Study on Diffferent Types of Behavoural Management Strategies

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"I Messages" model the emotionally mature practice of taking responsibility for your own feelings (Ginott, 1971; T. Gordon, 1974). These messages can be used in many different classroom settings of all types. It describes a specific behavior at a particular time and place (Henley, 2010). The idea is to keep the offending behavior in perspective and reduce the need for the student to respond defensively. I messages are known as a verbal intervention.


"I Messages" help with teachers and students to avoid frustration, disruption, and fatigue with teacher's responses to disruptive behaviors. These messages are nonjudgmental. They allow the students to identify that teacher's have emotional feelings just as they do. They are explanations to the why and how of a teacher's feelings. Teacher's need to remember that placing blame on a student for their frustration will lead to defensive emotional outcomes. The student is the source of the feeling of frustration but surely not the cause of the feeling.

Designing and Implementing I Messages:

The only preparation to begin "I Messages", would be to self evaluate. As a teacher, we often self evaluate to make sure we are teaching and instilling the best environment for success. What we don't always consider are the feelings that we portray with the words we use. By allowing students to understand why the inappropriate behavior is frustrating, without feeling embarrassed, provides accountability back on the teacher's emotions. There are many times and places where I messages will be effective. Teachers can use I messages to address annoying behavior by a student. Such statements would be announced the student conducting the behavior.

For example:

"You weren't listening.  You're going to end up on welfare."

becomes "I want my students to listen closely so that they can learn important things that will help them succeed in life."

"If you use your garbage mouth one more time, you're losing recess."  becomes "I need to hear only appropriate words for the rest of the period.  That way recess will still be on the schedule."

"You're a rude little bugger." becomes "I feel bad when my students speak in a mean way.  Please tell me what you want in a polite way...that's the only way you'll ever get it. (smile in voice).

COST: There is no cost for this SIP. It is merely a change in behavior and use of empathy.

Henley, M. (2006). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Pearson Education, New Jersey



Bibliotherapy is the use of books to help with solving problems. It is an expressive therapy that uses a student's relationship to the content of the book or specific writing piece/genre. It dates back to the 1970's, as the need for reconciliation amongst schools and disciplinary problems became more studied. This was also the beginning stages to an increase in educational resources to manage classroom behavior.


Reading is known to be therapeutic. The idea behind a great story, is to become the writer/author as we read. As we read, we become involved with the characters within the story. Reading the story and having such a deep relationship to the story will allow us to look or gain new insights from what we have read or learned. Therefore, the purpose behind Bibliotherapy is to allow a student to gain insight on turmoil of emotions they may be having, by comparing their real life situation to the story being read and the characters in the story. The goal is to create a discussion and a possible solution to their problem.

There are three stages to Bibliotherapy; Identification, Catharsis, and Insight. The student must first identify with a character or events in a fiction or nonfiction story. It is then through Catharsis that the student will become emotionally involved and channel their pent up emotions and display them safely. An example may be through discussions and drawings that the student performs. The final step involves the help of the teacher with aiding them to identify their problem and possible solutions.

Designing/Implementing: (According to Dr. Mac,

Through observations, parent/student/teacher conferences, surveys, school work, evaluations, faculty staff input, and all other documentation on file identify the students' needs.

Match the student to the appropriate material. Therefore, the following must be considered: reading ability level, contain the student's interest, theme must match the student's need, characters are believable, and the plot should be realistic and contain creative problem solving solutions.

Consider the setting for the sessions and times for each session.

Create follow up activities that are appropriate.

Motivate with introductory activities.

Have the student become engaged in the reading, viewing, and listening phases.

Allow the student time to reflect with ample time for thinking.

Create and conduct follow up activities.

Assist with closure and creating possible solutions to their problem.

Bibliotherapy Continued


There are many real life situations that students struggle with. Some examples may be divorce, bullying, friendships, death, etc.

Cost: There is no real cost, unless you purchase the books. Most books can be checked out at the library.


