Job satisfaction is one of the subjects commonly studied in organizational behaviour studies since it has a positive effect on organizational effectiveness and efficiency (Saari and Judge, 2004). And Griffeth et al (2000) also pointed out job satisfaction has been the most frequently investigated variable affecting job performance in human resources and organizational management. One essential reason for job satisfaction research is needed due to the importance of some factors in the physical and mental happiness of employees (Cranny et al, 1992), which factors may just have one common quality, to improve and enhance the happiness of staffs.
Teachers are the significant element in education system, corresponding to employees in any organisations. Although, university with the objectives to provide in-depth knowledge, seek academic development, educate students, and coordinate national development demands (Johnes and Taylor, 1990), which are different if compared with commercial organizations. But if we take into consideration the fact that employees with a high job satisfaction contribute to working more effectively and attaining a high performance, the importance of improving teacher job satisfaction in terms of school success and to improve education can easily be understood (Ostroff, 1992).
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Furthermore, the changes experienced in UK higher education remain considerable situation at the present time. The expansion of student numbers, the diminution of student funding, and the possibility of students will enhance their interests on education, work practices or conditions of work for academics, the growth of contract teaching and research staff, university funding crisis, the introduction of teaching assessment system, and monitor of performance. Some changes have arisen from the highly developing economy, the pressures of demands, the cultural shift in the way in which higher education is viewed, structural and managerial diversity, and multiplicity of university missions or emphases (Oshagbemi, 1997). All above changes do have relationship with teachers and their job satisfaction, and also may produce some affect on it. Considering those changes and keeping catch up with continue progress, it is necessary to fulfil the teacher's requirements, enable them to achieve outstanding research and teaching performance, or rather all things could improve teacher job satisfaction.
While there are numerous publications on job satisfaction, and these continue to grow, there has been relatively little research on the job satisfaction of university teachers in general and UK academics in particular (Ward and Sloane, 1998). Further, there seems no explicit definition and range of job satisfaction, it could contain various aspects or just related directly to job itself. Even if just focus on the area of higher education, more specific elements related to teacher job satisfaction should be emphasized which would provide more meaningful and practical suggestions for managerial process.
According to literatures, every studies about teacher job satisfaction has different research orientation and related affect elements. A great amount of researches about job satisfaction in higher education have utilized the dual-factor theory which was offered by Herzberg. This theory emphasized that the source of job satisfaction is the nature of the work itself which is also a factor of motivation, while the environment or working atmosphere are usually the reason of dissatisfaction occurs. Herzberg (1968) suggested that two dimensions of job satisfaction: motivation and hygiene which are two major types of people needs.
Some intrinsic elements of a job, such as achievement, recognition and responsibility are motivational factors which are related in job satisfaction. Those factors are related to the nature of the job itself and the possible outcomes. It is concerned that those motivational factors are supposed to satisfy the requirement of an individual for their jobs. They can obtain the rewards which could enhance their own desire only from those factors.
In term of some extrinsic elements associated with the work environment such as salary, working conditions, class size, co-worker relations, benefits and job security are hygiene factors that are related to job dissatisfaction. When those factors are positive, the job satisfaction may result. But if these are unacceptable, the barriers to job satisfaction will come out. Furnham (1992) claimed that fulfil the requirement of the hygiene factors itself cannot gain job satisfaction but it could assist to decline the level of dissatisfaction, even remove it.
Fumham, A. (1992) Personality at work. London: Routledge.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Even though this theory was referenced many times, some other results also were found after those authors finish their researches and some of them do not support Herzberg's theory anymore. For instance King (1970, cited in Oshagbemi, 1997) claims that two dimensions theory is not entirely clear and it may have five possible explanations at least to interpret it. Pearson and Seiler (1983) found in their research that academics tended to feel more satisfied than dissatisfied with the extrinsic facts of physical environment they work but were dissatisfied with the extrinsic facts of salary. There are concern that the dual-factor theory cannot be strong enough to give a clear explanation of the complexities of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction ( ).
There is another theory about motivation called "The Expectancy Theory" which concern individuality and variability, it is different to Herzberg's theory which generalizes the needs of individuals. This theory suggests that motivation is generated from the value that an individual places on the possible results of their actions and the degree of expectation that their goal will be achieved (Torrington et al, 1994).
Torrington, D and Weightman, J. (1994) Effective Management. London: Practice Hall.
