Study on infusing Islamic manners in the classroom

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The objectives of the study were to develop and test empirically the proposed model of infusing Islamic manners (adab) in the classroom (iMIS). A series of analyses were conducted to explore the relationship among the variables namely teacher attributes (TA), perceived support (PES) and teachers' performance in iMIS (TIP). This study involved the collection of data from 561 Muslim teachers of public primary schools in the six provinces of southern Thailand. Five research questions guided the research.

This chapter begins by describing the overview of the results drawn from the data. Throughout the presentation, personal observations and interpretations about the results are also shared. Following this discussion, implications to theory, methodology, pedagogy, and further research are suggested. The chapter ends with some important recommendations for policy makers, principals, and teachers.

OVERVIEW OF THE RESULTS

The result of the study suggests that teachers' performance in iMIS is positively related to their attributes and partially to perceived support. This is supported by the proposed teacher behavior models (Haygood et al., 2004; Klusmann et al., 2008), which can be explained by two main factors; the school and the personal characteristics that influence teacher's behavior. This viewpoint is in congruence with the organizational behavior concept that reiterates the notion that teachers' behavior is a function of their internal and external factors that demonstrate different degrees of behaviors. The results exhibit that teachers were influenced in iMIS by their attributes namely: (i) self-efficacy, (ii) values, (iii) Islamic work ethics, (iv) organizational commitment, and their perceived support (v) peer support and (vi) curriculum support.

VALIDITY OF MEASUREMENT MODELS

Research Question 1: Are the teachers' attributes (TA) explained by the 4-factor model (Self-efficacy, Values, Islamic Work Ethics and Organizational Commitment)?

Responding to this research question, the researcher had performed a series of confirmatory factor analysis and the hypothesis that related to the measurement model of the TA was tested. It was found that the model with four inter-correlated factors (Self-efficacy, Values, Islamic Work Ethics and Organizational Commitment), twelve observed variables and error correlations had provided reasonable explanation for the correlations among the observed variables. The self-efficacy factor was represented by the items related to teachers' self-efficacy in iMIS. The factor value was represented by the items related to their value of Islamic manners (adab) in the development of students. The Islamic work ethics factor constituted Islamic expectations with respect to one's behavior at work which includes one's effort, dedication, cooperation, responsibility, social relations and creativity. Finally, the organizational commitment was explained by teachers' identification.

As expected, the result (Figure 4.1, Table 4.3) shows that the proposed teacher attributes in iMIS can be explained by 4 latent factors as described above. There were moderate correlations between 4 constructs ranging from .33 to .50. The finding implies that the teachers who have at least one character among 4 constructs tend to portray other characteristics as well. These four factors, to some extent, are the characteristics of an Islamic teacher as studied earlier by Samsoo et al. (2008).

According to the findings, all four teacher attributes studied might partially reflect the characteristics of an Islamic teacher since all characteristics are significantly inter-correlated. For example, teachers who have high self-efficacy in iMIS might also have a high level of iMIS values, Islamic work ethics and organizational commitment. Thus, it is believed that these attributes drive the likelihood of teachers' performance in iMIS. These results are consistent with the previous findings (Phuwipirom, 1997; Sekmeti, 2007; Suri, 1993) on the expected roles and actual characteristics of teachers in southern Thailand especially among Muslims. Furthermore, the results are also in line with the ethical model of Islamic studies of the primary school teachers in Narathiwat province (Mayusoh, 2008).

This study therefore suggests that teachers who have certain characteristics in iMIS may also hold particular personality traits, which may make them more or less likely to engage in iMIS. This study paves the way for future research to find out more on the possible attributes that may make the teacher to engage in iMIS especially the Islamic teacher attributes as mu'allim and murrabi that reflect the intellectual characteristics of Muslim personality (Fawzia, 2008) and the ummatic personality (Nooraini, 2008).

Research Question 2: Are teachers' perceived support explained by the 4-factor model (Schools and Principals Support, Curriculum Support, Peers Support, and the Community Support)?

Based on the confirmatory factor analysis, the results confirmed that the 4-factor model of teachers' perceived support in iMIS (SS, CU, PS and CS) and twelve observed variables have a reasonable explanation to the correlations among all four factors. They were found to represent the teachers' perceived support of iMIS. The factors were represented by items measuring SS, CU, PS and CS as they loaded heavily into their respective factors.

