Study On Detailed Research Methods Education Essay

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.0 INTRODUCTION

Methodology, as defined by Haralambos & Holborn is 'concerned with both the detailed research methods through which data are collected and the more general philosophies upon which the collection and analysis of data are based.

3.1 CASE STUDY METHODOLOGY

Case study refers to the collection and presentation of detailed information about a particular participant or a small group of participant pool drawing conclusion in that specific context. It enables readers to understand ideas more clearly than simply presenting them with abstract theories and principles.

3.1.1 - Methodology used

Lecture mode

Traditional methods would be compared to the use of multimedia. The traditional way of teaching is used always used in the teaching of Food studies practical. So, it would be good comparison material for this case study.

Multimedia learning

This method has been chosen as the object of this research is to find out whether it is effective in helping in the overall development of the student. This would thus be used in class to see how the students respond to it and whether it can help them succeed exams and provide them with additional skills. The multimedia resources used would be audio- visuals one. The materials will compose of educational clips downloaded from YouTube, video recordings (produced and edited by the teacher) and computer simulations.

Use of questionnaires

Using questionnaires to find out the opinions of the students and of Food studies teachers would be good as it would enable me to get both quantitative and qualitative information on the use of multimedia in the teaching of manipulative skills in Food Studies practical. The students will not be influenced by my presence and it will enable me to reach out for many teachers from different schools. A copy of the questionnaire is provided in the appendix.

Sampling

The sample chosen would be 10 students of Form Six (Lower six) composed of a mixed ability intake.

The learners already have some knowledge of the practical skills from their O- level syllabus which would be useful in this study.

Cambridge puts more emphasis on advance skill with a high degree of manipulation at A- level and thus it would be more useful for the students to learn the skills correctly than at O- level as the skills gained would help them much more for examination purposes as well as for self-development.

More time is available for these students and for multimedia learning as they are given 9 periods per week for Food Studies as compared to a meagre 5 periods per week for O- level.

Lower six students also have enough maturity for this study and thus are more apt in taking the class seriously and produce quality work for their Final Cambridge exams.

Assessment mode

Assessments would be done after each lesson and the results would be kept for analysis. The assessment would be summative ones to test the effectiveness of the teaching methods. The format used would be the same for every lesson so as to keep consistency

3.1.2 Lessons

A lesson would be one phase where one method would have been tried and tested for a particular chapter. The case study will consist of three lessons and will be carried out in six phases, where three phases will be using mostly lecture mode and three phases using multimedia so as to have a comparative study of the efficiency of each method used. The second lesson would be a three step lesson which would be linked to each other. Since the criterion for the three lessons differs slightly, the students will be expected to perform each separately.

After each lesson, a summative evaluation would be carried out to test the understanding of the students. The aim is to prove that multimedia enhances the understanding and the skills required for examinations purposes. The lessons breakdown would be as follows:

Table 2 -lesson breakdown

Lesson

Topic

Mode

Time frame

120 mins

Assessment

1A

Preparation of Garnishes

Traditional

3 periods

Class test

1B

Preparation of Garnishes

Multimedia

3 periods

Class test

2A

Pastry making :

Phase 1 : Puff pastry

Phase 2 : Short Crust Pastry

Phase 3 : Choux pastry

Traditional

3 periods

Class test

2 B

Pastry making :

Phase 1 : Puff pastry

Phase 2 : Short Crust Pastry

Phase 3 : Choux pastry

Multimedia

3 periods

Class test

3A

Cake decoration

Traditional

3 periods

Class test

3B

Cake decoration

Multimedia

3 periods

Class test

3.1.3 - Time frame

The time that would be taken to finish the whole case study would be of around three months. This would take the whole second trimester. This will take that long due to the fact that each lesson would be run on two consecutive weeks with one or two week of break so that this new method does not increase the cognitive load of the learners. This time allocation has taken into consideration the numerous activities that are carried out at school during the second trimester

3.1.4 - Validity and reliability of information to be gathered

The data gathering process would be done in the most genuine way possible to avoid bias but still, there can be some constraints which could decrease the validity and reliability of the information. These include:

The results of the students during the assessments do not depend only on the teaching strategy used. There are other factors which can influence their performance like their academic strength, their style of learning, their degree of seriousness or their family background.

The answers obtained from the questionnaire could be biased if the respondents were not answering honestly and seriously to the questions.