Kinman and Jones (2004) conduct a survey about stress and work-life balance in academic and academic-related employees in the UK, which contains one link on job satisfaction and also based on the theory about several extrinsic aspects as well as intrinsic factors. One aspect is related to general job satisfaction, which focus on working condition, promotion prospects, hours of work, job security. The other aspect is emphasized elements correlated with academic job satisfaction, such as the course or modules, the students they teacher or supervise, research and academic freedom. However, the research result for the part of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction also show that both the extrinsic aspects and intrinsic factors could influence the academics' opinion about whether they feel satisfied or dissatisfied with their jobs. It is difficult to separate what facts are exactly related to satisfaction whereas others are not.
Quarstein et al. (1992) postulate the situational occurrences theory of job satisfaction and assert it also consider job satisfaction is influenced by motivation and hygiene firstly. But authors denote in their research, the situational occurrences theory argues that job satisfaction is a function of situational occurrences and situational characteristics, whatever the given factor are which could be result in either job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. There are no differences between job content or job context-related factors. And also overall teacher job satisfaction could be predicted from situational occurrences and situational characteristics. For instance, situational occurrences could include breaks serve tea and biscuits which is positive or unclean environment in rest room which is negative; situational characteristics mean some aspects which are steady, such as, salary, working environment and conditions.
However, Oshagbemi (1997) also pointed out that the theory of Quarstein et al has not consider the elements of personal factors, such as age, education qualification, different rank. Therefore, Oshagbemi (1997) discusses those two theories and conducts a survey which also analyses factors influencing teacher job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, in order to validly summarize the factors which teachers themselves claim contribute to their job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. In Oshagbemi's research, a questionnaire comprising eight basic job elements and some demographic questions was constructed to measure the job satisfaction of university teachers. The eight basic job elements which include the nature of the job: teaching and research, administration and management, present pay, promotion, supervision/supervisor behaviour, co-workers' behaviour, physical conditions/working facilities. The respondents were required to consider those basic eight elements related to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction separately and personally. The finding of this research do not support Herzberg's theory which says that the factors that lead to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction. But it appears to support Quarstein et al. the situational occurrences theory which argues that any given factor can result in either job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. It is obvious that if managers of university could concentrate to enhance the component related to situational occurrences and situational characteristics together rather than separate those two factors individually, which would be more significant to improve the overall teacher job satisfaction (Oshagbemi, 1997).
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Furthermore, one of the arguments often brought against theories of job satisfaction is that they take little account of differences between people and neglect the personal correlate factors of job satisfaction. Hagedorn (1994) examined the satisfaction of academic staff using various variables, including salary, perceived support from colleagues, satisfaction with administration, enjoyment of student interaction and perceived stress levels. Oshagbemi (2003) investigated a research on personal correlates of overall job satisfaction show empirical evidence from UK universities, which explore the relationships between age, gender, rank, and length of service with job satisfaction. The results of research show that the rank of an academic staff plays a significant and positively role of the level of the overall teacher job satisfaction. And the length of service academic staff who worked in higher education is also connected with individual's overall job satisfaction but in a negative way. The interaction effect of rank and gender affects the level of overall job satisfaction of university teachers extensively. More specificallyï¼Œ it means that gender affects the job satisfaction of university teachers within certain ranks. Lastly, a person's ability is another individual variable that has been shown to be correlated with job satisfaction.
Okpara et al (2005) also have some findings suggest that personal variables such as age, gender, and rank are important variables that influence the job satisfaction levels of professors in their study. They emphasized that there are difference between male and female university teachers in the levels of job satisfaction in US. Moreover, female feel less satisfied with main sides of their jobs, and earn lower level of salary than male. The reason of those female teachers generated a lower level of overall job satisfaction was they holding unenthusiastic opinion about the salary, promotion and supervision. And also different level of rank is another significant factor which affects the job satisfaction of female teachers. The numbers of teachers who holding higher rank, like professorship, usually men are more than women, which is also indicated that those men have more experienced and paid more as well. Therefore, the results of this research have some commons with Oshagbemi's (2003) conclusions.
However, there still exist some controversies about this point. Butt et al (2005) also claimed there were some significant differences between genders. On the contrary, they suggested that female teachers having higher overall job satisfaction than male, whether males can have more satisfied or not depends on the impact they have on the policies and practices of school. Thettemann (1991) agreed that male teachers and female teachers are different significantly when they think the rewards of teaching and the level of job satisfaction seriously.