The results further confirmed that teachers' perceived support is a dimensional construct of the perceived organizational supports or POS (Robins and Judge, 2008). This study is consistent with Brouwers and Tomic (2001) on teacher interpersonal self-efficacy with the hypothesis that managing student behavior in the classroom, eliciting collegial support, and eliciting principals' support are linked to teacher self-efficacy beliefs. In addition, this study has extended this scale by adding two more variables namely the Curriculum Support (CU) and the Community Support (CS). The results pointed out that not only do the support from schools, principals and peers that influence teachers, but the curriculum and the community also play a crucial role in contributing to teachers' efficiency.

These results are consistent with the previous study on Muslim teachers (e.g. Asmau, 2008a; Ibrahim A. Al-Sadan, 1999; Lee, 2001) which stated that the work environment vitalizes the teachers to carry out their duties especially in infusing or integrating Islamic values both in the classrooms and administration. The results indicated that teachers are supported by SS, CU, PS and CS, since all the variables are positively related. Thus, the existence of positive relationship may suggest that they influence each other. Therefore, this study implies that the teachers who are supported by SS, CU, PS and CS in iMIS are more or less likely to engage in iMIS.

Research Questions 3: Are teachers' performances in infusing Islamic manners (adab) explained by the 2-factor model (Teachers' Inculcation and Teachers' Reflection and Internalization)?

Based on the confirmatory factor analysis, the results confirmed that the 2-factor model teachers' performance in iMIS (RI and IN) and nine observed variables were found to represent the teachers' performance in iMIS. The factors were represented by items measuring RI and IN. The proposed four dimensions were loaded respectively by their measured variables. The result confirmed that teachers' perceived support was a dimensional construct. As expected, the study corroborated the prevalence of interrelated correlation. There was a moderate correlation between the RI and IN.

The results of the present study were in line with earlier studies of Chaewae (2008) on teaching behaviors among 86 Islamic studies teachers of elementary schools in the Narathiwat Educational Service, Region Two. The results showed that the moral cultivation of Islamic teachers was perceived at its highest level compared to instructional preparation, using teaching aids, and evaluation of learning and teaching. This may highlight how teachers perceived the importance of teaching duties in the classroom especially on moral inculcation.

In terms of the moral inculcation in the classroom, the finding implies that teachers, who inculcate the Islamic manners (adab) to the students such as using Islamic moral stories may also provoke or internalize in the students determined values or be an ethical role model for the students. These, to some extent, share a similar concern of the ADVIS approach for professional Islamic teachers proposed by Che Noraini (2008) where the teachers' role model of ethical behavior is highly emphasized.

This finding also confirms the universally existing methods of religious values inculcation in the secular classroom as described by Custodio (2003) in her study among the Christians in the Philippines of which there are similarities in the context of the Thai Muslim teachers. Therefore, both RI and IN should be highlighted and promoted as effective methods in infusing religious-based values in the secular classrooms.

Additionally, this study revealed the current approaches of iMIS in Thailand among primary school teachers that have not been fully studied before. CFA analysis showed that the two-dimensions of teacher performance in iMIS structure fits Muslim teachers in Southern Thailand and therefore, a suitable measurement model for this study.

These results closely reflect the characteristics of the Muslim teachers as the living examples of Islamic culture and the murshid (guide) to Muslim youths (Shaykh Abdullah, 2004). It is not only the teachers' obligation to impart useful knowledge to their pupils, but also to serve as models to be emulated. Therefore, a Muslim teacher should not only be a man/woman of learning but also a person of virtues and piety.

DIRECT EFFECTS OF TEACHER ATTRIBUTES AND THEIR PERCEIVED SUPPORT FACTORS TOWARD iMIS

Research Questions 4: To what extent does the 4-factor model of teachers' attributes (Self-efficacy, Values, Islamic Work Ethics and Organizational Commitment) influence their performance in infusing Islamic manners (adab) in the classroom?

Research Questions 5: To what extent does the 4-factor model of teachers' perceived support (Schools and Principals Support, Curriculum Support, Peers Support, and the Community Support) influence their performance in infusing Islamic manners (adab) in the classroom?

