SUPPORTING THE DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE IN PRACTICE

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Sustainable Architecture is becoming a major factor in today's life. In the mere future sustainable design is going to be the whole and sole of a practicing architect. Already in some of the countries implication of Green building has been started and it has become a compulsory requirement in the approval of a building. Awareness programs and conference are been taking place to provide adequate knowledge to the clients, builders and others associated with the project. The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System [1] has been started by the USGBC organisation, to mark the building and give the LEED certificate as per their requirements.

While dealing with structure and it orientation, architect plays an important role in the matter of sustainable design. First is the way of approaching towards design, the factors to be considers while designing and in the end how much is the structural environmental friendly. The most important step to incorporate sustainability in our designs at the college level, would be the use of "Advanced tools". This is very important as it can be used effectively to develop better designs, better concepts and that the parametric approach is taken to design strategy development as a way of exploring creative space. This incorporation in the study of students would further enhance the study.

Sustainable design now a day are said to be incorporated in design but how many are aware of the technique and tool applicable to imply them in their design. According to Steele J. (2007), action and reaction in the digital design had already revolutionized way of approaching towards modern form and also how the modern invention had been incorporated in the design world of architecture.

It has become a privilege for the young architects after the invention of new modern computer designs that have greatly helped us in improving the approach to architecture. This has now to be further enhanced for the study of sustainability in a design. There should be more softwares made for the study of sustainability. How can they be used in a proper way for the students who, are going to be future architects? How much do they learn in the academic level to incorporate in the practice?

From the University, sometimes it has been observed neglecting sustainable environmental design or it has yet not been introduced in the curriculum or syllabus. Different universities differ in their syllabus. But on the whole, how much does academic studies affect in student course work and in the practice. What level of introduction of sustainable design is to be seen? In a group discussion that happened in the bioclimatic workshop lecture student told "In our 4th year of the architectural course where environmental architecture is ever discussed and incorporated but the subject of sustainability is never talked about with the students. Moreover the teachers themselves do not make aware about the topic and how to go about it and also do not feel the need to discuss their knowledge [2] ." The students do not know about sustainability and nor do they incorporate in their designs. Sustainable design is now talked about being incorporated in our designs, but how many of us are aware of the technique and tool applicable to imply.

SURVEY CONDUCTED AND THE RESULT AND OUTCOME.

The University of Nottingham had surveyed, for the other university to have an understanding how many of the universities actually practice sustainability in there as the course module or in the curriculum. As per the question asked in the survey-- "Sustainable Environmental Design represents a core part of the academic curriculum of your institution?" and from that we got the results that around 30 % overall people disagreed to this. The other question was does the institution invest adequate resources in the teaching of Sustainable Environmental Design, and around 26 % overall people were not sure of the opinion weather to agree on this or not. From the above result we could conclude that majority of the institutes are not able to incorporate sustainability in as the major subject to the curriculum. But when the question was asked is sustainable design to be a subject in course over here every one strongly agreed to the point, and this is positive result and it shows that even though people do not have the correct knowledge, they atlest want to make an effort to learn the real know-how.

Table 1: INSTITUTIONAL SURVEY SHOWING ENVIROMENTAL DESIGN IN THERE CURRICULUM

[3] ]

In second part of the survey they asked whether the student is having enough exposure for sustainable design and weather studio based design have environmental studies. From the survey of different institutes we concluded that without adequate knowledge thought in, the students in future will lack in sustainable way of designing. In short a proper tool and knowledge should be incorporated at the institute level to make a mark in the society awakening the upcoming architects.

Similar kinds of questions were asked to professional practice people in the firm and its been seen that they want to incorporated sustainability to the design but it did not show in their practice. When employing architects/graduates your practice requires skills in Sustainable Environmental Design their decision were in the neutral state.

So it can have two conclusion that either the architects lack the knowledge or else there is a strong resentment from clients. The professional have blamed their client, cost factor, lack of regulation. But it's also been observed that architect do not have enough qualification for the sustainable design, and there is also a lack of awareness and misconceptions.