Nonetheless, both male and female academics think their relationships with students are very important; they obtain appreciation from the level of support by superiors and students (Thettemann, 1991).
Thettemann, E. (1991) Teaching: stress and satisfaction, Issues in Educational Research, 1(1)
. More women faculty than men are concentrated in the lower ranks. The results of this study need to be interpreted with some caveats in mind, as there may be other factors responsible for the reported gender differences among the respondents. For example, cultural and family issues relating to women deciding to stay home and raise children before entering the workforce may have played a more significant role than pure discrimination in explaining the gender differences observed in this study.
"Studies have shown that women in higher education have made significant progress in breaking through the glass ceiling; however, in spite of these advancements there are still cultural, organizational, political, and social obstacles that have prevented many female academics from reaching their full potential." Okpara et al (2005)
Butt, G., Ann Lancea, Antony Fieldinga,
Helen Gunterb, Steve Raynera and Hywel Thomasa, teacher job satisfaction--lessons from the TSW Pathfinder Project, School Leadership and Management,
Vol. 25, No. 5, November 2005, pp. 455_/471
The factors that contribute to, or detract from, the desirability of pursuing a career in teaching are numerous.
Spear et al. (2000) explored teachers' job satisfaction, motivation and morale with specific indication to the influence of career patterns by reviewing research. The authors suggested that the main points which support to achieve high levels of teacher job satisfaction are working with students. More specifically, teachers can have the opportunities to develop strong professional relationships. Another point is teaching with intellectual challenge, self-management occasion and work independently. To the contrary, teachers' job dissatisfaction was always related to high workload, not appropriate salary and low level of job position. However, the personal characteristics of every individual also holding a significant impact on job satisfaction.
Spear, M., Gould, K. & Lee, B. (2000) Who would be a teacher? A review of factors motivating and demotivating prospective and practising teachers. UK: NFER.
Research amongst American teachers underlined many of the findings of Spear
et al . (2000), Evans (1998) and Thettemann (1991).
Perie and Baker (1997) claimed that teacher job satisfaction is positive related to students, high levels of teacher self-management, a good school atmosphere and administrative support with powerful leadership.
Some certain conditions are variables, for instance, the age, the length of educational services, different levels of rank, which all show some relationship with job satisfaction, but these are not as substantial as other elements, such as workplace conditions, salary and benefits which have a weak relationships with teacher job satisfaction consistently. (Butt, et al, 2005)
Perie, M. & Baker, D. (1997) Job satisfaction among America's teachers: effects of workplace conditions, background characteristics, and teacher compensation (Washington, DC, NCES).
Evans, L. (1998) Teacher morale, job satisfaction and motivation, London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
Thettemann, E. (1991) Teaching: stress and satisfaction, Issues in Educational Research, 1(1),
However, not all of these findings are uncontested.
Bishay (1996) believed that teacher job satisfaction and motivation have significantly relationships with gender, subject taught, levels of rank, age and the length of teaching experience. Furthermore, he concluded that teacher job satisfaction and motivation is strongly related to 'the gratification of higher-order needs' which comes from strong social relationships, independence, involvement and challenge, levels of responsibility. And again, the pay incentives can be seen as an indifferent mechanism, which cannot enhance the teacher motivation.
Bishay, A. (1996) Teacher motivation and job satisfaction: a study employing the experience sampling method, Journal of Undergraduate Science, 3, pp: 147-/154.
Within the context of research into job satisfaction amongst the whole working population the work-/life balance and quality of working life of teachers appears relatively strong (Sturman, 2002; Hogarth et al, 2001).
Some results of research showed that teachers have higher levels of job satisfaction than other area workers, but it is not easy to judge their commitment levels to the job. Therefore, job satisfaction is not necessary equate to job commitment. Usually, they are supportive by people and society, having good job security and working well with colleagues. However, sometimes they were dissatisfied with salaries and reported higher levels of stress than other employees. Sturman (2002) concluded that what roles the teachers are playing and how many hours they work are key factors in teachers' quality of working life.
Teaching Satisfaction Scale Measuring Job Satisfaction of Teachers
Facet Versus Global Measure
Global and facet measures are two general ways to measure teaching satisfaction originated from the distinction of bottom-up versus top-down theories (e.g., Maddi,
Bartone, & Puccetti, 1987; Schroeder & Costa, 1984). Top-down theories maintain that individuals are predisposed to experience and react to events and circumstances in positive or negative ways, and therefore a global dimension of measurement is preferred.