The interpretation of the information can also be subjective.

There can be sampling bias due to the fact that the sample size is not very large.

3.2 PLANNING OF LESSONS

A lesson here would be the teaching of one chapter with the traditional method and using multimedia with gathering of information about the performance of the students at the end.

In this section, there would be the planning of each lesson where the lesson plan for each lesson would be given together with the formal assessment which would be done after each lesson to check the effectiveness of the learning process. The performance assessment rubric for each lesson and the marking scheme of each of the formal assessments has been included in the Appendices.

3.2.1- LESSON 1 A - Using traditional methods to teach "Garnishing techniques"

The first lesson would be on 'Garnishing techniques to serve a dish'. This lesson will be done for the practical paper under the sub section of serving of dishes with advanced skills and creativity. The teaching strategies used for this chapter would be mostly lecture mode explanation and demonstration and serving of a dish for summative assessment. The lesson plan for this is given below.

LESSON PLAN 1A

Date: 17th April 2012

Level: Lower Six

Duration: 3 periods of 40 minutes: Total 120 minutes

Topic: Garnishing Techniques

Aim: To test the students' creativity and culinary skills when presenting/serving dishes

Objectives:-

At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

State and explain reasons for serving dishes attractively (Cognitive-lower order)

List the points to be considered when preparing garnishes (Cognitive-lower order)

Differentiate between O level and A level garnishes/ techniques ( Cognitive-higher order)

Demonstrate a high degree of skill and neatness when preparing garnishes to serve dishes attractively (Psychomotor)

Appreciate the importance of well served dishes (Affective)

Students' Prior Knowledge: Display of fruits and vegetables/ colour balance/ decorating techniques-skills (from form V practical classes)

Teacher's Prior Preparation: Student questionnaire, oral questions, teacher record diary, and performance assessment rubric.

Teaching Materials: Demonstration, Recipe books, photos

Teaching Strategies: Brainstorming, oral questioning, peer learning

Description of lesson:

Procedure:

1st to 5 minute: Gain pupils' attention and Attendance noted

5th to 15 minute: Brainstorming

Pose question on the importance of garnishes when serving a dish and what are the other points to be considered when serving a dish

Create a mind map and discuss the answers listed on the board and this is done by lecture method.

15th to 45th minute: Peer learning/ teaching

Pair work: Each pair of student is asked to prepare two different garnishes with one of a Tomato, Chili, Carrot, Cucumber and Pepper

The garnishes are then displayed in a tray and emphasis is laid on nearness

45th to 60 minutes: Performance Method: Demonstration

Teacher demonstrates a garnish with each of the above listed vegetables.

60th to 90th minute: Garnishing skills: (To be Assessed)

Individual work: Each student is asked to garnish her dish and serve it attractively by presentation of the dish

Note: Creativity and neatness is very important.

Each student is asked to display her dish on the serving table. Each dish is observed and marked according to a performance rubric.

90th to 110 minute: Peer evaluation

The 10 dishes are displayed- each student is asked to comment on their friends work in terms of the criterion in the rubric.

110th to 120th minute - The teacher will conclude the lesson with his views about the serving of dishes and garnishing techniques and the students would be allowed to take down the main issues of concern. A student activity worksheet would be given to the students as homework to strengthen their understanding of the topic. Also students would need to download videos of easy garnishing techniques that they think would be important to enhance their learning and creativity. The video would then be viewed and validate by the teacher.

Student- evaluation:

The lesson went fairly well. The pair work and peer learning was an enriching task for the class. Students were able to question their friends and there a good sharing of knowledge. However I must say that, the students were not very at ease in preparing the garnishes. They

spend a lot of time thinking what can be done and end up with simple O level garnishes. Most of the groups prepared simple basic garnishes. Only one pair of student managed to show their creativity though they did not pay attention to neatness and advanced techniques that were expected from them. For the A-level practical serving of dishes, organization and presentation is very important which I found is lacking from the students. Still, all the students used their prior knowledge to prepare something and displayed it as per the set task. However the presentation and the recapitulation activity were good indicating that learning has taken place.