Table 2: CHART SHOWING INTEGRATION OF SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN IN PRACTICE

[4] ]

From the feedback of institute it was seen that there was lack of knowledge and time restriction. There is also insufficient tutor's available to guide the subject of environmental design. By Scott, W. and Gough, S. (2007) says "the lack of attention to education philosophy, and the research method employed by philosopher has been an impediment to development of environmental education." Also tries to incorporate new methods to overcome the problem. Similarly, Jickling, B. (1997:87) explain to rethinking of environmental education, "it is time for renewal ¾ time for environmental education to be revitalized. These are not just my words, but the sentiments of others who hold different perspectives and represent different research traditions."

'Paradigm war [5] ' in book Encyclopaedia of Philosophy of Education explains the term as the war of or call it's as problem of existing education system it's not the first time the problem have raised especially in the environmental education the conflict grew. It's a never ending topic so why not many come to a solution to it, other have suggested debate among the researchers. Gough, N. (1999) called for self-critical revision the way to approach environment and environmental education discussion were make up to encourage way approaching towards environmental education which were brought by researchers.

From the survey conclusion were made it is realized that there are something missing in the system to make it work more efficiently and to produce better and trained architects of future. Where does the architect lack behind? When the actually practice starts, do architect's have enough qualification or tool knowledge to start with sustainable environmental design. So the question arises:

"HOW CAN WE PROMOTE THE TOOLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR STUDENTS AT ACADEMIC LEVEL THAT CAN SUPPORT THE DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE IN PRACTICE?"C:\Users\Michelle\Desktop\arm\AB-strip1911-web-ENG_copy_1.gif

Figure : From the website www.archmaaik.netNEW APPROACH TAKEN TO IMPLEMENT TOOL & KNOWLEDGE.

It has been observed that some of the universities have incorporated sustainable design in there course module, while some after incorporating also do not practice environmental design due to lack of knowledge or unawareness in some professors. The curriculum can be blamed or the awareness program has not been established to teach awareness of the sustainable design. It can also be due to old curriculum put forward by the system which might restrict the professor to complete it in limited time and not discuss the not so wanted things. But it's time for institution and universities to be aware of how important the use of sustainable design is in the coming future. It's not they are unaware of it but just they should take adequate constructive measure to fulfil the need of future.

Methods, such as to incorporate environmental design as compulsory topic in the architectural curriculum, should be taken. Organisations related to sustainable architecture should send their representatives to increase awareness and to spread new technique from each professor to each student. It should happen globally as well as locally. In our daily approach towards student studies, it boring to student; to improve or to incorporate new methods, funding is essential. For funding government should make use of its power to help in sponsorship or to involve competition for the sponsorship. To have new approach towards research skills and design strategies adequate knowledge is necessary, many have tried different options or though about it. (Palmer, J., 1998; McNerney, C. 1996.a & Davis, N.D., 1996.a)

One of which goes "The benefits of cross-institutional assessments include: identifying and benchmarking leaders and best practices; communicating common goals, experiences, and methods; and providing a directional tool to measure progress toward the concept of a "sustainable campus"" (Shriberg, 2002.a).

By all this it can be said 'Think global act local' by Geddes, P (1915) really inspires the way of new thinking towards the global environment. To take initiative in a global problem it's necessary to improve our local surroundings. An approach which would really work is the involvement of global organization in a local institutional organization. As per said by Shriberg, M. (2002.b) there should be a cross-institutional assessment which share the international knowledge amongst the local or different countries. A subject or a compulsory assessment, competition or learning program which involves course which subjective to scoring system. By McNerney, C. & Davis, N.D. (1996.b) institute of higher education should tie up or begin partnership with the other institutes or funding sectors or government bodies dealing with sustainability. Involvement educational bodies, government organisation, NGO's and business should make the necessary changes need to have education and tool involving sustainable environmental education. Such kind of change and innovation requires funding and influence of additional resources, which is the reason why cooperation of university den, president, faculty member, and student as well as individual who are at high ranking. New programs, with the help of these dignified officials should be started to emphasize environmental education in the institution. There could be a direct connection of the Indian university with the international institute, which perceives environmental studies as a key factor in designing, and could be used for the development of other institutes which are unaware towards environmental studies.

