Study of job satisfaction on Malaysia academic staff

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Recently many parties, such as industrial-organizational psychology, organizational management, and human resource management have discussed job satisfaction widely and actively because it is a common field that will affect all the job productivity [1] . According to Staples et al. (1998),job satisfaction is an interesting and continuously topic to discussed, it is because works has occupy most of our lifetime rather than other activities and it provides fundamental economic support to human life (pg1). [2] job satisfaction can consider as a measurement level of different task toward the employees. nevertheless, it is still rely on the natural of the task in a company that make employees satisfy or dissatisfy.

job satisfaction is very important nowadays. Satisfy job is not only depends on the job itself, it also depends on other factors such as, working environment, organization culture, supervision style and interpersonal relationship [3] . as usual human will only working and remain longer in the company with given them much satisfaction compared to the company that offered low employee's requirement or make them dissatisfy with the working conditions. in reality it is very difficult to know how far the employees satisfy with variety job in the society [4] .

Nonetheless, from the past decade record there are many studies on employee satisfaction had held in service and profit making industry, therefore now researcher interest is to examine how the company perspective can affects job satisfaction and it is looking on job satisfaction in academic staffs. this paper is seek to examine job satisfaction in Malaysia academic staff from education institution perspective. academic staffs has chosen to this studies, because education industry is the industry that fully used labour intensive and the money or fund that mainly used by a education institution are invested into educators' personnel (pg2) [5] ,

All the education levels including higher education are overseen by government in is a common and important institution in Malaysia because it drives the country to be more successful in the future with constancy and the continuous sustainable movement. [6] Colleges are to develop new knowledge, provide correct pathway in life and as a tools to encourage social justice and equality to students. [7] Nevertheless the successful of the colleges are relying on the participation and assisting by lecturers (academic staff) and it is directly related to the successful of the college by satisfy the lecturers, because a healthy colleges may improve the level of job satisfaction on lecturers, meanwhile also increase the efficiency of colleges. [8] Hence, as mentioned by Kusku (2003),satisfaction on academic staff is an important issue. [9] (pg2)

Problem statement

job satisfaction will benefit employees as well as employers too. it will increase the efficiency and effectiveness on the institution, meanwhile to reduce the probability on employees turnover [10] . But nowadays it seems quite difficult in educational institution, lecturers (educators) are highly concerned by everyone, because most of the lecturers are dissatisfy with their current job and tend to resign, as Guardian Educational Poll disclosed that 51.7% of the teachers in university and colleges mentioned that they had thinking about looking for new job rather than stay at higher educational institution [11] .

these days, Malaysia college's lecturers has facing many problem, therefore it may influence the level of job satisfaction. The fundamental problem that arise with the expected of job for the academic staff have changed drastically if compared to decade before, thus it will decrease the job satisfaction level or dissatisfaction on academic staff [12] . The low job satisfaction or dissatisfaction of lecturers will direct lead the educational institution decrease their productivity, little performance, strike, absences, difficult to achieve student's needs and other problems [13] .

Research question

Researcher is interest to analyze as follow:

Why need job satisfaction

What factors that determine job satisfaction or dissatisfaction

How teacher being satisfy from institution perspective

How the kbu lecturers to be satisfy

Research objective

The purpose statement of this study is:

To understand the impotency of job satisfaction on academic staff

To identify what factors that influence job satisfaction amongst lecturers from institution perspectives

To analyze the factors that might influence lecturers

Scope and limitation

Due to job satisfaction is a wide topic to discuss,thus to make this topic to be more interested and easy to analyze, so the discussion scope will be focus on institution perspective only and the education level to be analyze was fall in general malaysia level of education in Malaysia, which is colleges. moreover, to be more specify kbu college will be chosen as a tools to complete my research.

However when start doing this research, there are some problem raise up. First it is hard to find the suitable and relevant journal or article that suit to my title no matter from internet or books.furthermore,most of the internet resources especially journal we cannot direct access to it, need either register as their member or pay to the view the related journals.

Lastly,it is hard to collect information from every lecturer in kbu college,because each lecturer have different arrange of time table,thus it is difficult for researcher to complete the research.