Henley, M. (2006). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Pearson Education, New Jersey

Direct Appeal


There are many behavioral management strategies used in reaching successful classroom environments (Niesyn, M., 2009). Classrooms are known as verbal environments (Henley, p. 161). Therefore, verbal interventions seem most logical to discuss inappropriate behaviors. The use of effective and clear communication amongst teacher and student will provide significant results. Direct Appeal is just one of many individual behavior management strategies used that is known as a verbal intervention (Henley, p. 162). It is an influence of the individual behavior. Using direct verbal appeal to a student will help to discontinue the misbehavior and may be sufficient enough to alter the situation (Redl, 1957). It should be clearly stated that the behavior is unacceptable, what needs to be done instead of the inappropriate behavior, and the likely consequences for the student's choices (Redl, 1957).


By using direct appeal, students are hearing the truth. It is simply stated what the behavior is and why it is not acceptable. Telling a student to stop a behavior because… or thanking them for ceasing a behavior because… are examples of direct appeal. It applies to the student's sense of fairness. Teachers and educators musts appeal directly to the child. Discussions lead authority to tell the student how they feel and ask for consideration. Helping children understand the cause of a situation will allow them to cooperate with authority on how to eliminate or change the present, inappropriate behavior.


There are some guidelines that teachers should follow in order for verbal interventions to be effective (Henley, p. 162). Teacher's explanations must be concrete and specific. The behavior must be described for students to easily understand. Teachers should avoid being judgmental or using judgmental terms. When teachers pass judgment, they are not working on understanding the behavior, only labeling a child. Teachers must speak to the student directly and put emphasis on the present. Educators have to remember to use the "here and now" of the situation rather than developing defensive students by accusing them of doing things all the time or never doing something to explain the behavior. The last specific guideline to remember when using a verbal intervention is to speak calmly. Speaking calmingly implies that the educator is in control. Direct appeal can be effective when teachers have authority over the student and the group, provide a personal, positive relationship with the student and the group, and by making the consequence clear.

Direct Appeal Continued


An example of using direct appeal states the inappropriate behavior. "Skylar please stop tapping your pencil, it is distracting" or "Justin please stop yelling out of turn, I do have a headache" are just two examples to show truth on why the behavior is being requested to stop. Another example would be if a student is upset and wants to leave the class, he or she must be reminded of school policy and how wandering halls would go against this policy. Even telling a student at the preschool level to not run in halls because it is unsafe, is being direct. Students understand that unsafe could mean getting hurt and should avoid this consequence. Direct Appeal never uses terms that potentially offer threat. This would only push the child to be defensive. Instead, stating firmly why the behavior should stop, allows the child to feel fairness and respect. In most situations, students comply with respectful requests to stop unwanted behaviors

Cost: There really is no cost for this strategy.


Henley, M. (2006). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Pearson Education, New Jersey

Niesyn, M. (2009). Strategies for Success: Evidence-Based Instructional Practices for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Preventing School Failure. Vo.53 n.4 (pp. 227-233).

Redl, F. & Wineman, D. (1957). The Aggressive Child. Free Press, Glencoe, IL.

Redl, F. & Wineman, D. (1951). Children who we hate: the disorganization and breakdown of behavior controls. Free Press, Glencoe, IL.

Contingent Observation


Contingent Observation is known as an acceptable and effective procedure for reducing disruptive behaviors in young children (Porterfield JK, Herbert-Jackson E, Risley TR, 1976). In most studies researched, the success had been identified amongst group settings. Contingent Observation is also known as a Nonexclusionary time out (Wolf, T., McLaughlin, T., and Williams, R., 2006). Through this form of time out, students are removed from the disruptive behavior for a certain amount of time, but are still able to observe the ongoing activity of the class (Wolf, T., McLaughlin, T., and Williams, R., 2006). This idea of a nonexclusionary time out is broken down into three subcategories: contingent observation, removal of stimulus conditions, and ignoring (Wolf, T., McLaughlin, T., and Williams, R., 2006). Contingent Observation is known as a procedure where an individual is required to sit on the sidelines of the ongoing activity and observe appropriate behaviors of his or her peers for a period of time (Wolf, T., McLaughlin, T., and Williams, R., 2006). The purpose of this form of time out is to allow the child to observe appropriate peer behaviors and see those behaviors being reinforced.