Self - evaluation

Brainstorming used at the start of this lesson is a good way to start the class and of make student reflect on prior knowledge. Also small chunks of information are easier to recall. The strength of the lesson was that I was satisfied with the peer learning session. The students were motivated and wanted to share what they know with their friends. Also I noticed that there was a sense of competition within the groups as each group wanted their garnishes to be the best and most appealing. All the students managed to display something within the time allocated. The strengths of the lesson were that when the students were asked to serve a dish of their choice, they presented a mixture of all- prior knowledge, peer learning and teacher demonstration. All the ten students recalled what they have seen and tried to reproduce same.

The weaknesses of the lesson were that the students were a bit unsure of what they would do at the beginning. They started with a lot of vegetables and they end managed to produce some garnishes which was quite poor and made a lot of wastage. Hence, this shows that the students lack critical thinking and creativity. Also, I noticed that at the beginning two or three students were not willing to start with the demonstration as they were scared to prepare the garnishes. To conclude I would say that the garnishes prepared by the students were not really up to the standard as they were not neat and demonstrated poor notion of culinary skills. I still believe that there is room for improvement to bring out the hidden talent of the student as each individual has an artist beneath her. Thus in the near future, if given the chance again I am sure that the students would come up with more interesting ways of garnishing and techniques.

3.2.2- LESSON 1 B - Using multimedia to teach "Garnishing techniques"

The second lesson will be done on the same chapter but this times the teaching strategies used for this chapter would be online videos from You - Tube and learners will have to demonstrate some easy garnishes but with a more advanced techniques the aim of the videos would be to enhance critical thinking and provide some serving ideas/suggestions. The lesson plan for this is given below.

LESSON PLAN 1B

Date: 24th April 2012

Level: Lower Six

Duration: 3 periods of 40 minutes: Total 120 minutes

Topic: Garnishing Techniques

Aim: Using multimedia to develop students' creativity and culinary skills in the preparation of garnishes.

Objectives:-

At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

Illustrate the use of a variety of colours and skills to serve dishes (Cognitive-lower order)

Experiment different techniques of making garnishes ( Cognitive-high order)

Develop innovative pattern to represent a dish appropriately(Cognitive-higher order)

Demonstrate an advanced degree of skill and precision when preparing garnishes (Psychomotor-low order)

Create appropriate garnishes for selected dishes (Psychomotor-high order)

Appreciate the beauty of well garnished dishes(Affective)

Students' Prior Knowledge:

Display of vegetables/ colour balance/ garnishing techniques-skills (from form V practical classes)

The impact of colour balance, creativity, way of display, appearance, degree of skills in the preparation of garnishes. (From previous lesson)

Teacher's Prior Preparation:

2 days before:

Review videos brought by students to see if the learning resources are relevant to the syllabus.

Each student asked to prepare a savoury dish at home.

Arrangement of working space, Kitchen equipment for each student, Student questionnaire, Student evaluation grid-checklist/ Performance assessment Rubric.

Teaching Materials: Multimedia resources (videos from You Tube), laptop, overhead projector, vegetables (lettuce, cabbage, black olives, pepper, spring onion, chilli).

Teaching Strategies: Brainstorming, Auditory learning.

Description of the lesson:

The working space for each student has been arranged and each of them will be given a tray to display their ingredients and kitchen equipment.

The lesson is similar to that of 1A but this time there will be short session of video viewing instead of the teacher demonstration and then the students will embark on hands- on activity.

This step will be repeated for at least four times as several vegetables garnishes would be done.

Then using previous knowledge and what they have just learn, students would need to show their creativity and skills to serve a dish.

This will be assessed and marks would be given accordingly using a performance assessment rubric.

The teacher will be here to guide them and to answer to all their queries.

Procedure

1st to 5th minute: Gain pupils' attention and attendance noted- pupils settle down and explain to them how the lesson will go by

5th - 10th minute: Oral questioning:

The class would start with an oral questioning session on what are the points to be considered when serving a dish and what are the characteristic of a well-served dish?

Multimedia teaching and Learning:

10th - 20th minute: First video viewing (Carrots)

Hands- on activity and students display their work

20th- 35th minute: Video viewing part 2 - (vegetable carving)

Hands on activity and peer learning

35th - 45th minute: video viewing part 3 - (tomato)

Hands on activity and peer assessment.

45th - 55th minute: The students are move around to view their peer work and comment on them.

55th - 85th minute: Garnishing skills: (To be Assessed)

Individual work: Each student is asked to garnish her dish and serve it attractively by presentation of the dish

Note: Creativity and neatness is very important.