The respondent gives an overall evaluation of the various aspects of the job and produces an integrated response. Bottom-up theories suggest that teaching satisfaction is derived from a summation of pleasurable and unpleasurable moments and
experiences. In other words, satisfaction comes from a number of particular domains
(e.g., good colleagues' relationship, clear work role, and happy teaching environment).
Facet measures target on specific aspects of their jobs. Most researchers adopt
the facet approach to measure satisfaction (e.g., Job Descriptive Index [JDI; Smith,
Kendall,&Hulin, 1969], Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, andWarr's Job Satisfaction
Scale [WJSS;Warr, Cook,&Wall, 1979]) because not only can the domains of
contributing to teaching satisfaction be found, but the overall level of satisfaction is
obtained through simply adding up all the domain scores. However, the facet approach
has several methodological problems.
Managing your academic career
Grant, S and Sherrington, P. (2006), Managing your academic career, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Academic work is belonged to the UK' long hours culture because the evidence shows that most academics have to work more than 48-hour per week which is the European Union's maximum work hours week to fulfil their responsibilities and roles of being teachers, researchers and managers. Normally, the public hold the opinion about those academic workers could have summer holiday as students; in fact, most of them are occupied by postgraduates, preparation for courses, personal target researches or studies, professional training courses.
Sometimes teaching can be disappointing, but some academics may enjoy the feeling or rewards which can obtain from a subject that student benefit from and achieve some personal goals, even from provide help to develop and assist a special student. A number of respondents emphasized the satisfactions that arose from connecting with students and helping their intellectual abilities. As Mike emphasized, 'The best aspect of my job is seeing a few students each year leave this institution having learnt something and having exceeded what I thought their abilities were when they came here.'
Satisfaction may even be found from undertaking an administrative task proficiently or chairing a university committee. Whatever aspects of the job academics particularly enjoy, they may be people particularly inclined to a holistic view of life, which places more emphasis on non-material rewards and psychological satisfaction (which do not means that they would not like better pay). Real satisfactions can be derived from a sense of purpose and belonging which an academic community can still provide, even if universities can look increasingly like educational service businesses run as impersonal bureaucracies
Your academic career
Goldsmith. J., John, K. and Penny, Gold., (2001), The Chicago guide to your academic career, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
.Academic VS business
Comparing with academic work, a business sector work could have a more immediate sense of accomplishment and satisfaction. Some academics experienced of writing a book or doing some research can bring a tremendous sense of accomplishment, and also research are very rewarding to some other academics. But it is also need to take a long time to achieve those results which usual are impalpable and it is normally hard to judge the possible impact.
"Academia is mainly about knowing what, work outside academia is to a very large extent about knowing how"
Money is the sole purpose of whatever you are asked to do in the business sector and it is also the ultimate criterion to judge the value of the work you have done for most of the time.
Both universities and corporations are fairly rigid, top-down, hierarchical institutions. But obviously there is a significant difference between academia and the business sector regarding power and autonomy at the bottom, or even the intermediate level. At least, you can have the flexibility and freedom to decide how to teach in your class. But if it is business sector that would has different situation. The environment could be uncertainty which means you can be redistributed at any time.
Deem, R (2007) 'Managing Contemporary UK Universities - Manager-academics and New Managerialism', Academic Leadership: The Online Journal, Vol. 1(3), Feb 12, 2007. Accessed 4th September 2007.
Some recent researches focus on analysing the changing environment of academic profession and cultures which including internal distinction and external surroundings. (Altbach, 1996; Enders and Teichler, 1997; Enders, 2001b) According to the external changing, firstly, the higher education is becoming more massification which may impact the relationship between students and teachers. The class size is much greater now compare with the past which means it is difficult for both students and teachers to communicate with each other. Furthermore, the weakness of link between teaching and research may also come out thus reduce the academic profession's status (Halsey, 1992). Meanwhile, the utilization of resource and facilities may become intense which lead the reduction of expenditure on each student, even the pay level and physical working condition are decreasing as well. Finally, the globalization also impact the academic area in certain point, there are more entrepreneur atmosphere shows up in universities as the demand of knowledge for global markets or something else.
There are also some internal distinctions within academia. Fulton (2001) claimed the managers have increasingly supervised the performance of academics about how they separate the resources for teaching and research. And there are also some financial problems may come out because it should be a balance between permanent and temporary staff. Some ethnic, gender, previous experience may also generate some inequities problems which have become more obvious in recent years (Deem, 1999 ).