Literature review

Job satisfaction

the term of job satisfaction has a lot of definition by different scholars. Generally, job satisfaction was achieved when someone satisfied with their job and at the same time it can fulfil their job's expectation with compared to their previous experiences and evaluate the result from what their planned. [14] .As Locke (1969, 1976), had mentioned that job satisfaction is "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences" [15] . Moreover, job satisfaction can define as an attitude that posted to a job by employees.(book,management).nevertheless researcher is concern on job satisfaction from institution, administrative and socio-economic.

Fundamentally, job satisfaction will make a person feel good in the job and fulfil their needs when they undertaking the job. According Hoppock (1935) stated that job satisfaction is gathered of persons' feeling, emotional and how the job affected them in live [16] . In additional,Herzberg et al, had identified dual-factor theory of job satisfaction,it is depends on two groups factors to determine the satisfaction or of the factor that will guide to job satisfaction is job content-related factors,this include the natural of the task and achievement, however, another one factor which is job context-related factors and it consists of pay and working condition that may influences job dissatisfaction [17] (pg2).

besides, Job satisfaction might instantly affected by institution phenomena as well, such as the company hierarchy, further employees are more favoured to decentralized administration because they can have more authority to doing decision making on their own task [18] .As Kerego and Mthupha (1997) viewed that understandable of communication,clear staff policy ,involvement of employee in decision making, and good governance will directly affect job satisfaction.(pg23) [19] .

Paul Spector has identified nine facets on job satisfaction to determine the employee attitude of the job and from the workplace condition [20] . Below are Paul's nine facets:

Pay - salary

Promotion - equal opportunities

Supervision - supervisor with equally allocate task

Fringe Benefits - hostel, transportation and foods

Contingent rewards - recognition, appreciation and respect

Operating procedure - policies and procedures

Coworkers - colleagues that work together

Nature of work - the tasks that responsible by employees

Communication - communicate or sharing information within the organization

Furthermore job descriptive index (JDI) had conducted by smith,kendall & hulin (1969) is to measures five main aspects that related to job satisfaction [21] . the five main aspects which is:

Natural of the work itself - the tasks are interesting or bored.

Pay - salary pay fairness, bad or well-paid

Promotion - less promotions on opportunities, promotions based on ability or great opportunities

Supervision - does the supervisors able to assists workers? Not supervise enough, just around when needed or good enough

Coworkers - colleagues that with smart, interesting or nasty

Teacher's job satisfaction

Chakravorty (1990) has argued that teacher will be satisfied in work when they can fully utilize their knowledge, abilities and skills that required in teaching methods, but lately in year 1992,Hart & Conn have stated that it has extensively to include morale and optimistic affects from the job area [22] . nonetheless another scholars pointed out that teachers' satisfaction may be affected by the chances to build professional competence and relationships, working conditions, senior staffs and autonomy on decision making as well as helping to achieve the institution objective. Teachers' satisfaction should be maintained, because it may influence the teaching instruction that given to pupils and they will not easy to leave this field [23] .

The Indian Education Commission (1964-66) also states that 'nothing is more important than providing teachers best professional preparation and creating satisfactory conditions of work in which they carefully be effective.'  Sand Frankiewiz (1979) found a positive relationship between job satisfaction and effective teacher behaviour.  In the light of the above the theoretical framework of teacher job satisfaction may be considered as one of the important factors, which can enhance teaching competency.

to more understand the job satisfaction on teacher, thus Evans had pointed a number of factors in teachers' job satisfaction had indicated by the level of job satisfaction in education institution [24] (pg15)

Level I: policy and condition of service. The basic is pay arrangement, an acceptable and good pay will increase satisfaction

Level II: leadership style, from senior teachers or head of school. The institution climate consists of teachers' freedom, the outline of school's management, methods of reward and punishment of teachers and other.

Level III: this level is concern on the decision of job satisfaction from personal attitude, individual behavior and emotional that will affect this level, however employee decision to fulfill individual's need, fulfill employees expectation and value congruence.