Each student is asked to display her dish on the serving table. Each dish is observed and marked according to a performance rubric.

85th to 100 minute: Peer evaluation

The 10 dishes are displayed- each student is asked to comment on their friends work in terms of the criterion in the rubric. Much emphasis was laid on the creativity and colour balance. Also dishes with at least three garnishing techniques and skills scored the maximum marks.

100th to 120th minute - The teacher will conclude the lesson by taking into account the students effort. After this lesson, a comparison will be drawn as compared to the first lesson to see whether there has been an improvement in the teaching and learning of the skills. Also the students' performance would be evaluated in terms of creativity, high standard and advanced techniques in the serving of dishes. Thus students would be asked to note these important points as they would have to reproduce the same standard when they serve dishes for the exams.

Student evaluation

The students enjoyed the audiovisual session. They were very enthusiastic and motivated in class. All of them were able to practice the garnishes seen in each section within the given time frame. The students were able to memorize the process and re- playing of the video was rarely required. The end result was much better as compared to the first traditional way of learning. This teaching strategy especially for the practical class was quite new to the students but they managed fairly well to give the best of themselves. At the end of each session, they were satisfied of their work and some who were more rapid had enough time to reproduce the same garnish over again. Thus this shows the willingness of the learners to discover and learn. The learners were able to gain extra knowledge as when comparing the first attempt with this one, some improvements have been noted which implies better quality learning has surely taken place.

Self - evaluation

The oral questioning was a good starting point indicating that the students still remember the main criteria to be considered when presenting a dish. The small videos were very interesting and well adapted to the learning outcomes. The small chunks of information presented visually were well adapted for the mixed ability class. I could feel the difference and level of motivation of the students while they were working. Some students worked with a high level of precision and advanced skills. The strengths of the lesson were that there was a slight improvement on the students' performance and presentation as compared to the traditional teaching. I was glad to see all my students on task and there was a lot of sharing among them. The students were proud of their work. Also all the students had the chance to have individual attention while working. I was always behind them to supervise their work and encouraging them. Indeed the videos were demonstration from chefs but for a first time, reproducing the same would have seemed difficult but still the students managed to do so. On the whole, an improvement was seen in the degree of advance skills to produce A- level garnishes. Also this has boosted the students to come with other creativity when displaying their garnishes and how to play with the colour balance. The weaknesses of the lesson were that the students took some time to adapt to this new teaching strategy. Although all of them were working, at the beginning few of them were scared to start the hands on activity. They were staring at their friends but after talking to them, they managed to do well. I was happy with the students' effort and encouraged them to continue to do so. Even I got to learn a lot from this activity. Through my students I have learned at least three new garnishing techniques today and it feel really good to learn with one's student. Thus I firmly believe that multimedia is a potential tool that needs to be further explored

3.2.3 LESSON 2A - Using traditional performance method to teach 'Manipulative skills in Pastry Making'

The second lesson will be done on the chapter 'Pastry Making'. This chapter will deal with the three types of pastries namely puff pastry, short crust pastry and choux pastry. All the three pastries are important for the A-level practical class as they demonstrate a high degree of skills in the preparation and serving. Also pastry making involves different steps in which the correct manipulative techniques need to be appropriate otherwise faults in pastry making can occur or failing to follow the steps may produce a low quality pastry. The teaching strategies used for this chapter would be lecture mode followed by performance method to consolidate learning. The lesson plan for this is given below.

LESSON PLAN 2A

Date: 8th May 2012

Level: Lower Six

Duration: 3 periods of 40 minutes: Total 120 minutes

Topic: Manipulative skills in Pastry Making

Aim: To enable students to develop precise manipulative skills behind pastry making.

Objectives:-

At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

List the different types of pastries (Cognitive-Low order).

Identify the different steps involved in making each pastry (Cognitive-Low order).

Discuss the principles behind each step involved in the preparation and baking of different pastries (Cognitive-High order).

Demonstrate the correct technique/skills involved in pastry making (Psychomotor-High order).

Master the correct use of utensils for each pastry (Psychomotor-High order).

Appreciate the manipulative skills in pastry making (Affective).

Student' prior knowledge:

Students have already covered the theory of pastry making.

They are aware of the different types of pastries, steps behind each and ingredients used.