Contingent Observation is most effective when the teacher reinforces the appropriate behaviors and the resulting reinforcement (Wolf, T., McLaughlin, T., and Williams, R., 2006). The students will observe appropriate behaviors while in the time out setting. The students will be removed from the activity and will sit and watch appropriate behaviors being modeled by their peers. They will then allow the student to participate (after a period of time) in the activity and positively reinforce appropriate behaviors. This means monitoring the student for the appropriate behavior and acknowledging the first correct behavior demonstrated by the student. This will ensure the time out as successful in the environment conducted and eliminate any discrimination among time outs and the classroom setting.


According to a study performed among young children (in day care or preschool setting), contingent observations were performed to eliminate inappropriate behaviors (Porterfield JK, Herbert-Jackson E, Risley TR, 1976). These disruptive behaviors ranged from aggression, crying and fussing, tantrums, destructive use of toys, or creating a dangerous situation. Through contingent observation, teachers began by briefly describing the inappropriate behavior. If a child would take a toy away from another child, the teacher would tell that student "no" and give the students the language to use in order to ask for the toy. They would then move the child to the sidelines of the activity. The child would be told to sit and watch as the other students asked appropriately for what it is that they want in their social setting. The teachers/caregivers would observe the student for a short period of time (less than 1 minute) and identify if that student was quietly and attentively observing the other children. At that time, the student in the time out setting would be asked if he/she knew now how to ask for a toy. As long as the child nodded, stood up, or verbalized that he/she were ready, they then would be allowed to rejoin the group. If they did not respond positively, they would be asked to remain seated on the sidelines and continue to observe the other students appropriately ask for what they want. The child would be reassessed by the teacher/caregiver and asked if they were ready now. A positive response was required before the child was able to return to their social setting. At that time, the child was observed and given

Contingent Observation Continued

positive attention for the correct behavior. This would be noticed as the teacher saying, "Good job, you asked for what you wanted". Under this contingent observation, those students who were unable to remain calm or suggest they were ready to return with positive responses, were removed to a the "quiet

place", where they were told why they were there and once they were able to remain calm they would be allowed back to the social setting to again "sit and watch". This is where the beginning process starts all over. The student is asked again to observe other students, and asked if they now know how to complete the task without disruptive behavior.

Contingent Observation can be very effective when handled appropriately. Teachers need to remember that a clear set of rules and desired behaviors must be taught prior to the implementation of this intervention. The role of the "sit and watch" chair must be thoroughly explained to the student. Role playing of disruptive behaviors that lead students to the sit and watch chair will allow students to effectively understand the purpose of the time out. Modeling appropriate behaviors in the classroom setting will encourage students to use the desired behaviors that the teachers are looking for. We can't assume students know what is expected of them. We must model, teach, and provide the language (if necessary) to students to create a successful learning environment with little or no disruptions.


An example of a student needing the use of this time out (known as contingent observation), would be if a child pushes a child out of the way to get to something/somewhere. The child would be told "Jane, we don't push our friends. Jane, if you would like a person to move out of your way, ask them to please move so that you may get by". The teacher would then have the child sit and watch their peers in the social setting. They would be asked to watch as other friends use their words to get what they want. After a short period of time, the students would be asked if they were ready to join the activity and use their words to get what they want (rather than their physical body). At that time, the teacher would look for a positive response and if one occurred, the student was asked to join the group. The teacher would continue to observe that child and reinforce through positive encouragement, the first appropriate behavior displayed by that child.

Cost: No Cost


Harris, K. R. (1985). Definitional, parametric, and procedural considerations in timeout interventions and research. Exceptional Children, 51, 279-288.

Porterfield, J. K., Herbert-Jackson, E., & Risley, T. R. (1976). Contingent observation: an effective and acceptable procedure for reducing disruptive behavior of young children in a group setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9, 55-64.

