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Stress is a wide spread feature of contemporary life especially in teaching profession. Over the past years, researchers have gradually become more interested in examining stress and its effects on teacher's performance. Studies suggest that teachers experience high levels of stress (Nagel & Brown, 2003). One ââ‚¬"third of all teachers reported that they would not enter the field of teaching if they had an opportunity to choose again (Dworkin, 1987). Consistently, Darling-Hammond (2000) found that 23% of her sample of 1,800 teachers reported significant illnesses in the past years. Similarly, Koslowsky (1998) pointed that 30% of novice teachers exit the profession within their first five years. Also, in similar studies, Pelsma (2000) pointed that stress has a major impact on the entire school and can be understood as a reason for a first-year teacher's failure to continue teaching or a veteran teacher who changes careers or chooses early retirement. And a new report from the National Commission on Teacher and America's Future predicts that as many as 50 percent will retire over the upcoming decade (Exstorm, 2009) . Conformably, Lowe (2001) argued that letting stressed teachers work may put school at risk of paying out huge amounts of damages. In addition, Wilson (2002) indicated that teacher's stress may have an impact on teachers as individuals, on the schools in which they work and on the pupils they teach. As well as, for the present study, Dworkin (1987) pointed the effects of occupational stress illustrating the consequences of prolonged stress on the quality of job performed.
Kyriacou (2001) defined teacher stress as the experience by a teacher of unpleasant and negative emotions, such as anger, anxiety, tension, frustration or depression, resulting from some aspects of their work as teachers. Similarly, Wilson (2002) referred to three explanatory models of stress that have been developed by Dunham (1989), based on engineering, medical or interactive principles. The first two models assume that teachers are subjects rather than actors in their own destiny; in contrast, the third is predicated on shared responsibility fir institutes which may give rise to occupational stress. Also, in similar studies, Forman (1990) pointed that stress has been defined as a process that involves an individual and the environment in which requires body's reaction change for physical, mental, or emotional adjustment.
So as far as I conclude, stress was first identified as a problem in 1930s, and continues to be identified as a problem for individual teachers, students and the teaching profession.
Cain and Brown (1998) documented that teaching is regarded as a stressful occupation and recurring stressors in the teaching environment have been reported by numerous writers. These include high workloads and time pressure, lack of recognition for the work done
(Duke, 1984) grading tests and classwork , administrative paperwork
( Borg, 1990), angry parents, encountering negative community toward the teaching profession ( Forlin, 2001), pupil behavior and challenging students ( Quinn, 2003). That is, while student misbehavior is viewed as a producer of teacher stress and school problems. It may also be perceived as a product (Quinn, 2003). Consistent with this view, Yoon (2002) pointed that students' misbehavior has been consistently linked to teacher's reports of stress. Also, in other study conducted in Scotland , Wilson (2003) pointed that it was found that hours worked by teachers have not changed significantly over the last decade, but the number of unpopular tasks over which teachers have little control has increased, resulting in increased stress.
On the other hand, Woods (2002) indicated that improving teachers' job satisfaction is paramount in an era when 50 percent of new teachers drop out of the profession in the first five years. Consistent with this view, Shann (1998,) maintained that teacher job satisfaction is a multifaceted construct that is critical to teacher retention, teacher commitment, and school effectiveness. Teacher satisfaction reduces attrition, enhances collegiality, improves job performance, and has an impact on student outcomes ( Shann, 1998). Also, Exstorm (2009) suggested that administrative support and leadership, student behavior and school atmosphere, and teacher autonomy are working conditions associated with teacher satisfaction; the more favorable the working conditions are, the higher the satisfaction scores are. In addition, researchers indicate that school success and educator satisfaction cannot always be measured by counting computers, class sizes, calendar days and salaries. It's more about the quality of the work environment (Bindhu, 2006). Consistently,
Therefore, the topic of teacher job satisfaction and teacher job stress has gained the attention of many researchers. It has become a major concern of teachers, administrators and colleges of education recruiters. Job satisfaction expresses the extent of match between teachers' expectation of the job, job requirements and the satisfaction derived from their jobs. There seems to be a growing discontentment towards teaching as a result of which standards of education are falling. ( Bindhu, 2006) According to a study published in Parade Magazine (Peterson, 1985), the majority of active teachers are dissatisfied with their jobs while the majority of other workers are satisfied with their jobs.(Green-Reece & Johnson, 1991). Consistently, a Study carried out by Public Agenda Organization discusses results that indicate that 40 percent of 890 teachers surveyed in 2009 were disheartened about their jobs, 37 percent were content, and 23 percent were called idealists. Also, Kleop and Tarifa (1995) describe a study investigating the working conditions of Albanian teachers and their influence on job satisfaction. He indicates that, although the economic and physical conditions were worse than in other countries, levels of job satisfaction and engagement in classroom practices were high, so he suggests that work efficiency is predicted by social support and professional autonomy. Similarly, Ozan (2009) resulted that when teachers choose the profession willfully, they experience less burnout. Therefore, the profession should be made more attractive and those who really want to teach should be hired to fill open positions. Otherwise, there will be much higher burnout levels in the teaching profession.
So with more and more teachers experiencing moderate to high levels of stress, it is very important that teachers use stress relieving techniques to improve both their career, satisfaction, and their health
( Raitano & Kleiner, 2005). As a result, stress and its effective management are high on the agenda of many schools and educational institutions. For the present study, Male (1999) investigated the relationship between school's teacher stress and health pointing to the importance of considering alternative models of school improvement to reduce teacher's stress. Consistently, Dewe & et al (1999) reviews the literature on the effects of acute workplace disasters on teacher's health and well-being and discusses how individual copes with such situations. Also, Quinn (2003) debates that the efforts to reduce teacher stress and improve student outcomes must have a singular focus on behavior management policy. Without using stress relieving techniques, teacher stress can manifest itself in many ways of illnesses and disorders (Arden, 2002). Nagel and Brown (2003) linked between the unmanaged teacher stress and mental illnesses of memory and cognitive skills.
So stress is a key issue facing many organizations yet, despite the increasing awareness how it impacts on employees, many institutions are unsure of the best way to fulfill their duty of care towards their employees (Shuttleworth, 2004) .Unfortunately, it is often difficult to
integrate stress management strategies into teacher preparation curricula to help teachers in model schools mitigate real or perceived stressors. In addition, minimal research attention has been directed toward the social context of model schools which known as schools of future generation and in which teachers suffer from high workloads, as a site for examining teacher stress management. Moreover, teachers in model schools, like other teachers, are not aware of bad consequences of not using stress relieving techniques.
Thus, the purpose of this study is to describe some ways of stress management for teachers and present strategies that teachers can easily use to lessen the impact of stress. In addition, it will also offer some practical suggestions which will be helpful to improve job satisfaction and stress coping skills among teachers in model schools in United Arab Emirates. In other words, in this paper, I address the question, what effects managing stress has on keeping teachers satisfied with their work? It is hoped that managing teacher stress will have its positive influence on teachers themselves, students, administrators, school officials, and parents.
Key words: Stress management, job satisfaction, model schools, United Arab Emirates.