Teacher prior preparation:

2 days before students were asked to review the steps behind pastry making

Preparation of ingredients, Preparation of classroom- arrangement of working units, Preparing flash cards and posters, Prepare recipe- puff pastry / choux and short crust, student worksheet

Teaching materials:

Recipes - Puff Pastry, Short crust pastry and choux Pastry

Ingredients, Kitchen utensils, Whiteboard /2 colored markers ,Flash Cards, Student worksheet- pastry making.

Teaching strategies: Performance Learning -Demonstration, oral questioning, brainstorming, peer learning.

Description of lesson:

Procedure:

1st- 5th minute: Gain pupils' attention and attendance is noted

5th - 15th minute: Brainstorming

A pastry is a dough or paste consisting primarily of flour, water, and shortening that is baked

Students are asked what the different types of pastry are and identify the characteristics and quality of pastries. The question is posted on the board.

Answers listed and corrected on the board. Students are asked to take note.

15th - 30th minute: Pair work

Reflection on the following question:

List the equipment to be used for each pastry

Identified the steps involved in making each pastry

Highlight the principals involved behind each step.

Answers noted on the board and flash cards used

30th - 40th minute: Peer learning

Phase 1: Puff pastry

The step by step demonstration would be based on guided discovery learning and the step would be demonstrated by the students (chosen at random) with the teacher supervision and oral questioning.

Step 1: Sieving

Pose question:

What type of flour is used for puff pastry and why?

Why is sieving done?

Step 2: Addition of liquid and mixing

Pose question:

Why is lemon juice added to puff pastry?

Why all the water needs to be added at once?

Which equipment is used to make the dough?

Why the dough is not kneaded?

Step 3: Addition of fat

Pose question:

What type of fat is best for puff pastry and why

Proportion of fat to flour?

What should be done with the fat and why?

Which equipment is used for this purpose?

Step 4: Folding

How is folding done?

What are the precautions to be taken when folding and why

Which equipment is used for this purpose

Step 5. Sealing

How is a puff sealed?

What is the purpose of sealing?

What equipment is used for sealing?

40th - 50th minute: Individual work-

Each student will be allowed to practice the demonstrated steps. A student evaluation grid will be used to assess the student's skills and techniques of working- Summative assessment for phase 1.

Phase 2: Short Crust Pastry

50th - 60th minute: Peer teaching

One student chosen at random will be asked to demonstrate the short crust pastry and explain to peers the reason behind each step. The work will be closely supervised by the teacher

Step 1: Sieving of flour

Step 2: Rub in fat

How is this done? Why?

Appearance of flour mixture

Step 3: Addition of water

What is the Temperature of water

How it should be added and why?

Which equipment must be used?

Step 4: Rolling

Which equipment is used for rolling?

What are the movements that should be done?

How much flour must be used for dusting? Why

60th - 70th minute: Individual work

Each student will be allowed to practice the demonstrated steps. Student evaluation grid is used to assess the students while they are working. - Summative Assessment for phase 2.

70th - 80th minute: Class Reflection

Phase 3: Choux Pastry

There would be a small class reflection (orally) before proceeding with the choux pastry.

Students would be expected to reflect on the following questions:

1. Name the method by which choux pastry is made/bake?

2. List the characteristics of a good quality choux pastry

Demonstration by teacher followed by oral questioning

Teacher demonstration will be done here as the students will be asked to observe the techniques and characteristics of the dough.

Step 1: Boiling of water and addition of fat (Melting)

Step 2: Addition of flour to melted fat and water

Pose question:

Which process is being demonstrated?

Why is it important to reduce the heat?

Why is cooling important

Step 3: Addition of eggs and mixing

Teacher tells student that at this stage, a mixer can be used (labour saving device) or a wooden spoon.

Step 4: Shaping

Shaping of choux with two spoons is being demonstrated. Students will be allowed to use the piping bag (add to skills)

80th - 90th minute: Individual work

Students asked to practice the skills involved in the making of Choux pastry. Student evaluation grid is used to assess the students while they are working. - Summative Assessment for phase 3

90th - 100th minute: Pair work

A Worksheet is given to the students- Pastry Making

Task - 1: Recall the steps behind each pastry and state which equipment was used.

Each group will be given 10 minutes for this activity and you will present your answer to the class on a concluding note.