Wolf, T., McLaughlin, T., and Williams, R. (2006). TIME-OUT INTERVENTIONS AND STRATEGIES: A BRIEF REVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS. International Journal of Special Education. Vol. 23, No 3.

White, A. G., & Bailey, J. S. (1990). Reducing disruptive behaviors of elementary physical education students with sit and watch. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 353- 359.

Conscious Discipline


Conscious Discipline is a research based program proven to increase academic achievement, decrease problem behaviors, and improve the quality of relationships. It uses brain smart strategies for responding rather than reacting to life events. This response leads to making conflict moments into cooperative learning opportunities.

Conscious Discipline was founded around the 1990's by Dr. Becky Bailey, an expert in childhood education and developmental psychology. It is a social-emotional program that assists early childhood and teachers to create school families. Using this program and its techniques, suggests that it decreases aggression, increases academic scores on state tests, decreases impulsivity/hyperactivity in "difficult" children, increases collegiality of staff, and creates a positive school climate. According to Dr. Becky Bailey, Conscious Discipline leads us through a process that promotes permanent behavior change in all of us and children.


Conscious Discipline identifies that 7 powers plus 7 Discipline Skills will assist in handling and dealing with 7 basic life skills. The seven powers are identified as perception, unity, attention, free will, love, acceptance, and intention. These powers are known as the keys to allow us to operate a car properly. The seven discipline skills are composure, encouragement, assertiveness, choices, positive intent, empathy, and consequences. The discipline skills are our vehicle for healthy relationships and consciously disciplining ourselves and others. Finally, the 7 basic life skills are anger management, helpfulness, assertiveness, impulse control, cooperation, empathy, and problem solving. The idea is to combine the powers and skills to achieve optimal brain development and essential life skills.

The focus is on the brain development and the corticolimbic connections. The brain has three compartments; cortex-logic and reasoning, limbic-the emotion and memory, and the brain stem-the survival of fight or flight. The limbic and brain stem are our most primitive parts of the brain. Training our brain to react on the cortex portion of our brain will assist in self control (thinking before reacting).


The goal of conscious discipline is to provide a safe learning environment and create a school family. The following is a chart of each skill and power and how to use it in the classroom:



Classroom Structures



Brain Smart Tip

Emotional Develop

Key Phrases/Examples

Composure-Being the person you want children to become.

Perception-No one can make you angry.

Safe place, circle, class meetings


Remain calm and teach children how to behave.

The brain functions optimally in a safe environment.

Anger management is integral for social competence.


T-take a breath



Encouragement Building the school family

Unity-We are all in this together

Jobs, friends, family, and ways to be helpful


Create a sense of belonging

Social successes prime the brain for academic successes

Relationships are the motivation for learning

You Did it! You___so____. That was helpful.

Assertiveness-setting limits respectfully

Focus on what you want

Time machine and instant replay


Set limits and expectations

Telling students what to do aligns their bodies with their willpower

Healthy boundaries are essential for all relationships

Did you like it?

Choices-Building self esteem and willpower

Free Will-The only person you can make change is yourself

Picture rule cards


Empowers children with setting limits

Choice changes brain chemistry

Building self esteem and willpower reduces impulsivity

You may __or ___. What is your choice?

Positive Intent-creating teaching moments

Love-See the best in others

Celebration center


Create teachable moments especially for difficult children

Thoughts physically alter cells in the body

Positive intent improves self image and builds trust

You wanted___. You may not____.

When you want ___, say ____.

Empathy-Handling fussing and fits

Acceptance-This moment is as it is

We care center


Help children accept and process feelings

Empathy wires the brain for self control and higher cognition

Empathy is the heart of emotional intelligence

You seem__. Something ___ must have happened.

Consequences-Helping children learn from their mistakes

Intention-Mistakes are opportunities to learn

Class Meetings


Help children reflect on their choices and make changes

The brain thrives on feedback

Consequences help children learn cause and effect relationships

If you choose to ____ then you will ____.


One Day program $150, $250 for two, and $100 per person in groups of 6 or more.

Two Day Program $225 per person, $195 per person in groups of 10 or more.

Week Program $825 per person, $795 per person in groups of 10 or more.