Nowadays, the management of University have happened some changes which the development of theory about "new managerialism" in UK higher education has received more attention. It is a change of strategic in public service organisations, which for encouraging and attracting more understandings and actions of how to establish governance and management (Barry and Elmes, 1997 p 433). It is defined as a new organisational form which contains administrative mechanisms and managerial processes (Deem, 2007). Furthermore, it existed as the corporate bureaucracy and professional association could have a compromise and establishes another model for higher education (Smith and Webster, 1997; Jary and Parker, 1998).
'New Managerialism' is seen as a new departure because it entails interrelated organisational, managerial and cultural changes leading to a tightly integrated regime of managerial discipline and control (Reed, 1995; Reed, 1999)
The results of Deem's research (2007) showed that the respondents who are manager-academics from universities holding the view that UK higher education system has began to manage in a different way. Not just managed and bureaucratic like in the past but also put more focus on enhance efficiency, monitor performance, setting target, even adopt some models of private organizations. Moreover, due to the number of students are increased lead the resource of teaching is declined, not just the physical facilities but also the time and energy of teachers. Those academic workers begin to complain higher workloads and long working hours, the greater stress level of responsibility and most of decisions are controlled by finance situation.
But some respondents felt teaching and research quality assessment had increased teamwork, which may illustrate Henkel's (2000) point about the reworking of academic identities. We found, as noted in the literature on 'New Managerialism', evidence of perceived attempts at strategic and cultural change, of new organisational forms which supported this (especially cost centres) and illustration of the control technologies (such as performance review, appraisal and encouragement of self-monitoring). Respondents referred also to the use of external monitoring mechanisms such as RAE for internal management purposes too; for example, moving non-research active academics into teaching-only contracts.
Gender processes were also found to be important in shaping careers, with nearly two-thirds of all respondents believing that gender had affected their own careers and that gender was relevant to management approaches adopted by women and men (Deem, 1998; Deem and Johnson, 2000).
From the above, variable and multiple elements are relevant and affect the level of teacher job satisfaction. The external environment changing, intrinsic essence of job itself and the individuals' characteristic, which all could be the significant elements producing certain effect on teacher job satisfaction. One key point need to be paid more attention, teachers may have different opinions as to what makes a satisfying job for personal. The teaching job should have some positive components which could counterbalance negative factors, depending on individual's preferences and the importance of each component to the person.
Research Question and Aims:
This research is proposed to survey the job satisfaction of teachers in Newcastle University Business Schoolï¼ˆNUBSï¼‰, and focus on the group of teachers who teaching post graduate students. The analysis will adopt quantitative research to survey teacher job satisfaction in order to find specific elements which related to those teachers. For instance: pay, promotions, achievement, support of research, stress at work, physical working conditions, etc, which related to improvements and innovations in teaching, commitment, motivation, turnover intentions, and absenteeism. Furthermore, also try to find some existent and unnoticed issues, and to explore the fundamental reasons for those issues. And then refer to the results of research will provide practical recommendations to administrators and human resource department on how to enhance teacher job satisfaction and to attain preferable achievement in higher education.
Proposed Methodology and Methods:
Most of the similar surveys about teacher job satisfaction conduct quantitative research method, some of those surveys also company with interviews which include semi-structured interview and group interview. One common characteristic of those surveys' is that they all have a great amount of respondents. For instance, in Oshagbemi(2003) research, the population for the study comprised university teachers in the UK with a total of 1,102 questionnaires were randomly administered to potential respondents chosen from 23 universities, which were selected to include sample institutions from all the regions of the country. And giving a response rate of 50.3 percent at last (Oshagbemi, 2003). They choose a model which is consistent with Smith et al. (1969, 1975, 1985 cite in Oshagbemi, 2003) and standard multiple regression analysis were performed between overall job satisfaction as the dependent variable and potential personal correlates of job satisfaction as the independent variables to analyse the results of survey. .
Comparing with those researches, the sample size of the dissertation study will not be that huge, due to the emphasis is on the group of teachers who teaching post graduate students in NUBS. Considering the different roles, ranks, backgrounds, responsibilities, etc of the whole teachers in NUBS would have, and those factors also increase the intricacy of this study. The dissertation would like to be more concentrated and specific, and explore some constructive results, which would provide significant evidence for the further research.