The results (Figure 4.5) suggest that six hypotheses are supported: (H4.1) teachers' self-efficacy is positively related to their performance in iMIS (γ=0.47, p<0.001); (H4.2) teachers' values is positively related to their performance in iMIS (γ=0.21, p<0.001); (H4.3) teachers' Islamic work ethics is positively related to their performance in iMIS (γ=0.15, p<0.05); and (H4.4) teachers' organizational commitment is positively related to their performance in iMIS (γ=0.23, p<0.001); (H5.2) teachers' perceived support from the curriculum is positively related to their performance in iMIS (γ=0.23, p<0.001); and (H5.3) teachers' perceived support from their peers is positively related to their performance in iMIS (γ=0.19, p<0.001).

Overall, the iMIS model establishes positive relationships between teacher attributes and their partial support towards performance in iMIS. Altogether, the four dimensions of teachers' attributes and the dimensions of perceived support have 81% of the variance in their performance in iMIS. In other words, the iMIS model as a whole explained 81 percent of the variance in iMIS (with only 19% due to other causes).

Additionally, the results indicated in Figure 4.5 and Table 4.10 suggest that the teachers were influenced by their attributes namely: (i) self-efficacy, (ii) values, (iii) Islamic work ethics, (iv) organizational commitment, and their explicitly perceived support from (v) peers and (vi) curriculum. These factors are discussed in the following sub-sections.

Self-efficacy

The hypothesis 4.1 stated that the causal relationship between SE and TP was supported. SE was found to have a direct effect on TP by a positive value of 0.467 (Figure 4.5, Table 4.10) which is the strongest form of influence tactics compared to other teacher attributes (VA, ET and CO). This means the teachers that are having more SE may have a better TP. This hypothesis supports Bandura's (1997) self-efficacy theory that influence performance and confirmed a positive effect on teachers' attitudes and behavior (Hakverdi et al., 2007; Rimm-Kaufman and Sawyer, 2004; Mathews et al., 2006).

With respect to the practical and theoretical implications of the findings, the teachers believed that they have the abilities to infuse Islamic manners (adab) in the classroom which directly influenced their performance in iMIS. Normally, people do not undertake tasks which they feel are beyond their capability and capacity. Instead, the more convinced they are about being able to deal effectively with various situations; the more they seized the opportunities, thus increasing the probability of their success. It can be pointed out therefore, that the greater the teachers belief in their self-efficacy in iMIS, the greater they will perform effectively in iMIS.

The evidence from the data suggests that in order to enhance effective performance in iMIS, teacher' self-efficacy must be developed and deployed. There is a need to maximize the degree of self-efficacy in iMIS to make the most of teachers' performance in iMIS.

Values

The next hypothesis (H4.2) that predicted a causal relationship between VA and PT was also supported by a positive value of 0.208 (Figure 4.5, Table 4.10). This hypothesis supports the cultural self-representation theory (Erez and Earley, 1993) that says cultural values and norms influence individual behaviors in organizations. Further, the expectancy value theory (Vroom, 1964) posits that individuals are motivated to engage in a particular behavior when they value the outcome of the task and that performing the task will produce the desired result. In other words, individuals will act in ways that they believe will result in obtaining valuable rewards. Thus, it shows that teacher's value have positive effects on their performance in iMIS. In this sense, teachers must have their own values and beliefs which lead to the assumption that one can define 'good' values and act on the basis of whether they are living in a non-Islamic environment or not. This study agrees with Ab.Halim and Zulkifli (2006) that teacher's positive attitudes were one of the main reasons for students' satisfaction with the akhlāk lesson.

From the Islamic point of view, as the researcher expected, teachers who have strong values in religion will take infusion of Islamic manners (adab) in the classroom as their task and responsibility as they will be rewarded by Allah. Here, it may be postulated that the teachers' values of iMIS may result in their performance in iMIS. Therefore, the evidence from the data suggests that in order to enhance effective performance in iMIS, teacher's values must be developed and deployed accordingly.

Islamic Work Ethics

The results appear to support the hypothesis (H4.3), that ET influences TP by a positive value of 0.149 (Figure 4.5, Table 4.10). This hypothesis is supported by a meta-theoretical presumption that cultural values and norms and ethical ideology is predicted to play a role on individual behaviors in organizations (Erez and Earley, 1993; Henle, Giacalone, and Jurkiewicz, 2005). The results are consistent with the previous studies on the role of Islamic work ethics and its influence on individual work behavior (see Darwish, 2001; Ismael, 2003; Nik Mu'tasim et al., 2006; Samsoo et al., 2008).