Krause, Dina. Conscious Discipline: 7 Basic Skills for Brain Smart Classroom. Oakland Schools.

Love and Logic


Love and Logic is a discipline program that for parents and teachers to focus on helping students learn responsibility, make good choices, and face consequences. It was founded around 1997 by a principal and psychiatrist named Jim Faye and Foster W. Cline, M.D. The goal of the program is to allow teaching to occur in a loving and logical manner. "Love and Logic uses humor, hope, and empathy to build up the adult/child relationship, emphasizes respect and dignity for both children and adults, provides real limits in a loving way, and teaches consequences with healthy decision-making" (


There are four beliefs as well as principles that for the foundation of this discipline program. The beliefs are:

Discipline is effective when it is a central part of learning.

Misbehavior finds its basis in discouragement and control issues.

Modeling self disciplined behavior is the best tool.

The most critical component of discipline is the relationship between teacher/parent and student/child.

The Principles are:

The student's self concept is the prime consideration.

The child is always left with a feeling that they have control.

An equal balance of empathy and consequences replace punishment whenever possible.

The student should do more thinking than the teacher/parent.

The goal of love and logic is to provide kids with many small choices that they can make. This allows children to think, make mistakes, and learn from their mistakes. It provides self control, independence, and confidence. The program also provides relationship building amongst child and adults.

Designing and Implementing:

To begin using love and logic, parents and teachers need to begin thinking about their communication amongst the student/child relationship. The children are provided many small choices and are forced to think about their actions, make mistakes and learn from them, avoid control battles between them and adults, and learn self confidence and relationship building as they proceed with their decisions.

The children are given these opportunities to make their own choices and learn from them, whether they are good or bad choices. These are lessons on real-life situations. It is important to allow for independence, while the child makes choices. Parents and teachers will allow for time to explain on why that was a good or bad choice, but are encouraged to do so in a way that lets the child think on their own. It is all about what is said, communication in a loving, logical way.


There are many different examples of Love and Logic techniques. One might be for a small child who does not want to wear their coat on a very cold day. Then the adult says it's your choice but you might get cold. The child will usually make the choice after they experience the effects. Another example is: Dad: "Oh, no. You left your bike unlocked and it was stolen. What a bummer. I bet you feel awful. Well, I understand how easy it is to make a mistake like that." (Notice that the parent is not leading with anger, intimidation, or threats.) Dad then adds, "And you'll have another bike as soon as you can earn enough money to pay for it. I paid for the first one. You can pay for the additional ones."

The important thing to remember is not to encourage arguments. Instead, remind the child that you love them too much to have an argument. This can be repeated to let the child know how serious you are. Eventually, the outcomes of training the brain to respond in logical and loving ways, will establish better relationships amongst adults and children.


Many schools have a person on staff that teaches the class to parents for free. There are also many seminars to attend that range anywhere from $30 a session to $325.


Fay, Jim and Cline, Foster W., M.D. (2000). Meeting the Challenge: Using Love and Logic to Help Children Develop Attention and Behavior Skills. Golden, CO: Love & Logic Institute, Inc.

Fay, Jim and Cline, Foster W., M.D. (1997). Discipline with Love and Logic. Golden, CO: The Love and Logic Press, Inc.

Barber, Linda Clarry and Geddes, Betsy, Ed.D. (1997). Students Speak: Effective Discipline for Today's Schools Building a Sense of Community. Portland, OR: Brandon Publishing Co.

Play Therapy


Play therapy is a form of Psychotherapy. It uses play techniques for children to act out their feelings, experiences, and problems through items used for play and under the guidance/observation of a therapist. It is usually used amongst children ages 3 to 11. It allows for children to manipulate the world on a smaller scale and using items they are familiar with.

Play Therapy dates all the way back to Pluto, who said "you can discover more about a person in an hour of play than in a year of conversation." The first documented case of using Play Therapy was by Sigmund Freud and a child named "Little Hans". This case provided evidence that play therapy helped the child identify a simple phobia and then proceed with matters to work on the phobias.