This study will take among teachers who working in Newcastle University Business School and teaching post graduate students. Researcher will try to contact with Human resource department of Newcastle University to seek whether similar research has been taken before, and whether they could provide some useful and relevant data, or what information they probably would have interested on this topic. As a master student of human resource management, researcher may gain some advantages to communicate with HR staffs. It is the best assumption if the HR department would like to provide support for the research which will make it more officially. However, if that plan would not be implemented successfully, author will communicate with those teachers personally.
Saunders, M (2003) suggest that the questionnaire is one of the most widely used survey data collection techniques since respondent is asked to respond to the same set of questions. Before draft the questionnaire of this research, it is necessary read enough literatures on job satisfaction and especially related to university teacher before start the research. Based on those analysis, try to summary findings and explore some new points could be emphasized specifically on the sample of this research. And comparing those factors related to job satisfaction with difference gender, rank, age range, length of service and career path, and the mutual relationship between those factors.
As I know, the HR department of University has conducted survey about job satisfaction for all the staff in the University before, but do not have the special one for teachers, which means the results could not reflect pertinence for different groups. And also the channel of conducting that survey is not totally anonymous which exist the possibility of the result is not true and reliable completely.
Considering the topic seems a controversial issue, the relationship between investigator and respondents, the potential survey results, some research questions will not be very appropriate by adopting a qualitative research for all respondents. As a result of that, the survey will attempt via an electronically questionnaire which could be designed through a specialized investigation website and send to responses by university internal email. Because the characteristic of web link questionnaire, the survey will be totally anonymous which also would helpful to avoid apprehension of all respondents (Xuan, 2009).
The outline of questionnaire was consisted of three sections: the first section was the demographic details of respondents which include gender, rank (assistant lecturer, lecturer, senior lecturer and professor), age range (younger than 25, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, older than 55), career path (educational qualification, from business industry to education or standard academic), working contract (full-time academic, guest professor or else), the length of education service (less than 5 year, 5-15 years, 16-25 years, 26-35 years, more than 36years).
The second section listed 33 important possible factors may impact on teacher job satisfaction, which contained four aspects, the first one was related to personal needs and values, such as achievement of teaching or research, recognition of efforts, promotion prospects, effort-reward balance, relationships with others, opportunities for self-management, appropriate salary, intellectual challenge, good balance between work and personal lifeï¼Œ opportunities to show impact in your field of scholarly activity, opportunities to participate decision-making, requirement to maintain personal reputation; The second aspect were some characteristics of the working environment: relationships with others, friendliness of colleagues, physical condition of working environmentï¼Œstudents are well-motivated, a focus on making learning more effective, class sizes enable dialogue with all students, and some other elements which related to work itself, encompassing workload, stress at work, work content, a focus on making learning with all students, collaborative working, independent working, proportion of time spent on teaching, proportion of time spent on research, availability of resources for teaching, time for marking; The third side was focus on self-perception and professional development, for instance, annual review/appraisal is helpful to self-development, professional development opportunities relevant to own needs, management action indicates good teaching is valued, holding a belief in one's own ability to be effective; The last part was concentrated with management and administrative actions, for example, influence over policies/procedures, management action indicates good research is valued, management action indicates good teaching is valued, proportion of time spent on administration.
The respondents need to choose the level of those factors separately, using a five-point to specify whether individual factors were of high importance, importance, neutral, low importance or no importance in relation to their job satisfaction. By setting the neutral null hypothesis as three within the five-point, it could be either accepted or rejected.
The third section invited respondents to draw upon all those factors and select the five facets they considered most deeply satisfying and those five factors they considered most deeply dissatisfying. These ten choices would show the most likelihood of impacting upon their personal job satisfaction, morale and motivation (Rhodes et al, 2007).
However, questionnaires may be used as the only data collection method, it is usually better to link them with other methods in a multi-method approach (Saunders et al.2003).Therefore, the qualitative research could be adopted after quantitative analysis. The present researches always take semi-structured interviews and group interviews which is not appropriate approach for this survey, due to the nature of the study, the student character of researcher and responses. So, after having the results of quantitative methods to do a preliminary analysis to find out potential common issues and try to set up some interviews with respondents who would like to share their own attitudes, through qualitative methods to obtain more information which could not be found from quantitative methods, and also will be more efficiently. The interview respondents will be chose at least one representative from different gender, rank, age range and career paths respectively in order to explore and understand some attitudes of them. And the number of interviews will depend on respondents willing and time limited.