100th- 120th minute: Each group will present her work and the teacher will conclude the lesson by evaluating the overall progress of the students and make general comments on remedial action that need to be taken for the next classes concerning processes that were fairly well done.

Student evaluation

Since this chapter is considered to be the most important one for the practical and pastry making is more scoring for the exams, students need demonstrate good mastery of knowledge. During the brainstorming session, the students were very active and participate well. They were not afraid to participate or asked relevant questions to clear their misunderstandings. The class did not follow the same sequence as I had planned, but instead I went in accordance to the students' ideas given. The hands on activity went on well and the students shared their knowledge with their friends. It was a student centred class and I was present just as a mediator to facilitate the learning process. The use of equipment and techniques were fairly good and the correct concept was demonstrated students, thus encouraging peer learning. The group is small, and here, also they tend to answer in group, even though I am hand picking someone.

The students appreciate the lesson and they told me, we should use this method for practical classes as the step by step refreshes their mind and peer learning helps them to better memorise concepts as it involves a lot of participation and oral questioning rather than following a recipe. The two high -fliers of the class did mention that the remedial action and tips provided during the hand on activity would be very useful to them as they would not have realised that amendments can be made provided it does not affect the final result. All the students were happy with the individual attention that they got.

Self-evaluation:

On the whole, I was satisfied with the class. Everything went on smoothly and students could recall the steps and principles. The strength of the lesson was that, all the students had the chance to participate in the hands on activity and oral questioning. The questions asked were mainly based on application and interpretation and the students managed to give the correct answer. The class was a student centred one and it encouraged students to learn as there was group work as well as individual work. The hands - on activity was assessed at each level. Students managed to perform the manipulative skills correctly however a small minority still encounter some difficulties concerning the correct techniques. The weakness of the lesson was that due to time constraint, I could not do a sensory analysis with the students to explain to them how to go about testing the characteristics of a baked pastry (choux). I wanted to show them how the marks are allocated for and exams and thus together we would have tackled the faults in pastry making orally. I believe that getting students familiar with the marking scheme for the exams is important as this motivates them and enable them to pay more attention to what they are doing.

3.2.4 LESSON 2B - Using Multimedia to teach 'Manipulative skills and in Pastry Making'

The second lesson will be done using educational multimedia as a teaching and learning resource. Here the video used has been prepared by the teacher bearing in mind that only the important chunks of information is being presented in front of the learner. Since this chapter is important and highly scoring, the aim is to enable student to grasp the basics of pastry making and master the manipulative skills professionally with a lot of precision.

LESSON 2B

Date: 15th May 2012

Level: Lower Six

Duration: 3 periods of 40 minutes: Total 120 minutes

Topic: Manipulative skills in Pastry Making

Aim: Using Multimedia to develop professional manipulative skills and techniques in pastry making

Objectives:-

At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

Identify the different steps involved in making each pastry (Cognitive-Low order).

Recall the utensils used at each stage of pastry making ( Cognitive-Low order).

Examine the characteristics of each pastry (Cognitive- High order).

Demonstrate the correct technique/skills involved in pastry making (Psychomotor-High order).

Judge consistency of a good pastry (Psychomotor-High order).

Appreciate mastery of the techniques in Pastry Making (Affective).

Students' prior knowledge:

Students have already covered the theory of pastry making.

They are aware of the different types of pastries, steps behind each and ingredients used.

Students have already experiment the steps in pastry making (Previous practical session).

Teacher's prior preparation:

Preparation of classroom- arrangement of working units

Editing and burning of videos

Prepare recipe- puff pastry / choux and short crust

Preparation student worksheet

Observation checklist

Teaching materials:

Recipes - Puff Pastry, Short crust pastry and choux Pastry, Laptop, Overhead projector, Video recordings.

Description of lesson:

Multimedia education would be used in the form of short video recordings to illustrate the step by step process and manipulative skills involve in Pastry Making.

Emphasis would also be drawn on the use of equipment.

The lesson is similar to that of 2A but this time there will be short session of visually presented information instead of the teacher demonstration and then the students will embark on a hand- on activity.

Teacher interference would be less not disrupts the students' concentration.

This lesson will be done in three phases for three different pastries

Then using previous knowledge and what they have just learn, students would need to show good mastery of the skills with a high degree of accuracy.

