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Findings from survey of online education settings
Moodle is an active and evolving software package suitable to online classes as well as supplementing face-to-face learning. Moodle's courses are organized into blocks to easily and effectively search for functions. It has attractive interface, a wide range of flexible learning opportunities and copious options to develop Moodle site. With Moodle, we can manage web-based classes, courses and content, have access to online resources, design, administer and engage students in online activities. Moodle's features give us a broad reach of assessment and testing strategies. It is grounded in principles of social constructionist pedagogy to allow collaboration, varied activities, critical reflection, etc, among participants.
126.96.36.199. E-leaning's layout
188.8.131.52.1. Course layout
When participants click on the course name, Moodle's course layout is displayed and divided into section blocks - specific blocks on the sides and a course content block in the centre. The blocks are organized for you to easily navigate within the course. Based on the teacher's requirements and course features, blocks may organized in varied forms.
Specific blocks might contain the following ones
People: A list of instructor and all students enrolled in the course
Activities: provide a way to access a specific learning activity (e.g. Forum, Journal, Assignment, resources â€¦.).
Search Forums: permit users to conduct advanced research by entering search terms into one or more of the fields.
Administration: allows students to track their grades, as well as edit their profile
My courses: A list of courses is constructed.
News blocks consist of
Latest news: allows student add their new discussion topic.
Upcoming Events: go to calendar that can display events added by user and new event.
Recent Activity: fully report recent activities , updated resources, forum posts and assignment submissions, from last accessed the course.
184.108.40.206.2. Course content
Main course content can be organized using a Weekly or Topic outline (format depends upon the instructor's selection). It is the primary content area, and contains links to the various elements that he has uploaded. These may include types of information such as plain text or HTML documents, links for downloading any data files, images, and links to web pages on the Internet. There may also be links to special activities such as online discussion groups called forums, and a variety of other learning activities such as chat, workshop, wiki, assignments, quizzes, etc.
220.127.116.11.3. Course resources
Moodle supports a range of resource types which teachers can add to their course sections. Students can read and interact with course resources. A course can contain different types of course resources such as:
A label that displays any text or image
Links to a file or a website
The course's directories
To students, the rate of agreement on "Modular Layout" accounts for 71.15%, while to teachers, the rate reaches 85.72%. Therefore, their opinion is relatively consistent with another.
18.104.22.168. Attractiveness of courses
Moodle is a popular online learning environment. Creating an effective Moodle site can stimulate, motivate and challenge students by incorporating a variety of resources to provide a wide range of synchronous and asynchronous learning opportunities for virtual learners. It is more attractive and interesting for instructors and educators to use Moodle in favour of diverse options to develop for easier and richer Moodle site. It incorporates many ultility programs such as Elluminate for synchronous learning, Camtasia for screencasts, and Respondus for importing quizzes, etc.
To students, the rate of agreement on "Attractiveness of courses" accounts for 70.51%, while to teachers, the rate reaches 83.33%. Therefore, their opinion is relatively consistent with another.
22.214.171.124. Course management
Course Management through Moodle is considered in many corners: participants, activities, and resources. Moodle site creators has full control over all settings for a course, including assigning access privileges to other instructors. The organization of online courses is based on some formats such as by week, by topic or a discussion-focussed social format. Course activities are expressed in varied set of types: Assignments, Chat, Choices, Databases, Forums, Journals, Quizzes, Resources, Surveys, Workshops, etc. Lastest changes to the course displayed on the course home page can help users general overview. Course activities can be saved in logs with graphs and details about each module for instructors to keep track of them .
To students, the rate of agreement on "Course Management" accounts for 70.38%,
while to teachers, the rate reaches 85.71%. Therefore, their opinion is relatively consistent with another.
126.96.36.199. Assessment strategies
Moodle allows for a wide range of assessment and testing strategies. The quiz module includes a large variety of question types: fill-ins, multiple-choice, multi-choice, true-false, matching, short-answer. All types are supported with automatic counting and scoring, based on teacher or student-determined rating scales. The essay module allows open-ended questions with built-in comment boxes for instructors to provide feedback. These questions are kept in the "Question bank" and can be re-used in many quizzes. Quizzes can be arranged in a particular way with multiple attempts. Each attempt is automatically marked, and the instructor can select a response by giving feedback or indicating the correct answers.It is remarkable that is the workshop module, which is a special tool for students to view, grade and assess their own and other course members in project as a group. This course peer assessment activity with many options can make this educational tool more complex and flexible. All of these assessment types can show prescribe time and restricted password, and can be set to permit limited or multiple resits.
To students, the rate of agreement on "Assessment Strategies" accounts for 67.31%,
while to teachers, the rate reaches 100.00%. Therefore, their opinion is relatively consistent with another.