Since the 1940's, there have been numerous documentations of effectiveness due to play therapy. To this date, there are many organizations who emphasize therapy through play. Reaching emotional disturbances or turmoil are extracted through this directive play. In most cases, the therapy is lead by a therapist, but can also be done with school staff that are educated in play therapy.


When completed by a therapist, there can be sessions with up to 2-5 kids at one time. The play allows for the therapists to interpret and evaluate the emotions and feelings of the children. This form of therapy allows the interpretation of feelings to occur without the child knowingly expressing their feelings. Through each different toy and styles of playing, emotions and feelings can be interpreted.


(According to Behavior Advisor:

1.   Select a student who might benefit from play therapy.

2.   Decide if you will have a separate session with this child or whether you will sit near the student during your class play period or recess.

3.   Obtain materials for the session. Recommended items include:

        -manipulatives (e.g., clay, crayons, painting supplies)

        -water and sand play containers

        - toy kitchen appliances, utensils, and pans

        - baby items (e.g., bottles, bibs, rattles, etc.)

        - dolls and figures of various sizes and ages

        - toy guns, rubber knives

        - toy cars, boats, soldiers, and animals

        - blocks, erector sets

        - stuffed animals

4.  Place the materials in specific places where they can be located for each session.

Play Therapy Continued

5.    Meet the student and introduce him/her to the play area.

6.    Inform the student of limitations and how long the session will last (usually 30-60 minutes).

7.    Allow the student to choose materials.  Do not suggest materials or activities.   If the student wishes to leave before the session ends, that is allowed.  However, the student is not allowed to return that day.   He is informed of the time of the next scheduled session.

8.    Use the "reflection" technique to respond to the student's comments.   If the student is non-verbal, your role will change. You will be describing what the student is doing.

9.    As the end of the session nears, inform the student of that fact, stating the number of minutes left.

10.  Upon reaching the time limit, inform the student in a manner similar to the following:  "Our time is up for today.   We'll have to stop now and put the toys back where we found them."   The student is not allowed to continue playing.

11.  Inform the student as to when the next session will be held.

Most examples of Play Therapy are used under the guidance of a therapist, social worker, or school counselor. Teachers may be able to attempt their own play therapy within the classroom, but really need to request permission from family members and the school community for it to be effective sessions.

Examples: There are many different examples or situations where play therapy can be used. Divorce, abuse (physical/sexual), anxiety, emotional turmoil, etc. Allowing a child to play with the doll house and act out their feelings by using the figures and house, can really provide adults with ways to determine the problems they are experiencing.

Cost: The cost is free if performed by a school professional. If Play Therapy is performed by a licensed therapist, costs range according to their hourly fee.


Freud, S. (1909). The case of "Little Hans" and the "Rat Man." London: Hogarth Press.

S. Holeman, Ph.D. Efficacy of Play Therapy and a Brief Review of Related Research

Sane Messages


Classrooms are known as verbal environments, therefore verbal interventions are effective means of communicating about disruptive behaviors. Sane Messages are known as a verbal intervention. A sane message describes the behavior that is disturbing, it explains why the behavior is disturbing, and provides an alternative behavior (Henley, p.163). Haim Ginott (1971) began the concept of Sane Messages, by reminding adults that negative statements humiliate students and are insane. Therefore, sane messages are given without anger and provide students with what to expect from teachers and how to appropriately express their feelings.


Sane Messages require more patience and are longer statements. They allow communication to the student that their behavior is unacceptable without using sarcasm, humiliation, blame, or scolding. These messages address the situation and avoid blame on the children, more on the disturbing behavior. It allows teachers/students to express their feelings by verbally communicating appropriately.

Designing and Implementing:

When using verbal interventions, it is important to remember the following guidelines (according to Henley, 162):

Be Concrete and specific

Avoid any judgmental/negative terms

Speak directly to student and emphasize the present (here and now)

Speak Calmly

Letting the students know what behavior is disturbing, why it is, and appropriate ways to avoid or change the behavior is specific enough to decrease unwanted behaviors.


Sam, you're talking with Mike is distracting me, would you please open your math and finish the last two problems on page 7?