This will be assessed and marks would be given accordingly using a performance assessment rubric

The teacher will be here to bring immediate remedial action and to answer to all their queries

Procedure:

1st- 5th minute: Gain pupils' attention, attendance noted and explaining how the lesson will go by

5th - 15th minute: Brainstorming

During the brainstorming activity, a few questions will be asked to the students to know what they already know. A pastry is a dough or paste consisting primarily of flour, water, and fat. What is the importance of each step in pastry making? The answers will be noted on the board followed by a general class discussion

15th - 45th minute: Multimedia Learning Phase 1

Demonstration of short crust pastry

All the steps are viewed by the students.

Individual work-

Each student is allowed to practice the demonstrated steps. A student evaluation grid is used to assess the student's skills and techniques of working- Summative assessment Phase 1.

45th - 65th minute: Multimedia Learning Phase 2

Demonstration of choux pastry

All the steps are viewed by the students.

Individual work-

Each student is allowed to practice the demonstrated steps. A student evaluation grid is used to assess the student's skills and techniques of working- Summative assessment Phase 2

65th - 95th minute: Multimedia Learning Phase 3

Demonstration of puff pastry

All the steps are viewed by the students.

Individual work-

Each student is allowed to practice the demonstrated steps. A student evaluation grid is used to assess the student's skills and techniques of working- Summative assessment Phase 3

95th - 105 minute: Individual work

Each student will be given a work sheet to fill in. the aim of this work sheet would be to find out how the students process and recall information with respect to multimedia learning. The cognitive load and the recapitulation abilities of the students would be testes as this class will involve very few of teacher interference and will be more based on instructions and student centered.

105th - 120th minute: The teacher will conclude the lesson with his views about the teaching with multimedia and the students would be informed about their progress. Homework (a theory question on pastry making) would be given to the students to strengthen their understanding of the topic.

Students' evaluation

The lesson went well and it was possible to get active participation from the students who were lively and interested in the lesson. Since this was the second audio visual class for the practical, the students were more at ease with the teaching strategy and they organised themselves in a better way to follow the video and move on to the hands on activity. The students enjoyed the learning as all the processes were clear and easy to understand. After the class, I could see that the students were amazed to learn this topic using technology. For the students, the concept was made clearer and this enabled quick hands on activity.

Even those students who always made negative comments on puff pastry gain a certain degree of confidence after the class. The students felt that now they would better tackle the skills and produce the required level of manipulative skills.

Self-Evaluation:

Indeed from past experience, I can say that pastry making involves a lot of skills and students fail to do so correctly for the exams due to time constraint. Hence it took me a lot of time to produce the videos, to edit it accordingly so that it can be used as a teaching resource. It was the first time I did the video and I think this would be kept for further use for the coming Upper Six classes.

The strengths of the lesson were that, my students and I were very satisfied after the lesson. The video enable the students to have an overview what is expected from them for the exams. To view someone else work from the beginning to end is not possible for the students as they merely have the chance to do so. Thus while learning from the video, they had the chance to observe, assess consistency and quality and better understand how to judge good quality pastry. Previously all the pastry classes were done by demonstration but the teacher was doing only part of the process so that the students do not miss part of the practical. But the way the videos were presented were very meaningful and enriching. At the end of the class the students told me that they have been able to clarify many doubts that they had and would want to be taught using multimedia from time to or for revision sessions.

The weaknesses of the lesson were that it is a very time consuming task to produce the video. This time I did not go on the internet to look for the video as the aim was to show the students good quality and advanced techniques, thus I preferred to produce my own. Secondly a student asked me whether the process was correct and I intervene to help her which I believe was not good. I believe that I should have let her work and come up with the correct practice in the sum up part. Last but not least, in the class, I was walking around to monitor the students work using the assessment rubric, I noticed some minor faults and marking was done as per the criterion set. I firmly believe I could note the other weakness of the students and get back to them personally after the class. This would have been a good way to gain their confidence and increase their motivation in the practical class.

3.2.5 LESSON 3A - Using to teach 'Cake Decoration'

The second lesson will be done using educational multimedia as a teaching and learning resource. Here the video used has been prepared by the teacher bearing in mind that only the important chunks of information is being presented in front of the learner. Since this chapter is important and highly scoring, the aim is to enable student to grasp the basics of pastry making and master the manipulative skills professionally with a lot of precision.

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