188.8.131.52. Cooperative learning
Moodle's design is based on a socio-constructivist theory of learning in addition to behaviouristic ones, etc. Online learning courses can be designed in order to allow for cooperation and collaboration between the instructor and students or among students by using different formats of social interaction. Students can be divided into subgroups, interact with each other synchronously in chat rooms, or engage in asynchronous discussions in Wikis and forums. The Moodle Wiki module enables participants to work together on web pages to add, expand and change the content. Forum is here that most discussion takes place. It can be structured in different ways, and can be set so that only the teacher or any of the students can post content to a forum or start a new discussion topic and assessment.. The postings can be viewed in a variety for formats, and can include attachments. By subscribing to a forum, participants will receive copies of each new posting in their email. A teacher can impose subscription on everyone if they want to. Other options exist that let the teacher either restrict or allow for further discussions and replies within a message. When integrated into a blended learning scenario, online learning processes can be efficiently shown through discussion, reflection and practice. Along with other communication tools, it makes confidence and sympathy with each other and possibilities of collaborative working.
To students, the rate of agreement on "Cooperative Learning" accounts for 72.12%, while to teachers, the rate reaches 92.85%. Therefore, their opinion is relatively consistent with another.
According to inferential statistical analysis above, we give the conclusions as follows.
At the Î± = 0.05 level of significance, there exists a difference opinions between the student's and the teacher about Moodle's features. The former does not considers the relationship and the latter recognizes the connection. In addition, the mean frequency of students' opinion ( Strong Agree and Somewhat Agree) is less than the mean frequency of teachers' one.
There is a significant difference in Moodle's features for students and teachers.
For students, about 88.1% of the "Active_Learning" is explained by "Template" while for teachers, about 92.0% of the "Active_Learning" is explained by "Template" and at the Î± = 0.05 level of significance, the predictor "Template" is useful for predicting "Active_Learning"
4.2.2. Findings from survey of online writing
Online writing instruction, which differs from the conventional process of student's writing at school, is based on the foundation how really writers produce texts. In real writing, most writers produce texts for presentation, workshop and publication when they compose multiple drafts. They participate in planning activities, ask feedback, and follow a procedure of drafting, make an inquiry into research problem, then revise on the basis of collected information when needed. With the same way and the prescribed time, in process-based writing, the student identifies the topic, devotes some time to prewriting or creative activities from getting ideas to expanding details, writes a draft, seeks feedback from classmates or the instructor, revises the text on the essay level (examining the overall focus, reviewing organization, testing logical reasoning, etc.), then revises at sentence level and paragraph level.
In online writing, students are required to spend more time on a paper so as to meditate on more about their topic, obtain more information, develop more deeper understandings and need more practice and drill for perfecting writing skills. The teacher also spends more time helping students understand their topics and plans. Owing to scanning a draft for thesis, structure, evidence to illustrate and argument to prove, they can assist students in envisaging the form of their whole texts before considering sentence level and paragraph level. Then, student can use all of the rest of time as they do for proofreading before submitting the paper.
When teachers can include online writing instruction in their classes, it is necessary to make students the habit of actively responding to writing texts in order to create a first favourable sense in writing. After giving an assignment that is related to real life, it is effective that teachers give them some class time about 5 minutes to start brainstorming on a writing topic. Working on papers, students are encouraged to raise questions about writing so as to support their papers.
To gain feedback on drafts, teachers assign students to groups. It is necessary to have some discussion guidelines in order to students look at the text, search for the specific features and provide feedback to the student writers. Group sessions can be held in class, natural setting, or in web-based environment (email, blog, bulletin board, etc.).
Assessing students' writing, teachers need to use both summative assessment and formative assessment. The former gives commentation and explanation to students'grade. The latter helps students participate in consideration of their topic, examine their register and elicit their revision of errors. Teachers should focus on their comments in terms of open questions as "What do you imply here?" or, "Can you further explain this idea to me?" rather than in assessing statements. Based on the process above, the product of students' writing will be uploaded on the internet to share, exchange and receive the informations of feedback.
The process of writing starts with prewriting and planning strategies. Students analyse the key words and their relation to know what their thesis will be. Recognizing and limiting the topic is a necessary step to know what their focus will be. When imagining ideas their readers will have about their topic, they will concentrate on the social class that they need to write about. An outline, clustering, or creating a tree diagram are a framework for them to construct an essay better in the next stage. From generating a series of questions they have, they can build up proofs which show that their argument is definitely true. In communicating the information to someone, they can draw scenes and visualize a scenario in which the fact takes place.
Writing the introduction
Most forms of writing require the introduction. The content of introduction depends on genre. The size of the introductory paragraph can long or short and usually begin with a sentence that gives readers a notion of what the rest of the writing will state. The subsequent sentences provide details about the topic. The thesis statement incorporates all of these sentences. To pique the interest of readers, words must be clear and specific and content provides a thorough background of a fact or a process and the introduction must be well written with figurative vocabulary and precise grammar and coherent style. Strategies for readers to keep reading are to raise provocative questions asking for the answer, tell a short, interesting story related to the topic, provide an attractive and pertinant quote, develop an surprising or unpredictable comparison, etc.
Writing the body paragraphs
Based on the amount of main ideas, we decide the number of body paragraphs. To avoid confusing state, each body paragraph is restricted by only one topic. The body paragraphs is used to explain the thesis statement of the essay and therefore to show its topic. Each paragraph is devoted to the analysis of one point only. In this section, the arguments are expressed explicitly to audiences and are illustrated with informative evidence. Each of these paragraphs have a specific structure.
