of parenting on the development of children especially the openness to parental influence.
Research also shows that the most productive ways through which students learn and engage were related to a classroom that was authoritatively structured. The findings give a suggestion that chance in autonomous character and demonstrations of teacher concern support and the motivation of adolescence while consistent structuring and high expectation of good student performance has contributed immensely to better performance by students.
The research has shown the role of the teacher in development of the student in both explicit and implicit terms. It has also characterized the quality of the teacher and student relationship and intellectual practices and how they are connected to student's cognitive and social development. The research suggests that productive self regulation by the student is due to a number of wide dimensions used during the teaching process from behavioral control to feedback that improves the sense of student competence as well as instructions that make students take part in meaningful activities. Combining these factors may foster the process of self regulation by the students because it shows the concern by the teacher to personal needs (Birch and Ladd 1998).
Drawing parallels between teacher and parent influence
Productive self regulation by the students is seen to be effected by the process of making students to be accountable for their behavior especially when teachers and parents have high expectations on the students. In this case strong emotional support must come from both teachers and parents. Poor adult-child relationship can cause beliefs and behaviors which are less adaptive by the student.
Development of self regulation by the student from childhood to adolescence appears to be enhanced by teacher and parent practices which are consistent with authoritative style in parenting. However, in authoritative parenting is not mainly used or necessarily linked to the results in different cultural contexts (Chao 1994) it does not mean that all teachers and parents should adopt the authoritative style.
The practices by the parents which are focused mainly on instructions can enhance connections between the student metacognition and motivation. Parents can improve positive ability of their children if they show them how to break assignments into manageable parts. Children must articulate and organize their thinking if their parents ask them to explain to them what they do not understand. This kind of practice will enable the child to be in the process of learning.
How teachers can help parents in supporting student learning process at home
This can be done by motivating the parents to participate actively. However (Dempsey and Walker 1995) suggest that parents can be motivated when teachers informed them of particular student behaviors and attitudes that they can influence through their participation. The outcomes include student positive attitudes to school by the student, endurance in learning process, use of good learning strategies as well as improved knowledge. According to Dempsey and Jones (2002), teachers must encourage the parents to believing that an active role leads to positive difference in student's social and academic success. This can be achieved when teachers pushed parents to take part through simple home based practices that can positively contribute to student learning. Willms (1996) found out that parental participation which is related to adolescent success was related to parental guiding at home.
Involving parents in homework tasks also include some of the teacher invitation to parent participation in issues related to student learning. Parents can be encouraged by teachers to attend to their children while reading and listen to them and give them a helping hand through reviewing of the tests or going through the essay given to them. Such activities ca be very successful if they are time limited and specific. General sources of assistance can be routinely mentioned by teachers through homework hotlines (Pratt et al 1992). Extra ambitious attempts can come up from the learning of techniques that can enhance homework performance by the parents (Miller 2001).
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Use of student centered school activities like suggesting how parents can assist the students or coming up with contact mechanisms through which parents can be reached by teachers whenever necessary to tell the parents about their children's practices. Home written messages can be sent by teachers to parents concerning the intention of their communication or even the performance of the student and the way it can be improved.
What teachers should do
The full set of results reviewed has underestimated the attempt to increase the role by the parents to take part in student education activities. Since teachers are in a special positioned to help parents achieve their role in their children's education, however there is a conclusion that teachers can utilize parental participation practices to boast student learning and their own teaching practices. These suggestions can be based on the evidence that there is a high possibility of parents becoming more involved when teachers provide clear suggestions on how they can help their children become successful in school (Basler and Barow 1995). Recognizing teacher's individual efforts however are often can be influenced by a wide social perspective of school, hence suggesting how school authority can support teachers in the processing of looking for ways to establish home-school links.
There is a connection between researches on parent participation to classroom management practices by the teachers with two purposes in mind; to raise the teacher concerns on parent's very important contributions to the success of their children in school as well as encouraging teachers to provide information to the parents in a number of ways they can assist their children succeed in class. Another purpose is related to the fact that despite teachers being a significant influence in the ultimate outcomes of the student, there are relatively a few theoretical models to characterize teacher configuration and there connection to student motivation and learning. It is therefore seen that parenting models give a rich theoretical framework to examine the classroom management by the teachers as well as their contribution to the development of the students. Continued investigation in connection between the teacher and parent contribution to a self regulated learning can is vital in improving the understanding of classroom management by the teacher and even interpersonal relationship of the children with the adults.