So, throughout the whole period of research, ethics should be considered. Even though the quantitative research will be carried out by web link questionnaire which may occur some ethics issues by accidently, but researcher will pay attention completely to avoid. No one will be forced to participate in or answer any questions if they are unwilling to response in the research. During the data collection stage, researcher will make sure to collect data accurately and fully without objectively and subjective selectivity. Giving accurately analyse and report (Xuan, 2009).
Limitations and Contingency Plans
This study is focus on the teachers who teaching post graduate students in NUBS, which could not explore and conclude all elements related to teacher job satisfaction for the whole teachers in NUBS. The result of the study would be more significant for the specific group, but still will provide some supportive evidence for further research of the whole teacher job satisfaction.
Considering the HR department of University has the possibility that would not have interested to support this research, the author also will regard the other situation. Such as the number of responses do not exceed over a half of all respondents, and some respondents do not answer the online questionnaire due to individual reason, like time limited, large number of workload or no interested on it. Some factors will produce invalid responses or no responses could be avoided, author will find out other methods to obtain effective data. Such as, convince respondents by email or making appointments provide hard paper questionnaire. Even though, the whole survey will based on voluntarily, it is necessary to collect abundant data to support the research. It can be argued that the sample size and the percentage response rate should obtain in order to both enhance the reliability and the validity of the results.
Rhodes, C. Hollinshead, A and Nevill, A. (2007) 'Changing times, changing lives: a new look at job satisfaction in two university Schools of Education located in the English West Midlands', Research in Post-Compulsory Education, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 71-89
This initial study has begun to explore the job satisfaction of academics teaching postgraduate student in Newcastle University business school. It has sought to access key facets of work experience likely to be important in impacting upon academic's job satisfaction, motivation and morale. In order to take a particular look at job satisfaction in NUBS within a contemporary university setting in the UK, it has purposely sought to engage a School located within a statutory
university and a School located within a chartered university. The study has
enabled the validation of 30 facets of work experience deemed important in
impacting upon academic's job satisfaction. Respondent review has also led to the
identification of facets most deeply satisfying and most deeply dissatisfying and
hence most likely to impact not only upon their job satisfaction but also their
motivation and morale. Although there will be variations in individual job satisfaction,
motivation and morale from across time caused by professional and personal
circumstances, the study points the way to the beginnings of potentially relatable
Table 3 identifies a rank order of both intrinsic and extrinsic facets of work
experience deemed either deeply satisfying or deeply dissatisfying to respondents in
the sample. Highly ranked facets deemed deeply satisfying include, friendliness of
colleagues, collaborative working, opportunities for self-management, intellectual
challenge and holding a belief in ones own ability to be effective. Highly ranked facets
deemed deeply dissatisfying include, the proportion of time spent on administration,
workload not too high or too low, requirement to secure external research funding,
time for marking and the salary is appropriate. The highest ranked facets deemed
deeply satisfying accord with the work of Oshagbemi (1996), who found that academics
derived great satisfaction from interaction with colleagues. Deep dissatisfaction
with the proportion of time spent on administration accords with the work of
Oshagbemi (1996) who found that UK academics considered their administrative
burdens to be a source of dissatisfaction.
These facets perhaps represent items pertaining to the basic needs fulfillment of
many academics in the sample. Given the importance of facets deemed deeply satisfying
or deeply dissatisfying to the fulfillment of personal needs and values and hence
proximity to a perceived ideal job (see Evans, 1992, 1997a,b, 2000), it is suggested
that the perceived balance between facets at any one time is likely to be influential in
expressing individual academic's experience of job satisfaction, motivation and
morale. This may be tentatively expressed as a typology (Figure 1).
Figure 1. A tentative typology to show the relationship between facets of work experience deemed deeply satisfying or deeply dissatisfying Position A in the typology shows a relationship of facets causing deep dissatisfaction
being outweighed by facets causing deep satisfaction. This represents a position
of most likely job satisfaction, motivation and morale. Position B indicates a tension
in that both types of facets are high. Position C shows both types of facet being low
and hence a position of potential inertia. Position D shows facets causing deep
dissatisfaction outweighing those causing deep satisfaction and hence most likely job
dissatisfaction, poor motivation and morale.