On the relationship between Islamic work ethics and teachers' performance in iMIS, it is interesting to note that a direct, significant and positive association exists between Islamic work ethics and the latter. A differential relationship that notably characterizes the link between these variables suggests that a teacher with a different degree of perception towards Islamic work ethics would demonstrate a different performance in iMIS. Specifically, as the findings of this study suggest, an individual with a high level of perception of Islamic work ethics would tend to develop a performance in iMIS. While on the other hand, teachers with a lower level of perception of Islamic work ethics would be more disinclined towards iMIS, one experiencing a much lesser degree of perception of Islamic work ethics would be expected to demonstrate a calculative or continuance form of iMIS.

Organizational Commitment

The results appear to support the hypothesis (H4.4), that teachers' CO is positively related to TP by a positive value of 0.235 (Figure 4.5, Table 4.10). This confirms that commitment which is believed to give rise to elements of self-induced satisfaction and motivation are crucial for performing managerial roles (Omer, 2001). The results are consistent with previous studies on the linkage between teachers' organizational commitment and their behavior in schools (Abdulhakam, 2006; Samsoo et al., 2008), specifically with the study of Asmau (2008a) where teachers' morality in their work have a positive relationship with their performance in inculcation of moral values in the classrooms.

The result shows that CO is the second strongest form of influence tactics compared to other teacher attributes (self-efficacy is the strongest). This is so because in Islam, commitment (ikhlaas) plays a strong role for inner human drive (Khaliq, 2007). Hence, Muslim teachers who are committed with their schools will obligate their performance in iMIS accordingly.

Curriculum Support

The results appear to support the hypothesis (H5.2), which suggests that CU influences TP by a positive value of 0.234 (Figure 4.5, Table 4.10). Surprisingly, the findings are important since they suggest that teachers' roles are better enhanced by curriculum in iMIS. In fact, only 10.3% of participants in this study are teaching Islamic related subjects, while the rest teach other subjects.

Usually, in the secular classroom, the curriculum is designed by the Ministry of Education or other authorities based on their values (secular) and it seems difficult for teachers to infuse Islamic values in the subjects (Sanjakdar, 2009). Similarly, Tipparat et al. (2000) found that the curriculum in the Thai public schools were negatively perceived by educators, community leaders, and concerned parents as not appropriate from the Islamic perspectives mainly on curriculum content, curriculum activities, hidden curriculum and community participation in the curriculum.

It is difficult to interpret precisely what these results mean since the study did not delve deeper into details to consider the contents of the curriculum the teachers are using. However, one possible explanation for these results is that this study focuses on infusing simple Islamic manners such as giving salam, cleanliness, and table manners which can be infused in the classroom easily by teachers. And the infused values did not contradicting the Thai educational policy as they are considered universal values. Therefore, teachers can easily inculcate these values to the pupils in the classrooms without any difficulties.

Another possible explanation is that the Thai Government has introduced and piloted the dual curricula policy which combined both conventional curriculum and Islamic studies in schools in the three Thailand provinces (Yala, Narathiwat, and Pattani). This project may promote and encourage outcomes in iMIS among Muslim teachers. Even though this program has just been implemented and there are some problems during its implementation (Samah, 2008), these results may possibly provide important information necessary to determine the impact of curriculum towards teachers' performance in iMIS.

Peer Support (PS)

The results appear to support the hypothesis (H5.3), which suggests that PS influences TP by a positive value of 0.195 (Figure 4.5, Table 4.10). This implies that peers play a crucial role for teachers in iMIS. The results are consistent with previous studies on the role of peers towards teachers' performance especially in conducting moral education and moral-related programs in schools within Thai educational context (Jiramanee, 2008; Kongnual, 2008; Manunphol,2008; Nan-udorn, 2008; Sitarawarang, 2008; Sribuanam,2008; Therdthampaisarn, 2008; Uthumporn,2008). From the Islamic point of view, the results support the argument of Beekun (1996) who identified peer influence as one of the factors that determine individuals' ethical behaviors. It also supports the view of Zachary and Kuzuhara (2005) who concluded that employees tend to be more supportive of change when they get support from their colleagues.

From the pervasiveness or homogeneity perspective which conveys the impression of "the common and uniform perceptions that guide their actions" (Rollinson and Broadfield, 2002: 571), it can be explained that Muslim teachers who have a shared belief of iMIS will naturally support each other in iMIS because they have shared goal, tasks or mutual interests.

