In the introduction part the author first states that it is inevitable to implement the technological innovations into the curriculum in order to train 21st century's generation. Next the author gives some information about technology planning and presents some information about the research setting. The current study is an explanatory mixed methods research design with a participant group of 105 teachers, 25 administrative staff, and 376 students. In order to measure current ICT use of teachers, administrative staff and students, the researcher employed a questionnaire. In addition, the qualitative data were gathered through unstructured interviews carried out with administrative staff and teachers. The research results showed that teachers' and administrator staff's competency level is sufficient. The results also indicated that if there were clear guidelines, they would be more successful in ICT integration. However, according to the students, ICT integration into class is not at a sufficient level. As a result of the findings, the researcher suggests an ICT policy plan for a school.
Current utilization of ICT in Turkish basic education schools: A review of teacher's ICT use and barriers to integration
YÄ±ldÄ±rÄ±m, S. (2007). Current utilization of ICT in Turkish basic education schools: A review of teacher's ICT use and barriers to integration. International Journal of Instructional Media, 34(2), 171-185
In the introduction part, the author explains how ICT has become an important component of the new educational paradigm. Then the researcher gives some information about the Basic Education Project (BEP) in Turkey. The author employs an explanatory mixed method design in order to investigate teacher's use of ICT in Turkish primary schools and identify barriers that hinder effecÂtive ICT integration. The quantitative data were collected from 402 primary school teachers. The qualitative data were gathered through administering a follow up questionnaire to a voluntary group of 72 teachers from the sample.The quantitative results showed that most of the participating teachers frequently use ICT to prepare handouts and tests rather than using it integratedly with the curriculum areas as part of learning and teaching process. The qualitative results indicated that overcrowded classes, inadeÂquate inservice training, lack of timely technical and pedagogical support, inflexible school curricula, lack of incentives, lack of strong leadership, and lack of collaboration among teachers were the factors that hinder effective integration of ICT into teaching and learning.
ICT integration in the classroom: Challenging the potential of a school policy
Tondeur, J., van Keer, H., van Braak, J., & Valcke, M. (2008). ICT integration in the classroom: Challenging the potential of a school policy. Computers & Education, 51(1), 212-223. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2007.05.003
In the introduction part the authors argue that most of the research investigating what factors have an effect on successful ICT into education measures class (micro) level variables. It it is important that ICT integration should be dealt with a broader perspective and national (macro) level and local (meso) level variables should also be explored. The research study employs an exploratory mixed methods design in order to investigate teachers' and principals' perception of ICT integration from a school improvement viewpoint. The relationship between school policies and the actual use of ICT in the classroom was also examined. The qualitative data were collected through interviews with principals from 53 primary schools. In addition, the quantitative data were collected via a questionnaire administered to participating 574 teachers from the same 53 schools. The qualitative results showed that school policies are not at a satisfying level and used efficiently. In addition, the quantitative results indicated that school-related policies, such as an ICT plan, ICT support and ICT training are significant predictors of class use of ICT.
ICT policy planning in a context of curriculum reform: Disentanglement of ICT policy domains and artifacts
Vanderlinde, R., van Braak, J., & Dexter, S. (2012). ICT policy planning in a context of curriculum reform: Disentanglement of ICT policy domains and artifacts. Computers & Education, 58(4), 1339-1350. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.12.007
In the introduction part, the authors explain factors supporting ICT integration and consider ICT policy planning as a leadership practice from a distributed leadership perspective. In order to identify what leadership practices are related with ICT policy planning and what school level conditions have an effect on ICT policy planning, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was carried out employing a multiple case study strategy in three Flemish primary schools. The qualitative data were collected through interviews with principals and ICT coordinators, focus group interviews with teachers and school policy document analysis. The quantitative data were collected through a questionnaire administered to teachers in these schools. The research results showed that ICT policy planning in schools is a multi-dimensional concept and related to the school culture and climate. Thus, ICT vision development, financial ICT policy, ICT infrastructural policy, ICT continuing professional development policy, and ICT curriculum policy are the policy areas should be addressed for a successful shool-based ICT policy planning.
Using an online tool to support school-based ICT policy planning in primary education
Vanderlinde, R., van Braak, J., & Tondeur, J. (2010). Using an online tool to support school-based ICT policy planning in primary education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(5), 434-447. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00358.x
In the introduction part, the authors list the variables effecting the use of ICT in education described in the previous research and focuse on one of them: ICT policy planning. Then the authors give comprehensive information about the research context and introduce Planning for ICT in Schools (pICTos), which is an online tool developed by the authors. In order to investigate the process of developing a school-based ICT policy plan and examine the moderating role of pICTos during the process, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was carried out employing a multiple case study strategy in three Flemish primary schools. The qualitative data were collected through interviews with principals and ICT coordinators and school policy document analysis. The quantitative data were collected through a teachers' questionnaire. The results revealed that pICTos provides useful data for structuring the school's ICT policy plan and also provides for teachers a better understanding of ICT school vision.
The Impact of a curricular innovation on prospective EFL teachers' attitudes towards ICT integration into language instruction
HiÅŸmanoÄŸlu, M. (2012). The Impact of a Curricular Innovation on Prospective EFL Teachers' Attitudes towards ICT Integration into Language Instruction. International Journal of Instruction, 5(1), 183-202.