The number of 'competing' facets and their relative strength will be influential in
job satisfaction, motivation and morale for individuals across time. A range of positions
within the typology is possible and hence movement within the typology must
also be potentially achievable. In the present study, it is indicated that the seven facets
identified as deeply satisfying broadly represent 'collegiality', whereas the seven facets
identified as deeply dissatisfying broadly represent 'bureaucracy'. Notwithstanding
central policy drivers, this has implications for local leadership and management of
the work environment experienced by academics and offers insights into actions that
may be considered to allow movement within the typology. Manager-academics in
higher education, who may have assumed the ideologies and values of 'new managerialism'
(Deem & Brehony, 2005) need to carefully consider the predominant balance
within the typology if actions are to be taken to enhance facets deemed deeply
satisfying, diminish facets deemed deeply dissatisfying, or both.
Some facets of work experience were shown not important in impacting
The study omissions also highlight some useful directions for the research agenda.
For example, more Schools of different disciplines in more universities would add
necessary refinement to this initial study. Consideration of tenure and gender may
be influential in impacting upon job satisfaction, motivation and morale. Although
no effects of gender were established in the present analysis, a Nigerian study
(Egbule, 2003) showed that females were more satisfied with their academic roles
than males and that job satisfaction was related to the perceived status of the host
university for both male and female academics. The present study did not relate job
satisfaction to post seniority or to age. This aspect warrants further study as Oshagbemi
(1998) found an effect of age on the job satisfaction of UK academics, with
greater satisfaction being recorded with increasing age. Although age is not necessarily
related to seniority or length of service, the effect may be related to greater
role establishment and attendant esteem, or the adjustment of expectations of the
job over time.
Performance pay for teachers: Determinants and consequences
Clive R. Belfielda,_, John S. Heywoodb
Females often report unusually high job satisfaction, perhaps because they have lower expectations (Clark, 1997) or because estimations do not adequately control for aspects such as flexibility that female workers prefer (Bender, Donohue, &
Heywood, 2005). Yet, the female teachers in our sample earn 8% less than comparable male teachers. Thus, the finding in Table 5 that female teachers-even with controls for many job and personal characteristics-report greater job satisfaction presents important evidence. Further, it is interesting that teaching is often thought to provide women with the desired flexibility to balance work and family. Thus, differences in flexibility between male and female jobs may not be the real issue. Instead, differences in the value men and women place on flexibility may exist and these might explain this result. (After all, teaching is an occupation in which women have many generations of experience and so inaccurate expectations would seem implausible.)
Academic Staff Workloads and Job
Satisfaction: Expectations and values in
Don Houston*, Luanna H. Meyer and Shelley Paewai
Massey University, New Zealand
Harman (2001, 2002, 2003) also researched some changes of academic staff roles in Australian universities by analyzing a survey data which gathered in 1977 and secondly in 1997 during a twenty years period. The results of 1997 survey showed that respondents were holding a high level job satisfaction with the academic components. However, they think the aspects of work environment, such as salary and the level of work stress critically, and they always made a comparison between those aspects with other jobs outside academe at the same time (Harman, 2001).
Similarly, Leslie (2002) found that salary and job satisfaction were uncorrelated and that faculty (who spent the majority of their time teaching) reported a preference for being rewarded for teaching effectiveness, despite the fact that ''institutions may actually reward them for something else'' (p. 68). Academics reported an increase in workloads from 1977 to 1997 and that the time allocated to research in comparison to teaching had increased significantly. Nearly 30 years ago, Kerr (1975) noted that ''Society hopes that [university] teachers will not neglect their teaching responsibilities but rewards them almost entirely for research and publications â€¦ Consequently it is rational for university teachers to concentrate on research, even to the detriment of teaching and at the expense of their students'' (Kerr, 1975, p. 773; emphasis in original).
Harman, G. (2001). Academics and institutional differentiation in Australian higher education.
Higher Education Policy, 14, 325-342.
Harman, G. (2002). Academic leaders or corporate managers: Deans and heads in Australian
higher education, 1977 to 1997. Higher Education Management and Policy, 14, 53-70.
Harman, G. (2003). Australian academics and prospective academics: Adjustment to a more
commercial environment. Higher Education Management and Policy, 15, 105-122.
Jenkins (2004) noted existing evidence that
commitments to teaching and research can be synergistic and complementary
or antagonistic and competing. Thus, he argued that the relationships
between research, teaching, broader work expectations, and rewards need to be
defined and managed at the institutional, departmental, and individual levels to
avoid potentially undesirable effects and counterproductive behaviours (Jenkins,
Jenkins, A. (2004). A Guide to the research evidence on teaching-research relations, The Higher
Education Academy. Retrieved December 16, 2004, from http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/