This result suggests that support from colleagues have a positive impact on teachers' performance in iMIS and proves that peer support is associated with institutional constraints. From the results, it may imply that the teachers who get support from peers are more likely to perform better in iMIS. On the other hand, teachers with a lower level of peer support would be more ill-disposed towards iMIS.

IMPLICATIONS

Theoretical Implications

The present research findings have provided a number of implications to teachers and the extension of literature in the organizational behavior.

From the results, it is confirmed that self-efficacy plays a crucial role and it is the strongest factor contributing to teachers' performance in iMIS. This is based on Bandura's self-efficacy (1977, 1993) which has been widely proven that the greater one believes in one's self efficacy in a context, the greater he or she will perform with effective commitment and satisfaction with that context.

From the expectancy value theory (Vroom, 1964) which is related to the teacher motivation, the results pointed out that teachers are motivated by the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation to engage in iMIS. Intrinsic motivation may be described as teacher attributes. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation is precisely the perceived support factors.

The cultural self-representation theory (Erez and Earley, 1993), derived from the meta-cognitive of the framework, forms the link between the contextual factors and the individual behavior in organizations. This study maintains that cultural values and norms dominate the external and the internal work environment since the findings show the direct relationship between the Islamic teachers' attributes and their performance in iMIS.

From the Islamic perspective, this study mainly supports the Islamic organizational controls and performance evaluation concept proposed by Rahman and Al-Baraey (1992) which emphasizes on the spiritual motivation that can inspire individuals to work with the outcome of reward and forgiveness from God compared to material and economic rewards. An Islamic administrative theory (Ibnomer, 1987:233) which is viewed on efficiency and job perfection as "not only organizational requirement or an end in themselves, but rather as a religious obligation." From the results, teachers were motivated and encouraged in iMIS from their characteristics or "self" together with the supports from peers and curriculum without the encouragement from school, principals and communities and the recognition for their work performance which is believed to be a viable means for school administrators to improve teacher performance (Lindsay, Sugai, and De Pry, 2002). Having said that, teachers conduct iMIS as an extra work which is beyond the economic outcome to fulfill their self-actualization. This coincides with Hassan (1998) and Zaleha and Ahmed's (2008) assertions which highlighted the spiritual motivation as a form of worship ('ibadah) to Allah. This spiritual motivation may enhance the teachers to become self-managing and self-motivating since teachers can be well-performed in iMIS without "direct leadership, without close supervision, and without external rewards. (Sergiovanni, 20007:94)" Thus, this present study has contributed to the literature related to spiritual motivation and teachers' performance.

Methodological Implications

This study has demonstrated the usefulness of multivariate analysis specifically the CFA and SEM which provide an insight concerning the inter-relationships between the observed and the latent variables that are related to the theory and the relationship between variables (Sharifah Sariah, 2009).

The instruments used in this study, namely: the Teacher Attribute Scale (TAS), Teachers' Perceived Support Scale (TPSS), and the Teachers' Performance in iMIS Scale (TPIS) were adapted from several sources and the results of the analysis indicated that the scales exhibit acceptable psychometric properties. Therefore, the scales are useful for those who are interested in studying the relationship of these three constructs.

Implications to the Educational Administration

Apart from the theoretical implications, the outcome of the present study suggests a mechanism for fostering teachers in iMIS. The findings of this study offer some interesting guidelines to practitioners in formulating their educational policies and strategies. The following are the guidelines:

Teachers in iMIS have to be engaged in a more serious approach in establishing a higher degree of self-efficacy, their values, Islamic work ethics and their commitments among their teachers. This could be implemented by ensuring that every teacher consistently undergoes structured and informal training and educational programs or sessions that put more emphasis on the need to inculcate the Islamic morality and values in work.

Formal Islamic ethical codes must be introduced and implemented since it has the potential to engage teachers in iMIS.

Teachers must believe in work values which can be enhanced by training them and developing a positive attitude towards iMIS.

Educational administrators should provide in-service training and motivation of work value for teachers, providing support materials and encouragement from principals and the community.

The principals and the community play a key role in the development of a school. However, both are not actively engaged in the iMIS process. Therefore, it is recommended for the principals and the community to get more involved in iMIS activities by giving moral and material support to the teachers.

Implications for Islamization of Education

It is important to note that from the results, teachers are able to infuse the Islamic manners in the secular classrooms. So, it is expected that teachers can also infuse other values according to Islamic education. Significantly, this would be an initial step for the Islamization of education especially in non-Muslim countries or Muslim minority countries such as Thailand.