In the introduction part, the author explains how ICT has become an integral part of the learning and teaching process and has enhanced the quality of teaching and learning. Then the author draws attention to the significant role of teacher training instituitions in equipping and preparing teachers for the classroom use of ICT. Then the author gives some specific information about the historical background, socio-political and bi-communal structure of the Cyprus and the European University of Lefke (EUL), where the research was conducted. In order to investigate whether the new EFL teacher training curriculum provides an efficient ICT training or not, the author employs an explanatory mixed methods research design by administering a questionnaire developed by the author to get the quantitative data and an interview to get the qualitative data. The paticipants included 124 prospective EFL teachers at EUL. The research findings demonstrated that there was a statistically significant difference between prospective EFL teachers' ICT attitudes before and after ICTinterwoven training and including more ICT-related courses in the teacher training curriculum is significantly important for prospective teachers' positive attitudes towards ICT integration.
Main barriers and possible enablers of ICTs integration into pre-service teacher education programs
GöktaÅŸ, Y., YÄ±ldÄ±rÄ±m, S., & YÄ±ldÄ±rÄ±m, Z. (2009). Main barriers and possible enablers of ICTs integration into pre-service teacher education programs. Educational Technology & Society, 12(1), 193-204.
In the introduction part of the research the authors explain how important the ICT integration in pre-service teachers' education programs and present some barriers and enablers on ICT integration in research literature. In order the barriers and enablers of ICT integration in pre-service teachers' education program, an explanatory mixed method resrach design was employed by administering a questionnaire to 53 deans in teacher training schools, 111 teacher educators, and 1,330 prospective teachers. In addition, the qualitative data were gathered through interviews with six teacher educators and six prospective teachers. The results showed that lack of in-service training, lack of appropriate software and materials, and lack of hardware are the main barriers for integrating ICTs in pre-service teacher education programs. However, the strongest one of the ICT integration enablers is 'having technology plans'.
Tablet PCs, academic results and educational inequalities
Ferrer, F., Belvis, E. & Pamies, J.(2011). Tablet PCs, academic results and educational inequalities. Computers & Education, 56, 280-288.
In this article the researchers intend to investigate the implementation of the Digital Whiteboard Program in public schools in the region of Aragón, in Spain, in 2008-2009 academic year. In order to investigate academic achievement of 5th and 6th grade students who use Interactive White Boards and Tablet PC in the lesson for more than 2 years and to examine whether tablet PCs contribute to reducing existing inequalities a mixed methods research design was employed with participants including 5th and 6th grade head teachers, teachers , students and families. The research results showed that there are significant differences between rural and urban areas. Boys had higher grades thanks to tablet PCs more than girls, whereas both boys and girls reported greater participation due to the tablet PCs. Students reporting the greatest academic improvement in relation to tablet PCs were those with the lowest record of academic performance. Immigrant students reported increased grades, participation and learning in response to tablet PC use. Students whose mothers had a lower level of education (primary or no education) benefitted the most from the use of tablet PCs, with no relationship for father's educational level.
Teachers' perceptions of technology integration in the United Arab Emirates school classrooms
Almekhlafi, A. G., & Almeqdadi, F. A. (2010). Teachers' perceptions of technology integration in the United Arab Emirates school classrooms. Educational Technology & Society, 13(1), 165-175.
In the introduction part, the authors briefly presents some information about the importance of ICT integration, and then categorize the literature as ICT integration and its impacts on students and teachers; factors effecting ICT integration; teachers' perceptions of ICT integration and ICT integration barriers. The participants included 100 teachers from 2 model schools in Al-Ain educational zone, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. In order to measure teachers perceptions of ICT integration, an explanatory mixed methods research design was employed. The quantitative data were gathered through a questionnaire developed by the researchers. The qualitative data were gathered through focus group interviews conducted with 20 teachers from the sample. The results indicated that teachers' ICT competency level is satisfying and they use ICT in their classroom frequently. However, female teachers use ICT more frequently in their classes than male teachers do.
Elementary Teachers' Perceptions towards ICT Integration in Teaching and Learning Process: An Explanatory Mixed Method
Gülsoy, V. G. B. (2011). Elementary Teachers' Perceptions Towards ICT Integration in Teaching and Learning Process: An Explanatory Mixed Method (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). METU, Ankara.
In the introduction part of the dissertation, the researcher gives profound information about the history of ICT integration into education. Then the researcher reviews the literature about the factors effecting ICT integration. The dissertation study was conducted employing an explanatory mixed methods research design in order to investigate the elementary teachers' perceptions towards ICT integration in teaching and learning. The researcher developed a questionnaire and pilot tested it with a participating group of 282 teachers. The main study was carried out with 1055 classroom teachers from 90 schools in Ankara. The quantitative results indicated that teachers' pedagogical beliefs is the strongest significant predictor on teachers' perceptions towards ICT integration. Consequently, according to their pedagogical beliefs, the researcher grouped teachers as constructivists and behaviorists. The researcher interviewed with ten teachers from each group in order to investigate if there are any differences on teachers' views on ICT integration. The qualitative results showed that elementary teachers' pedagogical beliefs has an effect on their perceptions on ICT integration in teaching and learning process.