To write body paragraphs effectively, it is necessary to obey general rules.
Each body paragraph begins with the general matter expressed by the topic sentence. This main idea will be completely developed later in that paragraph so as to attract and draw their attention to readers. Different facts and views will increase the variety of supporting the central idea of the essay. Detailed and convincing examples show that argumentation in the body paragraphs are true. The developing points should be blend with each other to create the unity in the paragraph. A concluding sentence should be append to the end of each body paragraph in order to make relation to the next paragraph. This connection is an indispensable part of the paragraph that makes the essay logically adhesive.
Writing the conclusion
Starting with describing a scenario, we can also end with the same scenario as evidence to prove harmonious process. With a clear introduction, it is also important to write an concise conclusion to an essay. The effective conclusion paragraph will make the final effect on audiences and give the essay a impression of completeness. It is also your last chance to persuade the reader to accept the reasoning.
The conclusion paragraph starts with the summary statement that includes one or two sentences and and the thesis is reworded in a new way to strengthen the essay's main idea. In other words, The summary statement should be as brief and succinct as possible and writers avoid using repeated key words and phrases from the thesis statement in order to prevent monotonous or repetitive sense. Strategies for Writing a conclusion suggested by "LEO: Literacy Education Online" are (1) Echoing the introduction; (2) Challenging the reader; (3) Looking to the future; (4) Posing questions.
The editing is a very important stage and can not be ignored. editing activities help students improve their paper. To improve the quality of the produced text, they not only edit the essay but also check for grammar structure, pay attention to the word choice, and improve stylistic usage. One of the most important features of editing is when an idea is expressed in a specific form, the writer can penetrate deep into it it, probing it, enhancing its quality. This may be conducted through reorganizing the argument, bring out more evidence, finding a new image to express an idea successfully, using figures of speech, or collecting more productive sources. Completely conducted, editing activities will help students to become proficient writers and feel self-confident about their writing skills.
Strategies for the editing are carried out in many ways. First, that is group critiques. The students are assigned to writing groups and asked tor edit each other's papers. Before critiques are proceeded, the students are given commentary guidelines. In group, one student may read his paper and then the other students give their opinions about the strengths of the paper (conciseness, cohesion, coherence, etc.) as well as offer a suggestion of any areas needed to improve (errors in grammar, words, and logic, etc.). Alternatively, also in group, one student reads the paper that another student has written and creates outlines for that paper . The outlines should include the thesis statement and the main ideas for each paragraph. This work helps the student to see the organization scheme and planning strategy of a paper. Comparing these and those, they will recognize the similarities and differences to correct any confusion. Second, that is in a activity in pairs. The student examines a paper of a partner and works silently to look for grammatical errors and spelling mistakes in it.
Publishing is the process of making information to readers and spread knowledge , etc. , so that it reaches to them through the distribution of printed works or handwriting. With the occurrence of ICT and the Internet, data storage is represented in the form of digital information systems including electronic resources, such as the electronic books and periodicals, micropublishing, websites, blogs, and the like.
According to statistical language, we give the conclusions as follows.
At the Î± = 0.05 level of significance, there exists a match of the student's opinion and the teacher's one about relationship between online writing and its characteristics. In addition, for elements of writing skill (except Element5), the mean frequency of students is less than the mean frequency of teachers.
The mean frequency of students' opinion ( Strong Agree and Somewhat Agree) is less than the mean frequency of teachers' one.
For student, about 92.3.% of the Support is explained by Reference while about 97.1% of the Reference is explained by Organization. Therefore, the model is useful.
4.2.3. Findings from survey of the website
Online course is scientifically designed and developed and becomes an effective measure and a powerful tool when it is based on teaching learning principles considering the institution's educational standards for quality, makes use of technological renovation. Teaching and learning on the computer and web-based technology brings much more advantages and convenience than conventional education in terms of delivery means. Writing activities considered are to produce texts at word level or sentence level, paragraphs and essay The way in which writing is taught poses the grounds in communicative language teaching. According to the ease of the course and level of complexity of the topic, course materials (Files, Text Page, Web Page, Link, etc.), course activities (Assignments, Wiki, Lesson, Quizzes, etc.) are added. Approach to writing is a mixture of a genre approach and process approach. The former provides the model to express cause, purpose and effect of writing. The latter highlights the process of gathering, developing, editing and publishing. Writing can be performed in individuals or groups and the teacher's feeback on writing can critically be interested in. Furthermore, reference tools are set up and experimental teaching web pages are considered as favourable environment for English teachers to practice and acquaint themselves with online teaching system.
According to statistical language, we give the conclusions as follows.
At the Î± = 0.05 level of significance, in the view of the student and the teacher, there exists enough evidence to conclude that Course components and its choices are statistically dependent. Moreover, for choices to assess (except Choice5) the mean frequency of students is less than the mean frequency of teachers.
For student, about 90.4.% of the Support is explained by Writing while for teachers, about 84.0% of Remarks is explained by Interaction.