Taking Indian institute as an example who might pool resources with a higher ranking institute, let's say, University of Nottingham (UoN) where practice of sustainability is taken as a core pare of the curriculum. In Indian institute Council of Architecture (COA) there could be new set for the curriculum. As the two bodies get in to an agreement to incorporate sustainable environmental studies in the curriculum of Indian institutes then UoN will provide with the resources involving the subject, at the same time keeping track that involvement of new subject does not increases the work load of the student. It can start as an introduction in the first year, continuing it to the end of fifth year dissertation and it could involve research based design where the knowledge of research could be shared among the two universities. With this involvement and research shared, new methods and techniques are discovered wherein students also get to learn how to overcome problems. New climates are been studied and new solution can make the upcoming architects work more efficiently. People who are more capable and more efficient, sometimes all can't make to a foreign university. But by this method they can get scholarship to sponsor their future studies and gain much more knowledge efficiently.

It does not only involve student in learning their home architecture but also they become a part and deal with the architecture with climatology of the foreign university. They will also learn the softwares which are involved in the design of sustainable architecture, i.e. Ecotect, radians etc from the foreign universities. Most of the times, students are unaware of the different types of softwares, or the knowledge to these softwares to the professor could be limited. In such cases involvement of governmental organisation should be there, where maybe an international official to a tour to such institutions could be essential. For a student to practice sustainability, it is very necessary for him to be aware of all the tools and methods involved. By involving competitions, the colleges can encourage student to take part in such things as a part of extracurricular activity.

Conclusion

Architecture has advanced greatly today, each design, each building, has been involved with a lot of thought process. The responsible architects are designing buildings which are more efficient than ever before. They are trying their best to make the finest use of the little space they get. Architects today are the most privileged people; they have the power to design space and even habitats. They are the people who can change the city and remould it into the way they find it most convenient. In a way they have the control to change not only the city but also people's lives. This greatly influences the nation's infrastructure. And with big work obviously comes big responsibility.

If we take an account of advancement of the architecture field, it has been remarkable. Even today designers are striving hard to set new trends in the field, by experimenting and using advanced techniques. At present the most ideal building is considered to be the one which is sustainable and environmental friendly. When there is such a lot of awareness regarding the usage of eco friendly matter, from paper to even machines, then why not our buildings? Infact a building is the one which uses maximum of resources and is also persistent for several years and there is also big investment involved in it.

This again brings to the saying, 'Think global act local' acting local with help of international institution would provide an impetus in improving the standard of architecture on the whole and thus, in a way proceed towards the advancement of the country.

Referencing:

Andres, R. & Edwards, (2005) The sustainability revolution New Society Publishers, 2005.  

Barlett, P. F. and Chase, G.W. (2004) .Sustainability on campus: stories and strategies for change The MIT Press (p. 06).

Geddes, P (1915). Cities in Evolution. Williams. (pp. 397).

Gough, N. (1999) "Rethinking the Subject: (de)constructing human agency in environmental education research". In: Environmental Education Research, Vol. 5, No. 1. Pp.35-48.

Hansen, H. T. R. (2007). SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS as a methodical approach to the development of design strategies for environmentally sustainable building. Available at: vbn.aau.dk/research/sensitivity_analysis_as_a_methodical_approach_to_the_development_of_design_strategies_for_environmentally_sustainable_buildings(13726521)/

Huckle, J. & Sterling, S.R., (1996) Education for sustainability Earthscan, 1996.  

Jickling, B. (1997) "If environmental education is to make sense for teachers, we had better rethink how to define it!" Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, (Vol.2. pp.86-103).

Lang, J.(2007) , How to succeed with education for sustainability Curriculum Corporation, 2007 (pp.70)

McNerney, C.& Davis, N.D. (1996) Education for Sustainability: An Agenda for Action DIANE Publishing (pp.3-86)

Scott, W. and Gough, S. (2007). Sustainable development and learning: a critical review RoutledgeFalmer Taylor & Francis Group. (pp. 133)

Shriberg, M. (2002) Institutional assessment tools for sustainability in higher education International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education MCB UP Ltd (Vol.3. no.3 pp.254-270).

Steele J. (2001). Architecture and computers Laurence King Publishing (pp. 08).

Palmer,J. (1998) Environmental Education in the 21st Century: Theory, Practice, Progress and Promise RoutledgeFalmer Taylor & Francis Group (pp.7-161)

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