Economic Implications

This study proved that the outcome of the Thai Government's efforts to improve the welfare and the security of Muslim teachers especially in the three southernmost provinces is worthy. Teachers do not only teach the assigned subjects but at the same time they infuse the proper values to students even without the support from the principals and the community.

Social Implications

An implication of this study directly depicts that Muslim teachers believed and practiced the value-based education. Indirectly, it portrays how Muslims preserved their identities and religion in non-Muslim countries. The study reveals that Thai Muslim teachers constantly uphold their religious beliefs and use every possible opportunity to transfer them to the new generations. Being Muslim teachers, infusing Islamic values is an obligatory duty and the public schools are proper avenues for them to express their religious duties although the possibility of not being officially recognized by the school is eminently high. Apparent lack of recognition for the religious beliefs and identities of the Thai Muslims by the Thai government may have repercussions. For one, the Muslims in Thailand may adopt the assertions of Sirichai (2005:391) that "the new style of schooling which is a significant mechanism to change the thinking of the local people to modernize them for the new development system and modern market could not be fully implemented in Muslim communities." The middle way to this is to allow Muslim teachers in Muslim-dominated schools to infuse Islamic manners (adab) in the classrooms. If successfully implemented, this will be seen as a non-violent mechanism for Muslims to preserve their identities and religion in negotiating with the secular education.

Political Implications

As Kittiwibul (2006) had claimed, the cause of the current violence in southern Thailand is due to the improper modeling of the religious teachers and the observed violence by the Muslim youths of the Islamic extremists activities, thus this observation may highlight the importance of Muslim teachers in reducing the misperceptions of Islamic teaching among Thai Muslim youths. To tune down the unrest in southern Thailand, the Thai Government should promote and support teachers to infuse 'authentic Islamic values,' as well as model themselves as authentic Islamic teachers in the classrooms since the results have shown that teachers can willingly perform this duty.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The goal of this research is to determine the existence and the nature of the relationships between two factor variables related to teachers' performance in iMIS. This study has its limitations. The samples were confined to limited number of teachers and were only represented by Muslim teachers in the six provinces of southern Thailand which might in turn limit the generalizability to Thai Muslims in general. Therefore, the replication of the present study using relatively large and representative sample especially Muslims in other parts of Thailand would be of great interest and only then can the full extent of its potential and generalisability be realized.

Although the iMIS Model (Figure 4.5), generated and developed in this study, fits the data well and provides a theoretically consistent set of findings, there might be other unexamined models that fit the data equally or even better. This iMIS can at best be treated as a 'non-disconfirmed model,' which is subject to further research and refinement.

The present research did not take teachers' demographic background, which also might be related to their performance in iMIS. Therefore, it is recommended that future research related to the relationships between teachers' demographic background and their performance in iMIS be conducted to a greater extent on that relationship.

Duplicating the current research at different types and levels of schools is necessary to provide confirmation of current study findings or further clarify the finalized model proposed by the current research. Additionally, research in secondary schools, colleges and tertiary educational institutions could be helpful in understanding the iMIS in different contexts.

While the current research was restricted only to two main factors: teacher attributes and their perceived support, future research should be conducted with another factor such as teachers' occupational well-being and institutional characteristics (see Klusmann et al.'s , 2008) to explore a greater extent of that relationship.

The current study only investigated the direct effects among variables but not the indirect effects. Therefore, future research can further test the iMIS model especially the SS and CS variables which were excluded in the specified model. The recursive and backward relationship among variables should also be investigated to have a more complete understanding of the model.

Future research should also conduct a study on students' perception of their teachers' performance in iMIS.

Finally, longitudinal study is recommended. This will help to better understand the iMIS process and mechanism if such longitudinal studies are conducted over an extended period.

CONCLUSIONS

The Infusing of Islamic Manners (adab) in Secular Classroom Model' (iMIS) is developed based on both theory and empirical findings. The model is used to investigate the 'how and why' of teacher attributes, their perceived support and their performance in infusing Islamic manners (adab) in the classrooms. The findings of this study contributed mainly to the spiritual motivation of teachers in iMIS. Furthermore, the study has also shown the capability of teachers in iMIS and a possible space for Islamization of education in non-Muslim countries. Importantly, it can be expected that teachers with the proper training can possibly infuse others authentic Islamic teaching to the students especially regarding to Islamic ideology and the duty as a Muslim in the non-Muslim countries such as Thailand.

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