Wrong: You are so irresponsible and always very forgetful.

Sane Messages Continued

Right: When you forget your gym shoes, you are unable to participate in gym due to inappropriate clothing attire for gym.

Show anger:

You have decided to not clean the toys all over the floor, I am very angry, You are making it unsafe for us to walk and go to circle.


There is no cost for sane messages. It is just a behavior modification within ourselves.


Henley, M. (2006). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Pearson Education, New Jersey

Hypodermic Affection


In 1951, Psychoanalysts, Fritz Redl and David Wineman identified hypodermic affection as a method of defusing resistance by using caring at the precise time a child is expecting an angry or punitive response.


This verbal intervention helps diminish student's defensive resistance that they are using to protect themselves from an anxiety. The resistance can be intense: non teacher compliance as a whole, or minor: not wanting to read what was assigned. This is also known as being able to manage the resistance. One needs to avoid responding in a way that duplicates the students' behavior.

Hypodermic Affection is not a predictable response to students. resistance. The ultimate of surprise, catches students off guard and defuses the situation. These surprises ease tension and helps break up rigid thinking. It is important to always think calmly and give time to pause on our own feelings, prior to responding.


It is very easy to begin implementing Hypodermic affection. The important step is to remember the guidelines for verbal communication (be specific, avoid judgments, speak directly and in the present, and speak calmly. The goal is not to directly change the resistance, but to focus on redirecting students.


An angry, smart child attacks the teacher and says he should be Who's Who of Lousy Teachers. The teacher calmly responds by saying-that is one of the best put downs I have heard, but actually my colleagues would think of me as who's he?

Cost: No Cost, just reflection and thinking before responding.


Henley, M. (2006). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Pearson Education, New Jersey

Redl, F and Winemand, D. (1965) Hypodermic Affection. In Controls from within, Techniques for the Treatment of The Aggressive Child. New York: Free Press. pp 170-171

Non-Directive Counseling


Carl Ransom Rogers (1902-1987), was known as the founder of non directive counseling. This type of counseling is the idea that an individual in emotional turmoil can solve their problems with minimal guidance of a counselor. Rogers believed that all people had motivation to change if they wanted. The teacher and counselors are to act as the listener and respond only to the guidelines in order to analyze and solve the problem.


The teacher/counselor must always have a positive demeanor and shows acceptance. The student must feel comfortable in order to express feelings. Non-directive counseling identifies five correct responses to student commentary:

Reflection-this will allow students to know that you are attentively listening and the conversation is safe to continue.

A leading statement or question-allows student to elaborate on the topic. An example is to say..tell me your opinion, or tell me more about…

Clarification-helps students identify his/her feelings. An example is "You sound sad."

Summarization-A review of what has been discussed. This not only allows the child to know you were listening, but clarifies anything that was said, and helps to pinpoint the next starting point from where you left off.

Questioning (both open and closed)\

This non opinionated approach allows students to find the inner conflicts and feelings that they may have, which causes the unwanted behavior.

Designing and Implementing: (According to:

1.  Arrange for a time and place which will provide privacy for your conference.

2.  If the student does not open the session, use a leading statement or question to focus him/her on the topic of concern.

3.  Listen to the student in an interested, non-punitive, accepting manner.  Make no judgments.

4.  Respond when appropriate, using one of the recommended techniques.

5.  After the concerns have been thoroughly voiced by the student, focus him/her on finding a solution for the difficulty. (e.g., "How will you handle this in the future?",   "What do you do now?" and  "Have you got any ideas about how you might deal with this issue?")   Allow the student to choose the solution  that is best for him/her.

Non-Directive Counseling Continued

Examples: (Following the steps as stated above)

Steve, lets meet after school in the classroom.

Steve: They won't let me play ball with them. Or if he won't talk- Adult: How does that make you feel when they refuse to let you play?


Clarify, summarize, and question where needed

Allow child to choose solution…Ask questions as What do you know now? Or How can you deal with this in the future?

Cost: No cost if performed by school personnel. If performed by a licensed therapist, hourly rates will apply.